Conclusions The effects of the aluminum nanofeatures (nanopores a

Conclusions The effects of the aluminum nanofeatures (nanopores and nanofibers) for enhanced light absorption

were studied in this article. The nanofeatures, which are generated inside and around the periodic microholes, were synthesized Tipifarnib chemical structure by femtosecond laser irradiation. The generation of the nanostructures was explained by nucleation and condensation of plasma plume grown during the irradiation process. Significant reduction in light reflection with acceptable improvement of the absorption intensity has been observed with long irradiation time (dwell time) and high repetition rate. The interaction between the small size of nanopores and the bulk quantity of nanoparticles could restore the resonance of the surface plasmons. Acknowledgements This research

was funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Ministry of Research and Innovation, Ontario, Canada. References 1. Sámson ZL, MacDonald KF, Zheludev NI: Femtosecond active plasmonics: selleck ultrafast control of surface plasmon PFT�� manufacturer propagation. J Optic Pure Appl Optic 2009, 11:114031.CrossRef 2. Yu ET, Derkacs D, Lim SH, Matheu P, Schaad DM: Plasmonic nanoparticle scattering for enhanced performance of photovoltaic and photodetector devices. Proc SPIE 2008, 7033:70331V.CrossRef 3. Liz-Marzán LM: Nanometals: formation and color. Metals Today 2004,7(2):26–31.CrossRef 4. Bohren CF, Huffman DR: Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles. New York: Wiley; 1998.CrossRef 5. Maier SA: Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications. New York: Springer; 2007. 6. Bethe H: Theory of diffraction by small holes. Phys Rev 1944,66(7,8):163.CrossRef 7. Najiminaini M, Vasefi F, Kaminska B, Carson JJL: Optical resonance transmission properties of nano-hole arrays in a gold film: effect of adhesion layer. Optics

Express 2011, 19:27.CrossRef 8. Csáki A, Steinbrück A, Schröter S, Fritzsche W: Combination of nanoholes with metal nanoparticles–fabrication and characterization of novel plasmonic nanostructures. Plasmonics 2006, 1:147–155.CrossRef 9. Chang S-H, Gray SK, Schatz GC: Surface plasmon generation and light transmission by isolated nanoholes and arrays of nanoholes in thin metal films. Optics Express 2005,13(8):3150–3165.CrossRef 10. Genet C, Ebbesen TW: Light in tiny holes. Nature 2007, Sorafenib mouse 445:39–46.CrossRef 11. Degiron A, Ebbesen TW: Analysis of the transmission process through single apertures surrounded by periodic corrugations. Optics Express 2004,12(16):3694–3700.CrossRef 12. Kelly KL, Coronado E, Zhao LL, Schatz GC: The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment. J Physic Chem 2003, 107:668–677.CrossRef 13. Luk’yanchuk BS, Marine W, Anisimov SI, Simakina GA: Condensation of vapor and nanoclusters formation within the vapor plume produced by nanosecond laser ablation of Si, Ge and C.

However, many of the naturally occurring associations are probabl

However, many of the naturally occurring associations are probably transient and are unlikely to be on an advancing tract toward stable long-term endosymbioses and/or fully integrated plastids. Sorting out which groups are more stable, and which individuals and/or groups are in the process of adapting to environmental conditions, are challenges for which the present concepts have become inadequate. Acknowledgments

With special thanks for the input by JWS, BRG, and RRG. References Allakhverdiev SI, Tomo T, Shimada Y, Kindo H, Nagao R, Klimov VV, Mimuro M (2010) Redox potential of pheophytin a in photosystem II of two cyanobacteria having the different special pair chlorophylls. PNAS 107:3924–39249CrossRefPubMed Allen JP, Williams JC (2010) The evolutionary

selleck products pathway from anoxygenic to oxygenic photosynthesis examined by comparison of the properties of photosystem II and bacterial reaction centers. Photosynth Res. doi:10.​1007/​s11120-010-9552-x Allwood AC, Grotzinger JP, Knoll AH, Burch IW, Anderson MS, Coleman ML, Kanik I (2009) Controls on development and diversity of Early Archean stromatolites. PNAS 106:9548–9555CrossRefPubMed Aple K, Hirt H (2004) Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative stress, and signal transduction. Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:373–399CrossRef Archibald JM (2007) Nucleomorph genomes: structure, function, origin and evolution. BioEssays 29:392–402CrossRefPubMed Archibald JM (2009) The puzzle of plastid evolution. Curr Biol 19:RS81–RS88CrossRef Baurian find protocol D, Brinkmann H, Petersen J, Rodriguez-Ezpeleta N, Stechmann A, Demoulin V, Roger AJ, Burger F, Lang BF, Philippe H (2010) Phylogenomic evidence for separate acquisition of plastids in cryptophytes, haptophytes, and stramenopiles. Mol Biol Evol 27:1698–1709CrossRef Bodyl A, Mackiewicz P, Stiller JW (2009) Early steps in plastid evolution: current ideas and controversies. BioEssays 31:1219–1232CrossRefPubMed Bodyl A, Mackiewicz P, Stiller JW (2010) Calpain Comparative genomic Selleckchem Selumetinib studies suggest that the cyanobacterial endosymbionts of the amoeba Paulinella chromatophora

possess an import apparatus for nuclear-encoded proteins. Plant Biol (Stuttg) 12:639–649 Brasier MD, Green OR, Jephcoat AP, Kleppe AK, Van Kranendonk MJ, Lindsay JF, Steele A, Grassineau NV (2002) Questioning the evidence for Earth’s oldest fossils. Nature 416:76–81CrossRefPubMed Bryant D, Frigaard N-U (2006) Prokaryotic photosynthesis and phototrophy illuminated. Trends Microbiol 14:488–496CrossRefPubMed Butterfield NJ (2000) Bangiomorpha pubescens n. gen., n. sp.: implications for the evolution of sex, multicellularity, and the Mesoproterozoic/Neoproterozoic radiation of eukaryotes. Paleobiology 26:386–404CrossRef Canfield DE (2005) The early history of atmospheric oxygen: homage to Robert M. Garrels.

76** 0 63–0 91 Odds ratios are adjusted for all other variables i

76** 0.63–0.91 Odds ratios are adjusted for all other variables in the table and for adolescent–mother pair heights and adolescent TB BA and BMC LS lumbar spine, BMC bone mineral content *p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.05 Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first paper to describe the familial patterns

of fracture risk in adolescents and its relationship with bone mass measurements in adolescent–biological mother pairs of different ethnic backgrounds. The main findings of this study were that an adolescent’s risk of fracture was decreased if his/her mother had a greater lumbar spine BMC (24 % reduction in fracture risk for every SD increase in maternal BMC), but was increased if a sibling had a history of fracture or if the adolescent was white or male. Adolescent height and weight, maternal BA and IWP-2 chemical structure BMC, males and white ethnicity were positive predictors of adolescent bone mass. Lastly, there was a higher prevalence of fractures in white mothers prior to 18 years of age compared

to the other ethnic groups, a pattern similar to that of their adolescent children, which we have reported previously [19]. However, we were unable to show any association between a maternal history of childhood/adolescent fractures and the prevalence of fractures in their adolescent offspring. Maternal influences such as gestational height, adiposity and vitamin D status Phospholipase D1 have been postulated to be important in intrauterine programming

and in the tracking of skeletal development and body composition STA-9090 cost from infancy to adulthood [20, 21]. These maternal influences are beyond the scope of this paper, but it will be important to determine if these factors predict or influence fracture risk and bone mass in adolescents from the different ethnic buy Entinostat groups in South Africa. Although the positive relationship between the mother’s bone mass and her offspring’s has been researched and documented worldwide [1, 22–24], the finding that maternal bone mass might influence her offspring’s fracture prevalence during childhood and adolescence has not been reported previously. Intuitively, this association should not be surprising as several studies, although not all [25–28], have shown that children who had fracture(s) tend to have reduced BMC and BA compared to their peers who had no fractures, and genetic inheritance (maternal and paternal bone mass) plays a large role in determining childhood BMC, BA and peak bone mass [29]. However, in our earlier study of the Bt20 cohort [30], we did not find an inverse association between fracture history prevalence and bone mass at two time points during childhood and adolescence. In fact, in white males, there was a positive association between fracture risk and bone mass [30], possibly associated with increased contact sport participation [19].

Since indoor athletes

have reduced exposition to sun rays

Since indoor athletes

have reduced exposition to sun rays, they are more likely to be subjected to these risks than outdoor athletes. However, in soccer, the athletes can experience vitamin D deficit not just during the winter but in other periods too, most likely due to several reasons such as, dark complexion, coming from high altitude championships, injuries, or inadequate exposition to sun rays during the summer. The purpose of this study was to examine the vitamin D shortage and BMC variations in Italian Serie I-BET151 concentration A elite male soccer players. Methods The BMC was measured with DXA methodology (Hologic QDR-4500A) at the end of the summer season and during the winter while the concentration of 25 (OH) vitamin D (25(OH)D3) was registered in twenty-three athletes of 28.1 ± 4.8 of age (Average ± DS) during a whole soccer season by means of three samplings, one at the end of the summer season, one during the winter season and one in spring. Results The concentration of 25(OH) D3was 111.5± 30.5, 92.3 ± 30.8 and 102.5±37.1 nmol/L (Average ± DS) in autumn, winter and spring respectively. The concentration of 25(OH)D3 significantly decreased from autumn to winter (P<0.001) while no differences were registered in other seasons comparisons (P>0.05).

Using: a) concentrations of 100 nmol/L as optimal cut-off, 40.9 %, 56.0 % e 52.0 % ZD1839 ic50 players had sub-optimal levels of 25(OH)D3 in autumn, winter and spring respectively, b) concentrations < di 80 nmol/L ma > of 50 nmol/L as an index of shortage, 9.1 %, 32.0 % e 28.0 % players had insufficient 25(OH)D3 levels in autumn, winter and spring learn more respectively, c) concentrations ≤ a 50 nmol/L as an index of shortage, the percentage of soccer player in shortage of vitamin D was nearly doubled between winter and autumn, from 4.5 % to 8.0%, then reset to zero in

spring. Parallel to the vitamin D reduction, there was another significance reduction (p<0.05) of BMC from 3453.5 ± 339.4 to 3409.1 Myosin ± 278.0 g (Average ± DS) between autumn and winter. Conclusions Our results agree with recently reported data (Halliday et al., 2011) confirming the supplying necessity at least during the winter to maintain adequate 25(OH)D3levels in elite soccer players. Our opinion is that the necessity of a possible supply must be taken into consideration trying to personalize the treatment at most, observing the fluctuations of 25(OH)D3 levels in each soccer player.”
“Background The body composition and its variation in time can affect the performances of soccer players. The body composition measuring techniques are based on a quantitative approach founded on indirect estimations of fat mass and lean body mass. The BIVA allows us to directly see the athlete’s body composition by means of impedance vector measuring (Z vector), irrespective of weigh and body hydration status.

The population at the companies was mostly middle-aged and male-d

The population at the companies was mostly NVP-BEZ235 clinical trial middle-aged and male-dominated (Bergstrom et al. 2008). Included in the present study were

only those who had worked for at least 1 year at one of the four workplaces and who responded to the baseline questionnaire (T1: n = 2,563), and who were categorized as showing no symptoms of depression at T1 according to the HAD (see description of measures below), (Fig. 1). Fig. 1 A schematic representation of participants in the study Screening A comprehensive questionnaire addressing the employees’ health, lifestyle, and work-related factors was sent by mail to the entire workforce (from top management to the assembly line). This screening instrument was a compilation of valid questionnaires and was administered on two occasions (with an 18-month interval between assessments) during the course of the study. Measures The objective of the AHA project SIS3 datasheet VEGFR inhibitor is to develop a method of reinforcing and supporting sustainable health throughout one’s working life, achieving this through the implementation in companies and organizations of a method whereby measures

aimed at promoting health and preventing ill health form a natural part of the work organization. The primary aim of the AHA method, which focuses on the psychosocial work environment, is to identify the factors in working life which can contribute to the health and well-being of the individual, work groups, and the organization. Surveying these factors provides valuable information about how the psychosocial work environment is perceived. The questionnaire used in the AHA method has been taken mainly from QPSNordic, which is an instrument for investigating psychosocial, social, and organizational conditions at the workplace. It has been developed and validated by a number of Nordic researchers and financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers (Lindström et al. 2000; Dallner et al. 2000). Job strain (Theorell et al. 1998;

Lindström et al. 2000; Dallner et al. 2000). The calculation of job strain was treated as suggested by the developers as follows: (1) Low strain, (2) Active, (3) Passive, and (4) High strain (Karasek 1979). In the analyses, we dichotomized strain as (1) High strain (2) No strain where 2 included Low Strain, Active, and Passive were science combined. In the present study, bystanders are referred to as co-workers who witnessed the bullying process. The following questions were asked: Bystander to bullying (Lindström et al. 2000; Dallner et al. 2000). Have you noticed if anyone has been subjected to bullying/harassment at your workplace during the last 6 months? (1) No (2) yes. The median was calculated for the following items: Rumors of changes in the workplace with regard to predictability of work (Lindström et al. 2000; Dallner et al. 2000). (1) Very seldom or never (2) Seldom (3) Sometimes (4) Very often or always. Role Clarity (Lindström et al. 2000; Dallner et al. 2000).

Of the 500 nrITS sequences obtained and analyzed, a BLAST search

Of the 500 nrITS sequences obtained and analyzed, a BLAST search assigned 76.4 % of the sequences to fungi, of which only 19 genera (29 taxa) were identified (Table 1). The top 10 most abundant fungal taxa were Penicillium sp. (20.0 %), Trechispora farinacea (17.2 %), Leotiomyceta (12.0 %), Exophiala (6.6 %), Fusarium

solani (4.4 %), Cladosporium sp. (3.6 %), Epulorhiza sp. Van44 (2.4 %), Alternaria sp. (2.0 %), Leucocoprinus birnbaumii (2.0 %), and Sporothrix inflata (1.2 %). ABT-263 cell line Table 1 Taxonomic assignations and counts of endophytic species in Phalaenopsis KC1111 identified by gene cloning and Sanger sequencing of ITS1/4 regions Phylum Class Order Genus Taxonomic assignation Counts Ascomycota       Leotiomyceta 60       Ascomycota 2 Dothideomycetes Capnodiales Cladosporium Cladosporium 18 Devriesia Devriesia strelitziicola 1 Pleosporales Thyridaria Thyridaria 1 Alternaria Alternaria 10 Eurotiomycetes     Eurotiomycetes 3 Chaetothyriales Cladophialophora

Cladophialophora AZD2014 in vivo bantiana 1 Exophiala Exophiala 32 Exophiala moniliae 1 Eurotiales Penicillium Penicillium 100 Saccharomycetes Saccharomycetales   Saccharomycetales 2 Sordariomycetes Hypocreales Sarocladium Sarocladium strictum 1 Trichoderma Trichoderma 2 Fusarium Fusarium solani 22 Fusarium 2 Ophiostomatales Sporothrix Sporothrix inflata 6 Basidiomycota   Erythrobasidiales Occultifur Occultifur aff. externus IMUFRJ 52019 1   Occultifur externus 1,EXEL-2880).html Rhodotorula Rhodotorula calyptogenae 1   Sporidiobolales   Sporidiobolales 1 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Leucocoprinus Leucocoprinus Birnbaumii 10 Cantharellales Epulorhiza Epulorhiza sp. Van44 12 Polyporales Nigroporus Nigroporus vinosus 1 Trechisporales Trechispora Trechispora farinacea 86 Trechispora 2 Agaricostilbomycetes   Rhodotorula Rhodotorula bloemfonteinensis 2 Tremellomycetes Tremellales Cryptococcus

Cryptococcus Selleckchem Fludarabine podzolicus 1 Other organisms Alveolata 5   Bacteria 1   Eukaryota 6   Metazoa 5   Viridiplantae 40 Not assigned   61 Total   500 Efficiency of six barcoding markers in fungal identification by metagenomics In total, 27,099,433 PE reads were obtained and sorted according to the six markers from the raw sequencing data. After single-copy haplotypes were removed, 21,009,068 (77.5 %) PE reads remained and were further clustered into OTUs. Among these markers, nrLSU-U yielded the most reads assigned to fungi (90.7 % of 6,636,430), followed by mtLSU (69.7 % of 8,132,397), mtATP6 (99.3 % of 2,187,555), ITS1/2 (86.1 % of 1,504,231), ITS3/4 (79.1 % of 649,608), and nrLSU-LR (20.3 % of 1,898,847). No correlation existed between the read numbers and the number of assigned fungal OTUs. The coverage (number of reads/number of OTUs) of markers ranged from 1,338× of nrLSU-LR to 36,191× of mtATP6. Taxon assignation using a MEGAN analysis showed that 32.8–59.

This discovery was followed by a demonstration

This discovery was followed by a demonstration

Proteasome cleavage of macroscopic superconducting currents on Si(111)-( )-In by direct electron transport measurements [8]. These findings are important because they enable us to create superconductors from the atomic level using state-of-the-art nanotechnology. In addition, the space inversion symmetry breaking due to the presence of surface naturally leads to the Rashba spin splitting [9, 10] and may consequently help realize exotic superconductors [11]. In reference[8], we have unambiguously clarified the presence of Si(111)-( )-In (referred to as ( )-In here) superconductivity. However, systematic analysis on electron transport properties above and below the JNK-IN-8 order transition temperature (T c ) is still lacking. For example, 2D superconductors are known to exhibit the precursor of phase transition due to the thermal fluctuation effects just above T c [12–14]. Superconductivity is established below T c , but vortices can be thermally excited in a 2D system. Their possible motions can cause the phase fluctuation and limit the ideal superconducting property of perfect zero resistance [15]. These fundamental properties should be revealed before one proceeds to search for new superconductors

in this class of 2D materials. In this paper, the resistive phase transition of the ( )-In surface is studied in detail for a series of samples. In the normal state, the sheet resistances (2D resistivities) R □ of the samples Demeclocycline decrease significantly between 20 and RGFP966 cell line 5 K, which amounts to 5% to 15% of the residual resistivity R n,res. Their characteristic temperature dependence suggests the importance of electron-electron scattering in electron transport phenomena, which are generally marginal for conventional metal thin films. T c is determined to be 2.64 to 2.99 K and is found to poorly correlate with R n,res. The decrease in R □ is progressively accelerated just above T c due to the superconducting fluctuation effects. Quantitative analysis indicates the parallel contributions

of fluctuating Cooper pairs due to the direct (Aslamazov-Larkin term) and the indirect (Maki-Thompson term) effects. A minute but finite resistance tail is found below T c down to the lowest temperature of 1.8 K, which may be ascribed to a dissipation due to free vortex flow. Methods The experimental method basically follows the procedure described in reference [8] but includes some modifications. The whole procedure from the sample preparation through the transport measurement was performed in a home-built ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) apparatus without breaking vacuum (see Figure 1a) [16, 17]. First, the ( )-In surface was prepared by thermal evaporation of In onto a clean Si(111) substrate, followed by annealing at around 300°C for approximately 10 s in UHV [18–20], and was subsequently confirmed by low-energy electron diffraction and STM.

Figure 1 The target regions for the AcH107 and Pilo127 primer pai

Figure 1 The target regions for the AcH107 and Pilo127 primer pairs. Figure 2 Standard curves for the intergenic gyrA/gyrB region (a) and the ITS- (b) and intergenic region (c) in AcH 505 and P. croceum respectively. Serial dilutions of plasmids with the target DNA insert were used in individual qRT-PCR assays to generate the standard curves. The R2 values, slopes and efficiencies are shown for Bcl-2 inhibitor each reaction. AcH 505 and P. croceum DNA from the microcosm soil were successfully amplified in all processed samples. The standard

curves for the DNA preparations 4-Hydroxytamoxifen molecular weight obtained for the different experimental treatments were all very similar, indicating that the samples did not differ in their contents of PCR-inhibiting substances. Quantification of Streptomyces sp. AcH 505 and Piloderma croceum P. croceum significantly promoted the growth of AcH 505 in a culture system without oak microcuttings and in bulk soil samples in a culture system with oak (Figure 3a and c; see Additional file 7 for p-values). In the rhizosphere, P. croceum

had no impact on AcH 505 in the sterile system, and the negative effects of the filtrate on AcH 505 that were only observed when the see more oak was present – in the rhizosphere as well as in the bulk soil -, could be released by the fungus (Figure 3b and c). Figure 3 Quantification of the mycorrhization helper bacterium Streptomyces sp. AcH 505 in soil microcosms. The relative amounts of AcH 505 were measured by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the presence or absence of the mycorrhizal fungus Piloderma croceum, the soil microbial filtrate, and pedunculate oak microcuttings. In the presence of microcuttings quantification was performed with bulk soil as well as rhizosphere samples. The bars indicate the qPCR abundance of AcH 505 in the absence (a) and presence (rhizosphere (b) and bulk soil (c)) of the host plant. qPCR abundances are reported in terms of delta Ct values, which indicate the number of cycles at

which the fluorescent signal exceeds the background level and surpasses the threshold established in the exponential section of the amplification plot. Error bars denote standard errors; bars with different letters are significantly different according to one-way ANOVA and the Tukey HSD test (P < 0.05). Note that co-inoculation learn more with P. croceum stimulates the growth of AcH 505. Treatment with the soil microbe filtrate following the initial application of the mycorrhizal fungus had a significant negative impact on the extraradical mycelium biomass of P. croceum in the culture system without pedunculate oak and in bulk soil in the presence of oak (Figure 4a,c,d and f). Co-inoculation with AcH 505 partially relieved this filtrate-based inhibition. In the presence of pedunculate oak, the filtrate’s inhibition of P. croceum was less pronounced (Figure 4b and e). However, AcH 505 inhibited P. croceum in the rhizosphere when the filtrate was applied to the microcosms.


This suggests that during heating, the Sn within the internal space of the CNF diffuses to the outside. Figure 5 shows Sn maps of the CNF during heating. The Sn in the carbon wall and the internal space observed is completely eliminated with continuous heating, as shown in the Sn map in Figure 5b, which was acquired

from the CNF area shown in Figure 5a. This result demonstrates that Sn in the CNF’s carbon wall and internal space completely diffuses from inside the carbon wall and KPT-8602 in vitro internal space to outside the CNF and may have evaporated. Figure 4 In situ heating TEM images of Sn-filled CNFs heated at 400°C. (a) At the beginning of heating, (b) 1 min, (c) 3 min, and (d) 5 min. Figure 5 ETEM images and Sn maps of Sn-filled CNF (a, b) before and (c, d) after heating. These results clearly show that Sn can diffuse into the carbon wall of CNFs INK1197 cell line fabricated by MPCVD. The method of Sn diffusion into and out of the CNF is peculiar. It is certain that Sn diffused in the carbon wall because Sn was perfectly

covered by the carbon wall (Figure 4). The carbon wall had a graphite structure (Figure 2b), and there are two possible routes for the Sn diffusion. One is the 0.33- to 0.34-nm gap selleck inhibitor between the graphite layers, and the other is a hole in the six-membered carbon ring, which is 0.14 nm on a side [21]. The maximum diameter of a six-membered ring is 0.28 nm, which is narrower than the Glutathione peroxidase distance between graphite layers. Hence, we speculate that Sn atoms diffuse preferentially in the space between the graphite layers. However, the carbon walls of our CNFs contain defects (Figure 2b), and hence, they exhibit a disordered structure similar to disordered graphite layers, higher membered carbon rings (e.g. seven-

and eight-membered rings), and disjointedness in graphite layers. These structures are believed to function as the new third route for the Sn diffusion. Ng et al. suggested these three routes for the diffusion of Li ion into the carbon wall. In carbon rings, Li ions diffused more easily owing to defects such as those in carbon rings with more than six members [22]. In particular, carbon walls near the top of the CNFs have three-dimensionally curved walls such as those in fullerene, and hence, higher membered carbon rings exist at the top of the CNFs, leading to easy Sn diffusion there. As observed in Figure 4, Sn was eliminated from the top of the carbon wall of CNFs, which further suggests that Sn easily diffuses from the top of the CNFs. These in situ heating observation results provided us with remarkably important information that Sn can diffuse from within CNF carbon walls with defects to the outside of the CNF. This suggests that materials of approximately the same size or smaller than the Sn atoms can diffuse through a defective carbon wall. It is expected that the Sn-filled CNFs fabricated by MPCVD in this study can be utilized for hydrogen storage.

Linstrom PJ: Mallard WG (Eds): NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Stand

Linstrom PJ: Mallard WG (Eds): NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database No. 69. National Institute of Standards and Technology: Gaitherburg, MD; 2003. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions ZT, AU, IH, and SY carried out calculations with the help of HK

and KI and drafted the manuscript. YM participated in the design of the study and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Antithrombogenic biomaterial is learn more being extensively studied in order to fabricate artificial organs and biomedical materials in contact with blood. A significant goal for the application of antithrombogenic biomaterial is to prevent selleck products thrombus formation on material surface. Thrombus formation involves a process with multiple steps, CP673451 concentration including plasma protein adsorption, platelet adhesion and aggregation, and finally, the activation

of clotting factor. The properties of the surface such as hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, surface charge, and roughness of biomaterials strongly influence platelet adhesion, activation, and thrombus formation when the surface is in contact with blood [1]. The unusual mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) such as high hardness, low coefficient of friction, and high wear and corrosion resistance render them an Ketotifen ideal class of reinforcement for multiple biomedical applications including tissue engineering, biomedicine, biomaterials, (bio) sensors,

catalysts, and so on [2–12]. However, the hydrophobicity and inertness of CNTs frequently hinder their biomedical application. So, surface modification of CNTs is very important to minimize the adverse interaction and improve the biocompatibility in clinical applications. According to previous works, many results on surface modification of polymers induced by pure individual chemical element ion implantation to control their biocompatibility have been reported [13–22]. Ion implantation is one of the most powerful techniques for the surface modification of solids. It has been applied to the surface modification of polymers in order to control conductive, mechanical, physical, and chemical properties [23–27]. This technique has many advantages in application. In addition to the technological simplicity and cleanliness, it modifies only the surface characteristics without affecting the bulk properties. Therefore, if a biomaterial with the desired bulk properties does not exhibit the appropriate biocompatibility, its surface can be modified by this technique [28]. In this work, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were implanted by NH2 ions.