“Purpose: Penetrating keratoplasty can restore vision in c

“Purpose: Penetrating keratoplasty can restore vision in corneal blindness. However, immunologic rejection threatens graft survival. Matching donors at swine leukocyte antigen (SLA)-class II convey allo-specific tolerance in a large animal kidney-transplantation model despite mismatches at SLA-class I. The same matching pattern seems to https://www.selleckchem.com/products/R406.html account for the blood transfusion effect in kidney transplantation. Relying on the molecular basis of HLAMatchmaker eplets, we assessed whether this finding would also apply to keratoplasty, and if it would enhance the benefit from matching human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-class I alone.\n\nMethods:

We retrospectively selected two independent cohorts comprising 586 and 975 penetrating keratoplasties. Our computations revealed a quantitative tolerogenicity factor analogous to the animal

model. The number of mismatched HLA-class I eplets functioned as a factor for conventional histocompatibility. In the first cohort, we empirically determined the thresholds with the highest predictive power on graft rejection for both factors, and confirmed those thresholds in the THZ1 second cohort. We applied Cox proportional hazards regression for these analyses.\n\nResults: The thresholds with highest predictive power revealed 220 eplets(2) for the tolerance factor and 10 eplets for HLA-class I histocompatibility. The respective hazards ratios were 2.22 (p=0.04) versus 3.63 (p<0.01) in the first cohort Galardin ic50 and 2.09 (p<0.01) versus 1.51 (p=0.02) in the second, confirmatory cohort. The threshold factors proved to be additive in predicting immune reactions in both cohorts, (hazard ratios 2.66 in cohort 1 versus 1.70; p<0.01 in cohort 2).\n\nConclusions: Operational tolerance may be inducible by balanced matching of HLA-class I and II HLAMatchmaker eplets. Furthermore, such tolerance is additive to histocompatibliity at HLA-class I.”
“Prevalence of peritoneal dialysis is low in part because of the perceived high risk for complications such as peritonitis. However,

in the most recent era, peritonitis incidence and its effects on patient outcomes may have diminished. The aim of this study was to analyze peritonitis incidence and its impact on patient and technique survival, as well as on the kidney transplantation rate and outcome.\n\nAll peritoneal dialysis patients from a county hospital between year 2001 and 2011 were retrospectively included. Patients were divided into two groups with respect to peritonitis. The primary composite end-point consisted of a 3-year patient mortality or technique loss. Secondary end-points were patient survival and probability of kidney transplantation with respect to peritonitis history.\n\nAmong 85 study patients, there were 61 peritonitis episodes. The incidence of peritonitis was 0.

Splenectomy was performed, which resulted

Splenectomy was performed, which resulted

Combretastatin A4 datasheet in resolution of hypercalcemia and yielded a diagnosis of splenic sarcoidosis. Conclusion: Splenic sarcoidosis causing hypercalcemia has been rarely reported. Our case is unique in that the spleen lacked typical focal nodularity on cross-sectional CT imaging, which is expected in sarcoid involvement of the spleen. Our case adds to an emerging literature documenting the potential value of FDG PET/CT in localizing otherwise occult 1,25(OH)(2)D-mediated hypercalcemia.”
“The synthesis, secretion and clearance of von Willebrand factor (VWF) are regulated by genetic variations in coding and promoter regions of the VWF gene. We have previously identified 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), primarily in introns that are associated with VWF antigen levels in subjects of European descent. In this study, we conducted race by gender analyses to compare the association of VWF SNPs with VWF ACY-1215 price antigen among 10,434 healthy Americans of European (EA) or African (AA) descent from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Among 75 SNPs analyzed, 13 and 10 SNPs were associated with VWF antigen levels in EA male and EA female subjects, respectively. However, only one SNP (RS1063857) was significantly associated with VWF antigen in AA females and none was in AA males. Haplotype analysis of the ARIC samples and studying racial diversities in

the VWF gene from the 1000 genomes database suggest a greater degree of variations in the VWF gene in AA subjects as compared to EA subjects. Together, these data suggest potential race and gender divergence in regulating VWF expression by genetic variations.”
“Hampton CM, Sakata JT, Brainard MS. An avian basal ganglia-forebrain circuit contributes differentially

to syllable versus sequence variability of adult Bengalese finch song. J Neurophysiol 101: 3235-3245, 2009. First published April 8, 2009; doi:10.1152/jn.91089.2008. Behavioral variability is important for motor skill learning but continues to be present and actively regulated even in well-learned behaviors. In adult songbirds, two types of song variability can persist and are modulated by social context: variability Selleck CYT387 in syllable structure and variability in syllable sequencing. The degree to which the control of both types of adult variability is shared or distinct remains unknown. The output of a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit, LMAN (the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium), has been implicated in song variability. For example, in adult zebra finches, neurons in LMAN actively control the variability of syllable structure. It is unclear, however, whether LMAN contributes to variability in adult syllable sequencing because sequence variability in adult zebra finch song is minimal. In contrast, Bengalese finches retain variability in both syllable structure and syllable sequencing into adulthood.

Mean (SD) postoperative

white cell count was significantl

Mean (SD) postoperative

white cell count was significantly lower with isoflurane than propofol (day 1: 12 (4) x 103.mm-1 vs 16 (4) x 103.mm-1; p = 0.01 and day 3: 10 (6) x 103.mm-1; vs 14 (4); p = 0.01). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (day 1) and interleukin-1 (days 1 and 3) concentrations were significantly lower with isoflurane. Compared with propofol, isoflurane is associated with an attenuated postoperative inflammatory response and less postoperative hepatocellular injury in patients having this procedure.”
“IMPORTANCE In a multipayer system, new payment RG-7112 inhibitor incentives implemented by one insurer for an accountable care organization (ACO) may also affect spending and quality of care for another insurer’s enrollees served by the ACO. Such spillover effects reflect the extent of organizational efforts to reform care delivery and can contribute to the net impact of ACOs.\n\nOBJECTIVE We examined whether the Blue Cross Blue Shield

(BCBS) of Massachusetts’ Alternative Quality Contract (AQC), an early commercial ACO initiative associated with reduced spending and improved quality for BCBS enrollees, was also associated with changes in spending and 4EGI-1 in vitro quality for Medicare beneficiaries, who were not covered by the AQC.\n\nDESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Quasi-experimental comparisons from 2007-2010 of elderly fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries in Massachusetts (1 761 325 person-years) served by 11 provider organizations entering the AQC in 2009 or 2010 (intervention

group) vs beneficiaries served by other providers (control group). Using a difference-in-differences approach, we estimated changes in spending and quality for the intervention group in the first and second years of exposure to the AQC relative to concurrent Torin 2 ic50 changes for the control group. Regression and propensity score methods were used to adjust for differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics.\n\nMAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was total quarterly medical spending per beneficiary. Secondary outcomes included spending by setting and type of service, 5 process measures of quality, potentially avoidable hospitalizations, and 30-day readmissions.\n\nRESULTS Before entering the AQC, total quarterly spending per beneficiary for the intervention group was $150 (95% CI, $25-$274) higher than for the control group and increased at a similar rate. In year 2 of the intervention group’s exposure to the AQC, this difference was reduced to $51 (95% CI, -$109 to $210; P = .53), constituting a significant differential change of -$99 (95% CI, -$183 to -$16; P = .02) or a 3.4% savings relative to an expected quarterly mean of $2895. Savings in year 1 were not significant (differential change, -$34; 95% CI, -$83 to $16; P = .18). Year 2 savings derived largely from lower spending on outpatient care (differential change, -$73; 95% CI, -$97 to -$50; P < .

Results: There were 53 (56 4%), 22 (23 4%) and 19 (20 2%) pat

\n\nResults: There were 53 (56.4%), 22 (23.4%) and 19 (20.2%) patients in the normal GCT, abnormal GCT and GDM groups, respectively. The PlGF level in the abnormal GCT group was 518 +/- 307.6 pg/mL, which was the highest level in the study population, and there was a statistically significant difference compared with the other groups

(p = 0.006). There were no statistically significant differences with respect to fetal birth weight among the three groups in our study.\n\nConclusion: PlGF selleck chemicals llc can be used as a laboratory marker to predict which patients will have abnormal GCT results.”
“The aim of this work was to survey current service provision and adherence to the British HIV Association (BHIVA) guidelines for the management of HIV and hepatitis B/C co-infected patients in the UK. Sites were invited to complete a survey of local

care arrangements for co-infected patients. A case-note audit of all co-infected attendees during a six-month period in 2009 was performed. Data including demographics, clinical parameters, hepatitis disease status, antiretroviral and hepatitis B/C therapy were collected. selleck compound Using BHIVA guidelines as audit standards, the proportion of sites and subjects meeting each standard was calculated. One-hundred and forty sites (75%) responded and data from 973 eligible co-infected patients were submitted. Approximately a third of sites reported not re-checking hepatitis serology or vaccination titres annually. Of all co-infected patients, 122 (13%) were neither vaccinated

Selleckchem GDC941 nor immune to hepatitis A and 26 (5%) of patients with hepatitis C were neither vaccinated nor naturally immune to hepatitis B. Of HBsAg-positive subjects, 25 (6%) were receiving lamivudine as the sole drug with antihepatitis B activity. In the UK, the management of HIV and hepatitis B/C co-infection remains highly variable. Optimizing the care of this high-risk patient group is a priority.”
“Sex-specific plasticity can profoundly affect sexual size dimorphism (SSD), but its influence in female-larger-SSD vertebrates remains obscure. Theory predicts that sex-specific plasticity may drive SSD evolution if the larger sex benefits from optimal-growth conditions when available (condition-dependent hypothesis), or if attaining a suboptimal size is penalized by selection (adaptive canalization hypothesis). Sex-specific plasticity enhances the size of the larger sex in male-larger-SSD turtles but whether the same occurs in female-larger species is unknown. Sexual shape dimorphism (SShD) is also widespread in nature but is understudied, and whether SShD derives from sex-specific responses to identical selective pressures or from sex-specific selection remains unclear. Here we tested whether sex-specific growth plasticity underlies the development of sexual size and shape dimorphism in the female-larger-SSD turtle, Podocnemis expansa.

At the second stage, 28 out of 63 evaluable patients receiving va

At the second stage, 28 out of 63 evaluable patients receiving vandetanib achieved

PFS at 3 months. The alternative hypothesis that the PFS rate at 3 months is at least 50% was accepted. The median PFS was 2.7 months (95% CI, 1.9-4.4 months) in the vandetanib arm and 1.7 months (95% CI, 0.9-2.6 months) in the placebo arm. The most common adverse events in patients receiving vandetanib were rash (77.3%) and diarrhea (60.0%).\n\nConclusions: Maintenance therapy with vandetanib for patients with NSCLC after standard platinum doublet chemotherapy is well tolerated and may prolong PFS compared with placebo, and needs additional investigation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland BLZ945 mouse Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The term tissue engineering is the technology that combines cells, engineering and biological/synthetic material in order to repair, replace or regenerate biological tissues such as bone, muscle, tendons and cartilage. The major human applications of tissue engineering are: skin, bone, cartilage, corneas, blood vessels, left mainstem bronchus and urinary

structures. In this Sapanisertib PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor systematic review several criteria were identified as the most desirable characteristics of an ideal scaffold. These state that an ideal scaffolds needs to be biodegradable, possess mechanical strength, be highly porous, biocompatible, non-cytotoxic, non antigentic, stuitable for cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation, flexible and elastic, three dimensional, osteoconductive and support the transport of nutrients and metabolic waste. Subsequently, studies reporting on the various advantages and disadvantages MK-2206 of using collagen

based scaffolds in musculoskeletal and cartilage tissue engineering were identified. The purpose of this review is to 1) provide a list of ideal characteristics of a scaffold as identified in the literature 2) identify different types of biological protein-based collagen scaffolds used in musculoskeletal and cartilage tissue engineering 3) assess how many of the criteria each scaffold type meets 4) weigh different scaffolds against each other according to their relative properties and shortcomings. The rationale behind this approach is that the ideal scaffold material has not yet been identified. Hence, this review will define how many of the identified ideal characteristics are fulfilled by natural collagen-based scaffolds and address the shortcomings of its use as found in the literature.”
“The field of genetic diversity in protists, particularly phytoplankton, is under expansion. However, little is known regarding variation in genetic diversity within populations over time. The aim of our study was to investigate intrapopulation genetic diversity and genetic differentiation in the freshwater bloom-forming microalga Gonyostomum semen (Raphidophyceae). The study covered a 2-year period including all phases of the bloom.

“The main goal of our study was to evaluate possible perio

“The main goal of our study was to evaluate possible perioperative risk factors for Occurrence of atrial fibrillation

in the postoperative Lazertinib nmr period in patients after CABG operations. The study included 140 patients after CABG, divided into two groups – Group I – 64 patients with new onset of POAF and Group 11 – 76 patients without postoperative atrial fibrillation occurrence. In both groups possible risk factors for atrial fibrillation onset (preoperative and postoperative) were analyzed. Results showed that we can predict new onset of atrial fibrillation after CABG if the following preoperative factors are present – low ejection fraction (less than 40%), I-Ad > 40mm, higher body mass index (BMI over 30), presence BI 6727 of COPD and older age. Important perioperative factors for onset of atrial fibrillation in our study were

longer extracorporeal circulation, increased dose/number of inotropic drugs, blood transfusion and elevated WBC count Postoperatively.”
“The flow of a viscous incompressible fluid between two parallel plates due to the normal motion of the porous upper plate is investigated and an analysis is made to determine the heat and mass transfer. The unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are reduced to a generalization of the Proudman-Johnson equation retaining the effect of wall motion using a suitable similarity transformation. The analytical solution for stream function and heat transfer characteristics are obtained by employing homotopy analysis method. The effects of various physical parameters like expansion ratio, Prandtl number, Reynolds number on various

OSI-744 purchase momentum and heat transfer characteristics are discussed in detail. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: Because of its prevalence and the consequences of its impact, depression is a significant health issue. It is strikingly widespread among patients referred to primary health care services. Inventories occupy an important place in the diagnosis of depression, a condition frequently seen among children and adolescents. In this context, the present study has aimed to examine whether the Turkish version of the CES-Depression Scale (The Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) can be used for children and adolescents. Methods: The study was conducted with 583 children and adolescents between the ages 8-15. Both classical and modern test theories were employed in the analysis of the items in the study. Item discrimination, item difficulty and the level of fit with the two-parameter model were used. Items 4,7 and 11 attracted attention with their low discrimination characteristics and low difficulty levels. Results: It was found that the internal consistency coefficient for the whole scale was 0.74 but ranged between 0.60 – 0.78 in different age groups.

Long-term postnatal neurodevelopmental follow-up should confirm t

Long-term postnatal neurodevelopmental follow-up should confirm the data from prenatal investigation of fetal

“As common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) spreads across Europe and other regions, it is becoming both a Selonsertib concentration health and an economic threat. To better understand which environmental conditions facilitate the spread of the invasive species, in 2010, a greenhouse experiment was conducted determining the effects of various nitrogen levels (10, 50 and 100 kg N/ha), soil moisture level (low and high) and competition levels (no competition, medium competition and high competition) on the growth parameters of ragweed. Single-grown ragweed responded favourably to the medium nitrogen and water increase, whereas the ragweed growth parameters in competition stands increased only when high levels of nitrogen and water were added.

High competition reduced the total dry matter of ragweed by up to 83%, but the ragweed continued to increase its relative growth rate during the full-flowering stage and VX-680 price allocate its dry matter to reproductive parts, producing up to 70 seeds per plant. Ragweed is a poor competitor when there is high resource availability; however, under disturbance and in the shortage of nutrients and water conditions, the intensity of competition decreases and the ragweed performance is minimally affected. The addition of medium levels of nitrogen to promote the growth of competitive species, prevention of disturbance

and establishment of plant communities with stress-tolerant species is measures that should help to prevent the further spread of ragweed.”
“Exposure to chronic stressors is associated with accelerated biological aging as indicated by reduced leukocyte telomere length (LTL). This impact could be because of chronic overactivation of the body’s physiological stress systems. This study examined the associations between LTL and the immune system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system. LTL was assessed in 2936 adults from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Inflammation markers (interleukin-6, c-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha), hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis indicators (salivary cortisol awakening selleck chemical curve [area under the curve indicators, with respect to the ground and increase], evening levels, 0.5 mg dexamethasone cortisol suppression ratio), and autonomic nervous system measures (heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, pre-ejection period) were determined. Linear regression analyses were performed and adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical factors. Shorter LTL was significantly associated with higher c-reactive protein, interleukin-6, area under the curve with respect to increase, and heart rate. A cumulative index score was calculated based on the number of highest tertiles of these 4 stress markers.

Previously, data from patients with ACS given vitamin K antagonis

Previously, data from patients with ACS given vitamin K antagonists in addition to acetylsalicylic acid demonstrated significant reductions in vascular events, but this was

associated with an unacceptable bleeding risk. As expected, phase II trials of newer oral anticoagulants learn more in addition to dual antiplatelet therapy also found increased bleeding risk, with only the direct factor Xa inhibitors apixaban and rivaroxaban continuing to phase III. The phase III trial of full-dose apixaban was stopped early for safety concerns, because the major bleeding rates were significantly increased with minimal improvement in efficacy. However, the phase III trial of low-dose rivaroxaban demonstrated a significantly reduced incidence of recurrent vascular events without an increased risk of fatal bleeding. In conclusion, these trials underline the potential importance of optimal dose selection in phase III studies and suggest that the long-term use of low-dose anticoagulation, together with dual antiplatelet therapy, might have a role in secondary prevention after ACS. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. (Am J Cardiol 2013;111:618-626)”
“Background: Oxaliplatin

has become one of the major cytotoxic agents for the treatment of gastrointestinal Emricasan chemical structure tumors. As a result, several cases of the so-called oxaliplatin-associated hypersensitivity reaction have been documented. Patients and Methods: We have retrospectively evaluated and characterized these reactions in our patient group by reviewing the files QNZ NF-��B inhibitor of 1,224 patients exposed to an oxaliplatin-containing regimen in order to provide

useful clinical information for diagnosis and management. Results: Three hundred and eight (308) patients who have never been exposed to platinum compounds developed symptoms compatible with a reaction to oxaliplatin that was verified by manifestation of at least similar symptoms on rechallenging. The reactions occurred after the first 5 courses, with a median course number of 9 (range 1-24). These reactions could be distinguished as (1) mild reactions occurring in 195 (63%) patients manifesting with itching and small area erythema either during treatment or within the next hours, and (2) severe reactions occurring in 113 (37%) patients within minutes of drug infusion manifesting with diffuse erythroderma, facial swelling, chest tightness, bronchospasm and changes in blood pressure. Oxaliplatin withdrawal was not required in patients with a mild reaction. Forty- eight ( 42%) patients having a severe reaction with appropriate premedication and prolongation of the infusion duration could tolerate 2-4 subsequent courses. For the remaining 65 (58%) patients, oxaliplatin withdrawal was inevitable because of the very severe reactions occurring on rechallenging. In addition, 3 patients presented with thrombocytopenia and 3 others with hemolytic anemia, all reversible upon oxaliplatin discontinuation.

Assessments included

demographics, comorbidity, ASA score

Assessments included

demographics, comorbidity, ASA score, operative details and 30-day postoperative outcome.\n\nResults Seventy patients in the CKD group were matched with 70 controls. ASA scores and length of stay did not differ significantly between the groups. CKD patients were older (mean age 76.5 years vs 71.1 years; P < 0.001) and had a lower mean body mass index (24.3 vs 28.2; P < 0.001) compared with controls. Compared with the CKD group, the mean operation time was longer in the control group (181.5 min vs 151.6 min; P = 0.02) and the estimated blood loss was greater (232 ml vs 165 ml; P = 0.004). Postoperative infection was www.selleckchem.com/products/AZD7762.html more common in the CKD group (60% vs 40%; P = 0.01). There were no significant differences in reoperation rates, 30-day readmissions or the incidence of acute renal failure (ARF).\n\nConclusion Patients with CKD Stages 3 and 4 had a higher incidence of postoperative infections than matched controls after colorectal surgery. ARF developed in 18.6% of patients. Preoperative optimization should include adequate hydration

and assessment of potentially nephrotoxic substances for bowel preparation, preoperative antibiotics and pain control.”
“Citrate gels were prepared from aqueous solutions of zirconium dinitrate oxide, ammonium metatungstate and citric acid in the range of pH 1.1-10. The citric acid to total metal molar ratio buy SB203580 was varied from 0.66 to 1.33. The thermal decomposition of these precursor gels and the oxide phase evolution were studied by thermal analysis (DTA, TG, EGA-MS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), respectively. Complex stability appeared to be largely insensitive to pH variations, whereas consistency and thermal behaviour of the gels were found to be influenced by pH and molar ratio of the starting solutions. Under optimized thermolysis conditions, phase-pure trigonal ZrW2O8 was obtained which was converted to cubic ZrW2O8 by up-quenching to 1125 degrees C for a very short time (< 1 min). The cubic ZrW2O8 has

PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 ic50 particle sizes in the lower micron to submicron range and shows a negative linear coefficient of thermal expansion CTE = -10.2 x 10(-6) K-1 (30-120 degrees C). The polymorphism of ZrW2O8 is discussed with respect to its preparation by the amorphous citrate process and other soft chemistry routes. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.”
“The impact of education on health care outcome has been studied in the past, but its role in the dialysis population is unclear. In this report, we evaluated this association. We used the United States Renal Data System data of end-stage renal disease patients aged =18 years. Education level at the time of end-stage renal disease onset was the primary variable of interest. The outcome of the study was patient mortality. We used four categories of education level: 0?=?less than 12 years of education; 1?=?high school graduate; 2?=?some college; 3?=?college graduate.

frugiperda life cycle under laboratory conditions A completely r

frugiperda life cycle under laboratory conditions. A completely randomized block design with 4 replicates was used for the field experiment, and a completely randomized design with 10 replicates was used for the laboratory experiment. In the field experiment, the damage caused by fall armyworm, grain yield, and popping expansion were quantified, and a diallel analysis was performed to select the best hybrids. For the laboratory experiment, caterpillars were obtained from laboratory cultures kept on an artificial diet and were fed with leaves from the 11 hybrids. Hybrids P7.0 x P9.4, P7.1 x P9.6, P7.2.0 x P9.3, P7.4.0 x P9.1 and P7.4.1 x P9.4 exhibited negative specific

combining ability for injury by fall armyworm and positive specific combining ability for yield and popping expansion. In the laboratory experiment, the hybrids influenced the mean larval stage duration, mean larval mass, final larval mass, pupal stage selleck chemicals llc duration,

mean pupal mass, and adult longevity.”
“The impairment in diabetic wound healing represents a significant clinical problem. Decreased angiogenesis is thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of this impairment. We have previously shown that treatment of diabetic murine wounds with mesenchymal stem cells can improve healing, but the mechanisms Selonsertib are not completely defined. MicroRNA-15b (miR-15b) has been implicated in the regulation of the angiogenic response. We hypothesized that abnormal miR-15b expression may contribute to the impaired angiogenesis observed in impaired diabetic wound this website healing. To test this hypothesis, we examined the expression of miR-15b and its target genes in diabetic and nondiabetic mice before and after injury. MiR-15b expression was significantly up-regulated in diabetic mouse wounds during the wound healing response.

Increased miR-15b levels also closely correlated with decreased gene expression of its proangiogenic target genes. Furthermore, the correction of the diabetic wound healing impairment with mesenchymal stem cell treatment was associated with a significant decrease in miR-15b expression level and increased gene expression of its proangiogenic target genes. These results provide the first evidence that increased expression of miR-15b in diabetic wounds in response to injury may, in part, be responsible for the abnormal angiogenic response seen in diabetic wounds and may contribute to the observed wound healing impairment.”
“Estradiol facilitates the expression of male sexual behavior in Japanese quail within a few minutes. These rapid behavioral effects of estradiol could result from rapid changes in its local production in the preoptic area by aromatase, the enzyme converting testosterone into estradiol. Alternatively, aromatase activity may remain constant but fluctuations of local estradiol production could arise from rapid changes in the concentration of the enzymatic substrate, namely testosterone.