Approaches using ancient DNA have also been unsuccessful, probably because of rapid DNA degradation in semitropical and temperate deposits. Here we apply proteomic analysis to screen bone samples of the Late Quaternary South American native ungulate taxa Toxodon (Notoungulata) and Macrauchenia
(Litopterna) for phylogenetically informative DAPT concentration protein sequences. For each ungulate, we obtain approximately 90% direct sequence coverage of type I collagen alpha 1-and alpha 2-chains, representing approximately 900 of 1,140 amino-acid residues for each subunit. A phylogeny is estimated from an alignment of these fossil sequences with collagen (I) gene transcripts from available mammalian genomes or mass spectrometrically derived sequence data obtained for this study. The resulting consensus tree agrees well with recent higher-level
mammalian phylogenies(7-9). Toxodon and Macrauchenia form a monophyletic group whose sister taxon is not Afrotheria or any of its constituent clades as recently claimed(5,6), but instead crown Perissodactyla (horses, tapirs, and rhinoceroses). These results are consistent find more with the origin of at least some South American native ungulates(4,6) from ‘condylarths’, a paraphyletic assembly of archaic placentals. With ongoing improvements in instrumentation and analytical procedures, proteomics may produce a revolution in systematics such as that
achieved by genomics, but with the possibility of reaching much further back in time.”
“AimThe aim of the present study was to describe (in)formal volunteering among older adults (aged 70 years) in the community, and the longitudinal relationships between background characteristics, resources (social, cognitive and physical functioning, social capital) and volunteering. MethodsAt baseline, a total of 945 (out of 1440) independently living Dutch older adults (aged 70 years) completed the questionnaire (66% response). Two years later, these respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire again, of which 588 (62%) responded. ResultsOf 945 respondents (43% male; mean age 77.55.8 years, range 70-101 years), 34.7% BAY 73-4506 were married and 83.3% were born in the Netherlands. Social capital, social functioning and physical functioning were significantly higher among volunteering older adults. Being born in the Netherlands, higher educational level, social capital and social functioning were related to formal volunteering activities at baseline, and also predicted these activities 2 years later. Regarding informal volunteering activities, we found a significant association with age, being born in the Netherlands, marital status, educational level, social capital and social functioning at baseline.