Most studies on female oviposition strategies have focused on species where males build nests and care for the eggs. However, few studies have examined oviposition strategies in species lacking parental care. This study tested whether female bluefin killifish Lucania goodei
prefer to lay eggs in spawning substrates that already contain eggs from other females. The unique aspect of this study CA4P solubility dmso is that L. goodei is a non-nest building species with no parental care and high levels of iteroparity. Females preferred to lay eggs in areas where eggs were already present but these effects decreased with increasing clutch size. We suggest that females prefer to lay small bouts of eggs in areas already containing eggs of other females, but GSK J4 price that in nature, they distribute these eggs across multiple males and locations. By doing so, females may increase the probability of offspring survival via either the dilution effect (reduced individual probability of predation due to increased group size) or the selection of ‘good locations’ for offspring development.”
“A major component of cephalopod adaptive camouflage behavior has rarely been studied: their ability to change
the three-dimensionality of their skin by morphing their malleable dermal papillae. Recent work has established that simple, conical papillae in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) function as muscular hydrostats; that is, the muscles that extend a papilla also provide its structural support. We used brightfield and scanning electron microscopy to investigate and compare the functional morphology of nine types of papillae of different shapes, sizes and complexity in six species: S. officinalis small dorsal papillae, Octopus vulgaris small dorsal and ventral eye papillae, Macrotritopus defilippi dorsal eye papillae, Abdopus aculeatus major mantle papillae, O. bimaculoides arm, minor mantle, HSP inhibitor and dorsal eye papillae, and S. apama face ridge papillae. Most papillae have two sets of muscles responsible for extension: circular dermal
erector muscles arranged in a concentric pattern to lift the papilla away from the body surface and horizontal dermal erector muscles to pull the papilla’s perimeter toward its core and determine shape. A third set of muscles, retractors, appears to be responsible for pulling a papilla’s apex down toward the body surface while stretching out its base. Connective tissue infiltrated with mucopolysaccharides assists with structural support. S. apama face ridge papillae are different: the contraction of erector muscles perpendicular to the ridge causes overlying tissues to buckle. In this case, mucopolysaccharide-rich connective tissue provides structural support. These six species possess changeable papillae that are diverse in size and shape, yet with one exception they share somewhat similar functional morphologies.