This rare site for AEF was diagnosed on computed tomography, and

This rare site for AEF was diagnosed on computed tomography, and we present the first case of endovascular treatment of this uncommon complication.”
“Objective: Moderate alcohol consumption appears protective against cardiovascular events and mortality in community-based

epidemiologic studies, but whether its consumption affects perioperative outcomes remains unknown. Therefore, the authors tested the hypothesis that alcohol consumption of 3 or more drinks per week improves postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.\n\nDesign: A propensity-matched retrospective cohort study.\n\nSetting: Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor A major cardiovascular surgical institute, tertiary care teaching hospital.\n\nParticipants: Data from 13,065 patients undergoing elective CABG surgery at the Cleveland Clinic were analyzed.\n\nInterventions:

None.\n\nMeasurements and Main Results: Propensity scores were used to match alcohol users with infrequent/nonusers. From the matched subset, the relationship between alcohol use and the composite outcome (any major cardiac, renal, respiratory, infectious, or neurologic morbidity and mortality) was determined univariably with the Pearson chi-square test and multivariably using stepwise logistic regression. Estimation VX-661 inhibitor of the relationship between such alcohol use and hospital length of stay was of secondary interest. Patients who reported consuming at least 3 drinks per week experienced similar odds of the composite outcome (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] of 1.13 [0.96-1.34], p = 0.14) to infrequent or nonusers. In a secondary analysis, the hospital length

of stay was unrelated to alcohol use (adjusted hazard ratio [95% Cl] of 1.03 [0.97-1.09], p = 0.28).\n\nConclusion: The present results showed that alcohol consumption was not associated with the risk for postoperative complications in patients undergoing CABG surgery. Alcohol abusers could not be separated in this study, and, based on find more previous literature, this result might not be applied to them. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Investigations of individual variability have allowed us to reveal the crucial (=nodal) stages in embryogenesis of the moor frog (Rana arvalis Nills.). These crucial stages are: the late gastrula stage (stages 1820), the hatching stages (stages 32-33) and, apparently, early metamorphosis (stage 39). Moreover, we have found that each embryonic structure passes through its specific crucial stages. For example, stage 34 is crucial for the trait “tail width” but is internodal for all other embryonic traits. At this stage, larva passes from an attached to a free-swimming life style. We also found considerable differences between the different frog populations in the the level of developmental variability. These differences were associated with internodal developmental stages.

A total of 18 mtTFA SNPs specific to patients with AC with freque

A total of 18 mtTFA SNPs specific to patients with AC with frequencies >10% were identified. Two were located in the coding region and 16 were identified in non-coding regions. Conversely, there were five SNPs that were only BIX 01294 in vivo present in patients with AC and normal subjects and had a frequency >10%. In

the AC group, the hepatic mtTFA mRNA and protein levels were significantly lower than those in the other two groups. Moreover, the hepatic mtDNA copy number was significantly lower in the AC group than in the controls and alcoholics without AC. Based on these data, we conclude that AC-specific mtTFA SNPs may be responsible for the observed reductions in mtTFA mRNA, protein levels and mtDNA copy number and they may also increase the susceptibility to AC.”
“Almost all small animal SPECT is performed with pinhole collimators (PH), including single-PH (SPH) and multi-PH (MPH). In the clinical study, not only PH but also parallel-hole collimator (PAH) is often used in planar

and SPECT imaging. However, there have been no comparative studies on image quality with various collimators on the small animal imaging. This study compared the basic characteristics of PH and PAH in small animal imaging.\n\nPerformance of planar and SPECT images was evaluated using (TcO4)-Tc-99m (-) and SPH, MPH and PAH with low energy and high resolution on the SPECT/CT scanner FX3200. We measured sensitivity, resolution, concentration linearity and uniformity. Planar imaging of mice with Tc-99m-labeled mercaptoacetyltriglycine (Tc-99m-MAG(3)) was performed using SPH and PAH. SPECT imaging with Tc-99m-methylene diphosphonate 4EGI-1 (Tc-99m-MDP) was performed using all collimators.\n\nWith SPH, MPH and PAH, sensitivity was 43.5, 211.2 and 926.5 cps/MBq, respectively, 5-Fluoracil mouse and spatial resolution was 0.60/0.56, non/0.96, 5.20/5.34 mm full-width half maximum

(planar/SPECT), respectively. There were marked correlations between the radioactivity counts on images and radioactivity with all collimators. Values of % standard deviation on planar imaging showed small differences between the SPH and PAH, while the values were the smallest on SPECT imaging with MPH. On imaging of mice, SPH yielded high-quality Tc-99m-MAG(3)-planar images when compared with PAH. MPH yielded sharper Tc-99m-MDP-SPECT images than SPH and PAH.\n\nThe characteristics of PH and PAH differed on small animal imaging. Although sensitivity was higher with PAH, PH showed higher resolution. Among the PH collimators, SPH was more appropriate for planar imaging, and MPH was more suitable for SPECT imaging in a small animal imaging scanner with CZT detector.”
“Background: Depression has been found to be a predictor of rehospitalization and mortality in heart failure (HF). Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a novel promising biomarker that can predict hospitalization, functional status and mortality in HF.

e , laccases, were immobilized onto silica nanoparticles The res

e., laccases, were immobilized onto silica nanoparticles. The resulting nanobiocatalyst produced at kilogram scale was demonstrated to possess a broad substrate spectrum regarding the degradation of recalcitrant pollutants. This nanobiocatalyst was applied in a membrane reactor at technical scale for tertiary wastewater treatment. The system efficiently removed BPA and the results of long-term

field tests illustrated the potential of fumed silica nanoparticles/laccase composites for advanced biological wastewater treatment.”
“Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of laparoscopic appendicectomy in reducing morbidity and length of stay in children compared to open procedures in a UK District General Hospital setting. Methods: A three-year retrospective review of children smaller than = 15 years with histologically confirmed appendicitis AZD6738 who underwent laparoscopic (LA) and/or open (OA) appendicectomy was performed. Choice of operation

was based on individual surgeon’s preference and on patient’s body size. Data collected included rate of histologically complicated appendicitis, post-operative length of stay (LOS), and collective and differential morbidity rates, i.e., Lapatinib wound infection, intra-abdominal collection, and ileus. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. P smaller than 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results: Eighty children (70% male) were identified at median age 11 (3-15) years. They could be divided into complicated (n = 18, 22%) and simple appendicitis (n = 62, 78%). Appendicectomy was performed in all as an OPEN (n = 53, 66%) or LAPAROSCOPIC (n = 27, 34%) procedure. Both groups were comparable in gender distribution (P = 0.11)

and rate of complicated appendicitis (30% vs. 19%, respectively; P = 0.27). Median age was significantly lower in the OPEN group [10 (3-15) vs. 12 (7-15) years; P smaller than 0.004]. Laparoscopic appendicectomy had a significantly lower rate of collective morbidity (3.8% vs. 25.9%; P smaller than 0.003), including lower rate of intra-abdominal collection (1.9% vs. 14.8%; P smaller than 0.01). Median LOS was not significantly different (1 day vs. 2 days; selleck chemical P = 0.14). Conclusion: Laparoscopic appendicectomy in children in a UK District General Hospital is safe and was associated with significantly less post-operative morbidity than the open technique. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Flagella, the helical propellers that extend from the bacterial surface, are a paradigm for how complex molecular machines can be built outside the living cell. Their assembly requires ordered export of thousands of structural subunits across the cell membrane and this is achieved by a type Ill export machinery located at the flagellum base, after which subunits transit through a narrow channel at the core of the flagellum to reach the assembly site at the tip of the nascent structure, up to 20 mu m from the cell surface.

It also examines the reasons for this legal change of approach “<

It also examines the reasons for this legal change of approach.”
“Although AZD1208 concentration it has been hypothesized that an atherogenic lipid profile might be associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), the previous results are controversial. We investigated the association between lipid profile and BMD in premenopausal and postmenopausal women in a large Korean population. This study considered 10,402 women who underwent measurements of lipid profile and BMD from October 2003 to October 2005 at Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul National University Hospital. Participants with potential confounding factors affecting BMD (n = 3,128) were excluded. The associations between

lipid profiles (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein [LDL-C] and high-density lipoprotein [HDL-C] cholesterol, and triglyceride [TG]) and BMD at various skeletal sites (lumbar spine [L1-L4], proximal total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter) were explored by Pearson’s correlation and partial correlation,

adjusting for age, body mass index, and menarche age. Multiple linear regression analyses adjusting for all other covariates were also performed. Data on 4,613 premenopausal and 2,661 postmenopausal women aged 20-91 years were finally included in the analysis. In multivariate analyses, there was no significant relationship between Selleckchem XMU-MP-1 lipid profiles and BMD, except that HDL-C was positively associated with BMD at only the lumbar www.selleckchem.com/products/Adrucil(Fluorouracil).html spine in postmenopausal women and that the quartiles of TG were negatively associated with BMD at the total hip and trochanter in only premenopausal women. We conclude that although there were some weak associations between lipid profiles and BMD, the results of this study hardly support the hypothesis that an atherogenic lipid profile is associated with osteoporosis.”
“Hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons innervate extrinsic and intrinsic

muscles of the tongue and control behaviors such as suckling, swallowing, breathing or chewing. In young rats, XII motoneurons express V1a vasopressin and oxytocin receptors. Previous studies have shown that activation of these receptors induces direct powerful excitation in XII motoneurons. In addition, by activating V1a receptors vasopressin can also enhance inhibitory synaptic transmission in the XII nucleus. In the present work, we have further characterized the effect of these neuropeptides on synaptic transmission in the XII nucleus. We have used brainstem slices of young rats and whole-cell patch clamp recordings. Oxytocin enhanced the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents by a factor of two and a half. GABAergic and glycinergic events were both affected. The oxytocin effect was mediated by uterine-type oxytocin receptors.

Clove was the most effective for retarding lipid oxidation and pr

Clove was the most effective for retarding lipid oxidation and presented the highest antioxidant selleck chemicals activity in raw pork.\n\nCONCLUSION: This study suggests that the tested extracts, especially clove, have potential as natural preservatives to reduce numbers of pathogenic bacteria, colour degradation and lipid oxidation in raw pork. (C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted tremendous attention in recent years because of their superb optical, electronic and mechanical

properties. In this article, we aim to discuss CNT-induced polymer crystallization with the focus on the newly discovered nanohybrid shish-kebab (NHSK) structure, wherein the CNT serves as the shish and polymer crystals are the kebabs. Polyethylene (PE) and Nylon 6,6 were successfully decorated on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), and vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs). The formation Proteasome activity mechanism was attributed to “size-dependent soft epitaxy”. Polymer CNT nanocomposites (PCNs) containing PE, Nylon 6,6 were prepared using a solution blending technique. Both pristine CNTs and NHSKs were used as the precursors

for the PCN preparation. The impact of CNTs on the polymer crystallization behavior will be discussed. Furthermore, four different polymers were decorated on CNTs using the physical vapor deposition method, forming a two-dimensional NHSK structure. These NHSKs represent a new type of nanoscale architecture. A variety of possible applications will be discussed. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved”
“In this work we report on the design, synthesis and sensor properties of a novel bichromophoric sensor system based on 1,8-naphthalimide fluorophores. The synthesized dyad was configured as a fluorescent wavelength-shifting energy transfer chromophore. The novel donor-acceptor system contains blue emitting 4-methoxy-1,8-naphthalimide donor dye, capable of both absorbing light and efficiently transferring the energy to yellow-green emitting 4-N-methylpiperazinyl-1,8-naphthalimide

selleck chemical acceptor. The energy-transfer efficiency in the dyad system was calculated to be more than 99%. The acceptor unit in the donor-acceptor system was also designed as a PET based sensor according to the “fluorophore-spacer-receptor” model. The fluorescence behaviour of the bichromophoric system was investigated as a function of pH. The fluorescence enhancement of the novel dyad in acidic media was more than 29 times indicating the high ability of the system to act as an efficient pH chemosensor. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The combination of hyphenated techniques, LC-SPE-NMR and LC-MS, to isolate and identify minor isomeric compounds from an ethyl acetate fraction of Taraxacum officinale root was employed in this study.

From a prospectively collected database, 145 patients with ENKTL

From a prospectively collected database, 145 patients with ENKTL were identified. Among them, a total of 101 patients were included

in the analysis, with exclusion of patients without baseline serum B2M level and those did not receive anticancer therapy. Serum B2M ( smaller than 3.0 vs. a parts per thousand yen3.0 mg/L) was analyzed for association with overall survival (OS). Seventy-nine (78 %) patients had nasal ENKTL, and 22 (22 FAK inhibitor %) had extranasal ENKTL. In overall patients, median OS was 26.7 months (95 % confidence interval (CI), not assessable), with a median follow-up of 32.4 months (range, 0.9-155.2 months). While median OS was not reached in patients with nasal ENKTL, extranasal ENKTL group had median OS of 5.1 months (95 % CI, 1.2-8.9 months; p smaller than 0.001). Baseline serum B2M was significantly associated with OS in patients with nasal ENKTL (p smaller than 0.001). This was consistent in limited (stages I and II) nasal ENKTL (p = 0.002) and disseminated (stages III and IV) nasal ENKTL (p = 0.02).

However, there was no difference of OS in extranasal ENKTL patients (p = 0.69). In multivariate analysis including other prognostic factors, elevated serum B2M was significantly associated with poor OS (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.8, 95 % CI 1.7-8.2, p = 0.001, in a model including Korean Prognostic Index, and HR = 3.6, 95 % CI 1.6-8.2, p = 0.002, in a model including International Prognostic Index).

In patients with nasal ENKTL, baseline serum B2M is Metabolism inhibitor a powerful prognostic factor. The prognostic value of B2M was independent of previously established prognostic models. Further investigations are necessary to validate the role of B2M in ENKTL.”
“Biologic therapies have revolutionized treatment outcomes for patients with inflammatory arthritis. However, there remains a concern regarding their safety during conception, pregnancy and breastfeeding. Data on the safety of these treatments are largely limited to uncontrolled case reports. Collective BYL719 purchase evidence from many hundreds of pregnancies in inflammatory arthritis and IBD have suggested that exposure to anti-TNF therapies at the time of conception or during the first trimester does not result in an increased risk of adverse pregnancy and fetal outcomes. Monoclonal antibodies, and to a lesser extent recombinant fusion proteins, do cross the placenta during the second and third trimester and are functional in the fetus, as evidence by lymphopaenia reported at birth in children exposed to rituximab in utero. In addition, live vaccines should be avoided in children with in utero exposure to biologics for at least the first 6 months of life. The longer-term effects of in utero exposure remain unknown. Studies suggest that many of these drugs do enter breast milk in small amounts, but the extent to which they are absorbed by the infant is less clear.

When survey data was compared, it was concluded that the distribu

When survey data was compared, it was concluded that the distribution of morphologically identified T. variabile had doubled Selleck Nepicastat in most Australian states. Here, we used samples from the 2002 survey to conduct a phylogenetic study using partial sequences of mitochondrial genes Cytochrome oxidase I and Cytochrome B, and the nuclear gene 18S, to examine the distribution and dispersal of T. variabile

and detect the presence of misidentified species. Based on our molecular results, we show that only 47% of the samples analysed were T. variabile, and the remaining were a mixture of six putative species. In addition, T. variabile was found in only 78% of the trapping sites. We discuss the importance of correct diagnosis in relation to the eradication campaign.”
“This document provides a review of the techniques and therapies used in gait rehabilitation after stroke. It also examines the possible benefits of including assistive robotic devices and brain-computer interfaces in this field, according to a top-down approach, in which rehabilitation is driven by neural plasticity. The methods reviewed comprise classical gait rehabilitation techniques (neurophysiological and motor learning approaches), functional electrical stimulation VX-770 cell line (FES), robotic devices, and brain-computer interfaces (BCI). From the analysis of these approaches, we can draw the following

conclusions. Regarding classical rehabilitation techniques, there is insufficient evidence to state that a particular approach is more effective in promoting gait recovery than other. Combination of different rehabilitation strategies seems to be more effective than over-ground gait training alone. Robotic devices need further research to show their suitability for walking HDAC inhibition training and their effects on over-ground gait. The use of FES combined with different walking retraining strategies has shown to result in improvements in hemiplegic

gait. Reports on non-invasive BCIs for stroke recovery are limited to the rehabilitation of upper limbs; however, some works suggest that there might be a common mechanism which influences upper and lower limb recovery simultaneously, independently of the limb chosen for the rehabilitation therapy. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) enables researchers to detect signals from specific regions of the cortex during performance of motor activities for the development of future BCIs. Future research would make possible to analyze the impact of rehabilitation on brain plasticity, in order to adapt treatment resources to meet the needs of each patient and to optimize the recovery process.”
“Improved tendon-to-tendon suturing techniques allow for consistent and immediate activation of transferred muscle after surgery. A prerequisite for early training after tendon transfer surgery is sufficient mechanical integrity of the tendon-to-tendon attachment.

CH4, N2O, PM10, PM2 5, NOx, SOx, CO, and HC) and the emission ass

CH4, N2O, PM10, PM2.5, NOx, SOx, CO, and HC) and the emission associated social cost in Yangshan port of Shanghai. A sophisticated activity-based methodology, supported by the ship-by-ship and real-time data from the modern automatic identification system (AIS), was introduced to obtain accurate estimates of ship emissions. The detailed spatial and temporal emission inventories can be used as input for air quality dispersion modeling in the port and vicinities. The social cost of the emission impact on the Yangshan port coastal regions was then assessed based on the emissions inventories. The social cost covers the impact on human health, the environment, and the climate of the coastal

community. Finally, the ship emissions was combined with port’s basic operation profiles, i.e. container GSK2118436 cell line PF-6463922 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor throughput, ship calls, and port revenue, in an attempt to assess the port’s “eco-efficiency”, which indicates the port performance with social-economic and environmental concerns.

This study filled the gap of previous studies by providing the AIS-supported activity-based emission inventory to facilitate the social cost-benefit analysis for the emission abatement policies. The result shows that i) the amount of in-port ship emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, PM10, PM2.5, NOx, SOx, CO, and HC in Yangshan port area was 578,444 tons, 10 tons, 33 tons, 1078 tons (PM10, inducing PM2.5), 859 tons (PM2.5 only), 10,758 tons, 5623 tons, 1136 tons, and 519 tons, respectively, with ii) a total social

cost of $287 million; iii) the values of the three parameters of the port eco-efficiency performance were $36,528 per 1,000 TEU throughput, $43,993 per ship call, and $44 million per billion US$ port revenue (4.4% of port revenue), respectively in 2009. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Advanced nonlinear methods of measuring heart rate variability (HRV) derived from the mathematics of complex dynamics and fractal geometry have provided new insights into the abnormalities of heart rate behavior in various pathologic conditions. These methods have provided additional prognostic information compared BI 2536 research buy with traditional HRV measures and clearly have complemented the conventional linear methods. Knowledge about the behavior of complex cardiac dynamics indices after different cardiac procedures is very limited, however. We aimed to clarify how nonlinear heart rate dynamics are affected by beating-heart revascularization (off-pump coronary artery bypass graft [CABG] surgery) within the first week after the procedure.\n\nMethods: Included in the study were 66 patients who had isolated stable multivessel coronary artery disease and were in normal sinus rhythm. The patients were on chronic beta-blocker therapy and were scheduled for off-pump CABG. We performed 15-minute high-resolution electrocardiographic recordings preoperatively and on the third and seventh postoperative days to assess linear and nonlinear heart rate dynamics.

We show further that ER beta attenuated the hypoxic induction of

We show further that ER beta attenuated the hypoxic induction of VEGF mRNA by directly decreasing HIF-1 alpha binding to the VEGF gene promoter.\n\nConclusions: These results show that ER beta suppresses HIF-1 alpha-mediated transcription via ARNT down-regulation, which may account for

the tumour suppressive function of ER beta.”
“Question under study: Swiss legislation limits the provision of assisted reproductive medicine strictly to those infertile couples, who can guarantee the future welfare of their child. Daily practice often makes it difficult to balance between avoiding discrimination selleck chemicals llc against infertile couples living in a borderline socio-economic or health situation on the one hand, and keeping to the stipulated maximal standards of future child welfare on the other. Obstetricians and neonatologists often criticise prior decisions made by physicians involved in reproductive medicine.\n\nMethods:

Based on existing regulations about child welfare and on experts’ opinions, thirteen hypothetical criteria for future well-being of children were formulated. These were presented to and assessed by 20 residents in obstetrics and gynaecology, 21 residents in paediatrics and 26 previously infertile couples having had children with the help of assisted reproduction.\n\nResults: Although some criteria were rated more important than others, evaluation of the assessments did not reveal any statistically significant difference among the three assessing groups.\n\nConclusions: The lack of differences in the assessments of the hypothetical Vactosertib datasheet PI3K inhibitor criteria among the three assessing groups related to the large variation in judgment among the various participants in each group, not to the acceptance or rejection of some of the criteria. The difficulty in defining applicable criteria for future child welfare is emphasised. A more individualised approach in the assessment of infertile couples is needed and must be implemented in the legal regulations.”
“The study aims were to investigate the correlation between vertebral shape and hand wrist maturation

and to select characteristic parameters of C2-C5 (the second to fifth cervical vertebrae) for cervical vertebral maturation determination by mixed longitudinal data. 87 adolescents (32 males, 55 females) aged 8-18 years with normal occlusion were studied. Sequential lateral cephalograms and hand wrist radiographs were taken annually for 6 consecutive years. Lateral cephalograms were divided into 11 maturation groups according to Fishman Skeletal Maturity Indicators (SMI). 62 morphological measurements of C2-C5 at 11 different developmental stages (SMI1-11) were measured and analysed. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing, correlation coefficient analysis and variable cluster analysis were used for statistical analysis.


“Hypertension and hypertensive heart disease (HHD) are int


“Hypertension and hypertensive heart disease (HHD) are inter-related phenotypes frequently observed with other comorbidities such as diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia, which probably reflect the complex gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions resulting in HHD. The complexity of HHID led us to examine intermediate phenotypes (e.g., echocardiographically-derived measures) for simpler clues to the genetic underpinnings of the disease. We applied the method of independent component analysis to a prospective study of

the metabolic predictors of left ventricular hypertrophy and extracted latent traits of HHD from panels of multi-dimensional anthropomorphic, hemodynamic echocardiographic and metabolic data. Based on the latent trait values, classification of subjects into different risk groups for HHD captured meaningful subtypes of

the disease as MG-132 manufacturer selleck chemical reflected in the distributions of primary clinical indicators. Furthermore, we detected genetic associations of the latent HHD traits with single nucleotide polymorphisms in three candidate genes in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors complex, for which no significant association was found with the original clinical indicators of HHD. Consensus analysis of the results from repeated independent component analysis runs showed satisfactory robustness and estimated about 3-4 separate unseen sources for the observed HHD-related outcomes.”
“The availability of regulatory sequences directing tissue-specific expression of transgenes in genetically modified mice and large animals is a prerequisite for the development of adequate models for human diseases. The rat insulin 2 gene (Ins2) promoter, widely

used to achieve transgene expression in pancreatic beta-cells of mice, also directs expression to extrapancreatic tissues and performs poorly in isolated AR-13324 clinical trial pancreatic islets of human. mouse, and pig. To evaluate whether the full 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of the porcine insulin gene (INS) confers robust and specific expression in beta-cells we generated an expression cassette containing 1500bp of the porcine INS 5′ UTR and the 3′ UTR of the bovine growth hormone gene (GH). The cassette was designed to allow easy exchange of the sequences to be expressed and easy removal of the vector backbone from the expression cassette. To evaluate the properties of the cassette, we initially inserted a cDNA encoding human betacellulin, a growth factor known to affect structural and functional parameters of beta-cells. After confirming the functionality and specificity of the construct in vitro, transgenic mouse lines were generated by pronuclear DNA microinjection. Using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, we show that transgenic mice expressed human betacellulin exclusively in beta-cells. Confirming the proposed insulinotropic effect of betacellulin, transgenic mice showed improved glucose tolerance.