E-mail: [email protected] ​fr

On the Transfer of Meteor

E-mail: [email protected]​fr

On the Transfer of Meteorites (and Life?) from Earth to the Gl 581 System Tetsuya Hara, Masanobu Shigeyasu, Kazuma Takagi, Daigo Kajiura Deptment of Physics, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto 603–8555, AP26113 Japan It is investigated the probability that the meteorites of Earth origin are transferred to the super-Earth planets in the Gl 581 system. We take the collisional ejection process of the Chicxulub crater event (Hildebrand et al. 1991) as Earth origin. If we assume the appropriate size of the meteorites (<1 cm in diameter), the number of meteorites to reach the Gl 581 system could be much greater than one. We have followed the ejection and capture rates estimated by Melosh (2003) and the discussion by Wallis and Wickramasinghe (2004). We believe that the ejection rate estimated by Melosh as 15 rocks (>10 cm diameter) each year from solar system seems to be too small. Although it is not certain that the micro-organisms within the size (<1 cm) of meteorites are still viable for several Myr, Earth origin meteorites could be transferred to the Gl 581 system. If it is viable, we should consider the possibility of meteorites exchange between stellar systems more seriously. Recently it has been reported that the detection

of the super-Earth planet in the Gl 581 system which resides at the warming edge of the habitable zone of the star (Udry et al. 2007). There has been established that CH5424802 rocks can be ejected from planetary surface by colliding asteroids and comets. The Chicxulub crater event 65 Myr ago provides evidence of the collisional ejection process. The meteorites size is estimated about 10 km in diameter. The concept that micro-organisms could be transported has begun to attract scientific LY3039478 attention. To estimate the transfer probability, we put parameters as following

that N 0 rocks are ejected from the solar system, the distance to the nearby star is denoted by ‘s’, and the cross section of the rock capture by the star system is σ. Then the number of captured rocks is N impact Immune system = N 0 σ/(4πs 2). When the Chicxulub meteorite collided to Earth, it could be estimated that almost the same amount mass could be ejected from Earth. Then it is assumed that the ejected mass from the solar system is f 1 × f 2 × M, where M is the mass of the Chicxulub meteorite. The factor f 1 (0.3) denotes the fraction of the mass ejected from Earth and f 2 (0.3) denotes the fraction of the mass ejected from the solar system. Taking that the mean diameter of rocks is r (1 cm) and the estimated diameter of the Chicxulub meteorite is R (10 km), the number of ejected rocks from solar system is N 0 f 1 f 2 (R/r) 3 1017. The distance to the Gl 581 is 20 light years so we take the representative value for s (1020 cm). The problem is the cross section σ.

Discussion Omental torsion is a rare cause of

Discussion Omental torsion is a rare cause of Savolitinib datasheet abdominal pain presenting mainly in the 3rd to 5th decade of life with a slight male predominance (3:2) [5, 6]. The omentum twists around its long axis, clockwise at a pivotal point. Consequently vascularity is compromised, resulting in haemorrhagic extravasation, serosanguinous fluid production, necrosis and adhesion formation. Omental torsion may be primary or secondary. One third of cases are a result of primary torsion, which is unipolar with no underlying pathology or distal fixation

[5–7]. In primary torsion the volvulus occurs more commonly around the right distal epiploic artery due to greater size and mobility of the omentum in this region [1, 2]. Factors such as anatomical variations in the omentum and actions that displace the

omentum such as trauma, exercise or hyperpersitalsis predispose to torsion. Obesity has also been implemented as a risk factor [1, 8]. Secondary torsion is more common and a result of underlying abdominal pathology (e.g. cysts, adhesions, hernial sacs) resulting in a distal fixation point (bipolar torsion) [2, 7]. In some cases the omentum may infarct without torsion, which is known as primary idiopathic segmental infarction [6]. Patient with omental torsion present with constant, non-radiating pain of increasing severity, nausea and vomiting. Clinically 50% of patients have a low grade fever and leukocytosis [4, 5]. These findings are non specific, making pre-operative diagnosis of omental torsion a challenge. The majority of cases present with a single

episode of abdominal pain but recurrent pain may suggest intermittent see more torsions [4, 9]. On examination 50% of patients present with an abdominal mass and localised peritonitis [5, 7]. Common differential IMP dehydrogenase diagnosis include appendicitis, cholecystitis or twisted ovarian cyst [2]. In general patients with omental torsion are less systemically AZD6738 in vivo unwell compared to acute appendicitis and the disease process extends over a longer period of time [6]. On laboratory findings a moderate leukocytosis is present in 50% of cases [2]. Imaging investigations such as Ultrasonography and Computed Tomography (CT) have been suggested in the literature [10]. On Sonography a complex mass consisting of hypoechoic and solid zones may be identified, but this imaging technique is operator dependent with limited sensitivity due to overlying bowel gas. On CT, omental torsion is characterised by diffuse streaking in a whirling pattern of fibrous and fatty folds [2, 10]. With increased use of CT, pre-operative diagnosis of omental torsion may increase in frequency of preoperative diagnosis and lead to conservative management in patients without complications [8, 10–12]. The current investigation tool and therapeutic management of choice is laparoscopy proceeding to laparotomy, identifying and removing the infarcted section of omentum.

J Clin Microbiol 2010,48(5):1683–1689 10 1128/JCM 01947-09286390

J Clin Microbiol 2010,48(5):1683–1689. 10.1128/JCM.01947-09286390420335420CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed 26. Feuerriegel S, Cox HS, Zarkua N, Karimovich HA, Braker K, Rüsch-Gerdes S, Niemann S: Sorafenib molecular weight Sequence analyses of just four genes to detect extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients undergoing treatment. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009,53(8):3353–3356. 10.1128/AAC.00050-09271564519470506CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Peptide 17 27. Kiet VS, Lan NTN, An DD, Dung NH, Hoa DV, Chau NV, Chinh NT, Farrar J, Caws M: Evaluation of the MTBDRsl test for detection of second-line-drug

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M, Warren RM, Streicher EM, Böttger EC, Van Helden PD, Gey Van Pittius NC, Coetzee G, Hoosain EY, Chabula-Nxiweni M, Hayes C, Victor TC, Trollip A: Mutations in the rrs A1401G gene and phenotypic resistance to amikacin and capreomycin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Microb Drug Resist 2012 2012,18(2):193–197.CrossRef 29. Suzuki Y, Katsukawa C, Tamaru A, Abe C, Makino M, Mizuguchi Y, Taniguchi H: Detection of kanamycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis by identifying mutations in the 16S rRNA gene. J Clin Microbiol 1998,36(5):1220–1225. 1048039574680CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed 30. Georghiou SB, Magana M, Garfein RS, Catanzaro DG, Catanzaro A, Rodwell TC: Evaluation of genetic mutations associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin: a systematic review. PLoS One 2012,7(3):e33275. 10.1371/journal.pone.0033275331557222479378CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed 31. Jugheli L, Bzekalava N, Rijk PD, Fissette K, Portaels F, Rigouts L: High level of cross-resistance between kanamycin, amikacin and capreomycin among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates

from Georgia and a close relation with mutations in the rrs gene. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009,53(12):5064–5068. 10.1128/AAC.00851-09278633719752274CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed 32. Krüüner A, Jureen P, Levina K, Ghebremichael from S, Hoffner S: Discordant resistance to kanamycin and amikacin in drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003,47(9):2971–2973. 10.1128/AAC.47.9.2971-2973.200318259912937004CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed 33. Chen W, Biswas T, Porter VR, Tsodikov OV, Garneau-Tsodikova S: Unusual regioversatility of acetyltransferase Eis, a cause of drug resistance in XDR-TB. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011,108(24):9804–9808. 10.1073/pnas.1105379108311639021628583CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed 34.

Antarct Sci 21:471–475CrossRef Lityńska-Zając M,

Antarct Sci 21:471–475CrossRef Lityńska-Zając M, Chwedorzewska KJ, Olech M, Korczak-Abshire M, Augustyniuk-Kram A (2012) Diaspores and phyto-remains accidentally transported to the Antarctic Station during three expeditions.

Biodivers Conserv 21:3411–3421CrossRef Lush WM (1988) Biology of Poa annua in a temperate zone golf putting green (Agrostis stolonifera/Poa annua). II The seed bank. J Appl Ecol 25:989–997CrossRef McGraw JB, Day TA (1997) Size and Characteristics of a Natural Seed Bank in Antarctica. Arct Alp Res 29:213–216CrossRef McGraw JB, Vavrek MC (1989) The role of buried viable seeds in arctic and alpine plant communities. In: Leck MA, Parker Selleck 17-AAG VT, Simpson RL (eds) Ecology of soil seed banks. Academic Press, New York Molau U, Larsson EL (2000) Seed rain and seed bank along an alpine

altitudinal gradient in Swedish Lapland. Can J Bot 78:728–747 Olech M, Chwedorzewska KJ (2011) The first appearance and establishment of alien vascular plant in natural habitats on the forefield of retreating glacier in Antarctica. Antarct Sci 23:153–154CrossRef Pertierra LR, Lara F, Benayas J, Hughes KA (2013) Poa pratensis L., current status of the longest-established non-native vascular plant in the Antarctic. Polar Biol 36:1473–1481CrossRef Ruhland CT, Day TA (2001) Size and longevity of seed banks in Antarctica and the influence Ergoloid of ultraviolet-B Epoxomicin in vitro radiation on survivorship, growth and pigment

concentrations of Colobanthus quitensis seedlings. Environ Exp Bot 45:143–154PubMedCrossRef SAS Institute Inc. (2007) SAS OnlineDoc® 9.2. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc StatSoft, Inc. (2009) STATISTICA data analysis software system, version 9.0. www.​statsoft.​com Venable DL, Brown JS (1988) The selective interactions of dispersal, dormancy, and seed size as adaptations for reducing risk in variable environments. Am Nat 131:360–384CrossRef Wang SM, Zhang X, Lia Y, Zhang L, Xiong YC, Wang G (2005) Spatial distribution patterns of the soil seed bank of Stipagrostis pennata (Trin.) de Winter in the Gurbantonggut desert of north-west China. J Arid Environ 63:203–222CrossRef Wódkiewicz M, Kwiatkowska-Falińska A (2010) Small scale spatial pattern of a soil seed bank in an old-growth deciduous forest. Polish J Ecol 58:487–500 Wódkiewicz M, Galera H, Chwedorzewska KJ, Giełwanowska I, Olech M (2013) Diaspores of the Introduced Species Poa annua L. in soil samples from King BLZ945 datasheet George Island (South Shetlands, Antarctica). Antarct Arct Alp Res 45:415–419CrossRef”
“Introduction Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are formed by various groups of living organisms and their by-products, creating a millimeter-thick topsoil layer of inorganic particles bound together by organic materials.

The Bacteroidetes sequences were abundant in the SS2 clone librar

The Bacteroidetes sequences were abundant in the SS2 clone library (Additional Selleckchem BAY 1895344 file 4: Table S1). Two phylotypes (RS23, RS17) were related to Salinimicrobium catena isolated from sediments of oil fields in the South China Sea [29] within

Flavobacteriaceae. The Acidobacteria group was dominant in the AS clone library and the sequences were related (88-99%) to uncultured Solibacter isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soils [30], and uncultured Acidobacteria isolated from the heavy metal contaminated soils [31]. No phylotype from SS2 was found related to this group. Planctomycetes group was represented by twelve OTUs (13 sequences), four from each soil sample. The OTUs from SS1 & SS2 clone libraries were related to uncultured marine bacteria and Planctomyces PLX3397 maris (Additional file 4: Table S1). The Actinobacterial clones from AS clone library were related (93-99%) to Micromonospora Arthrobacter globiformis Streptomyces and Rubrobacter radiotolerans. Eleven OTUs from SS1 & SS2 clone libraries clustered with uncultured Actinobacteria, Amycolatopsis and Nitriliruptor alkaliphilus, a haloalkaliphilic actinobacterium from soda lake capable of growth on aliphatic nitriles [32]. PF-6463922 Overall eight OTUs, six from AS and two from SS2 clone library were related (89-95%)

to the uncultured Gemmatimonadetes bacterium. No OTU was found affiliated to the Gemmatimonadetes group in SS1 clone library. Three OTUs from AS clone library were related to the uncultured Idoxuridine phylum OP10. Phylogenetic analysis of cbbL positive bacterial isolates From a total of 22 bacterial isolates seven were positive for form IC cbbL genes. The positive isolates were analyzed for further study. The cbbL-gene sequences of the isolates from this study were denoted as ‘BSC’,

‘HSC’ and ‘RSC’ from AS, SS1 and SS2 soil samples, respectively. The nucleotide similarities of cbbL sequences retrieved from the bacterial isolates were distantly related (77-85%) to known cbbL sequences. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the isolates from this study were denoted as ‘BSCS’ (AS), ‘HSCS’ (SS1) and ‘RSCS’ (SS2). A neighbour joining tree (Additional file 5: Figure S3) was constructed from 16S rRNA gene sequences of the bacterial isolates harbouring cbbL form IC gene. All seven cbbL positive bacterial isolates grouped with Bacillus species. Four isolates, one from each saline soil and two from agricultural soil were related to the Bacillus firmus. Two isolates from AS showed a very high homology (99%) with B. vireti whereas one isolate was related (99%) to B. horikoshii. Apparently, only a very limited diversity could be isolated using the single AT-medium under aerobic conditions without ascorbate.

The use of genetics to cross different mutant lines should play a

The use of genetics to cross different mutant lines should play an increasing role in further development of this technology. In our view, a mutant expressing a more O2-tolerant hydrogenase, such as the Clostridium acetobutylicum Ca1, the pgrl1 mutation, a truncated antenna, and an inducible Fd/hydrogenase fusion, represents one of the most promising genetic combinations to achieve long-term high-efficiency H2-producing activity, check details at this juncture. Obviously, other mutant constructs, containing for instance O2 sequesters

and other proton gradient dissipators, are equally promising and worth pursuing. This research area is expanding rapidly, based on the premise and promise of a cost-effective carbon-neutral energy technology. Acknowledgments We thank Dr. Matt Wecker for Fig. 2 courtesy, Al Hicks for

his help with see more Fig. 1, and Tami Baldwin for formatting the document. This work was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy (MLG and AD). Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited. References Antal T, Mattila H, Hakala-Yatkin M, Tyystjarvi T, Tyystjarvi E (2010) Acclimation of photosynthesis to nitrogen deficiency

in Phaseolus vulgaris. Planta 232(4):887–898. doi:10.​1007/​s00425-010-1227-5 PubMedCrossRef Chang C, King P, Ghirardi M, Kim K (2007) Atomic resolution Modeling of the ferredoxin :[FeFe] hydrogenase complex from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Biophys J 93(9):3034–3045. doi:10.​1529/​Selleckchem Everolimus biophysj.​107.​108589 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Chen H, Newton A, Melis A (2005) Role of SulP, a nuclear-encoded chloroplast sulfate not permease, in sulfate transport and H-2 evolution in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Photosynth Res 84(1–3):289–296. doi:10.​1007/​s11120-004-7157-y PubMedCrossRef Chien L, Kuo T, Liu B, Lin H, Feng T, Huang C (2012) Solar-to-bioH2 production enhanced by homologous overexpression of hydrogenase in green alga Chlorella sp. DT. Int J Hydrogen Energy 37(23):17738–17748CrossRef Chochois V, Constans L, Dauvillée D, Beyly A, Solivérès M, Ball S, Peltier G, Cournac L (2010) Relationships between PSII-independent hydrogen bioproduction and starch metabolism as evidenced from isolation of starch catabolism mutants in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Int J Hydrogen Energy 35(19):10731–10740CrossRef Chu H, Nguyen A, Debus R (1995) Amino acid residues that influence the binding of manganese or calcium to photosystem II. 1. The luminal inter-helical domains of the D1 polypeptide.

aureus Mu50 compared to in S aureus SA45 and the final extracell

aureus Mu50 compared to in S. aureus SA45 and the final extracellular SEA concentration in the S. aureus Mu50 cultures was 61% higher than in S. aureus SA45 cultures on average. Figure 5 Growth, SEA levels, and sea mRNA levels of S. aureus SA45 grown at two pH levels. (A) Growth curves determined www.selleckchem.com/products/th-302.html by OD measurements at 620 nm and extracellular SEA levels at pH 7.0 and pH 5.5. (B) Relative expression

(RE) of sea at pH 7.0 and pH 5.5. Solid, dotted and OSI-906 in vitro dashed lines represents growth, SEA levels and RE, respectively. Values are the mean and standard deviations of two independent batch cultures. Genetic diversity of sea Nucleotide sequence analysis of sea and prophage regions immediately upstream and downstream of the gene was performed on the whole-genome sequenced S. aureus

strains MRSA252 [22], MSSA476 [22], Mu3, Mu50 [21], MW2 [23], and Newman [24] to determine genetic differences that may explain the different sea expression and SEA production profiles observed at pH 5.5 with S. aureus Mu50 and SA45. Sequence alignment of the coding region of sea revealed two main groups of sea-carrying phages. Pexidartinib cost Within a group the sea sequences showed 100% sequence similarity and between the two groups the sequence similarity was 98%. Prophages ΦMu3, ΦMu50A, ΦSa3ms, and ΦSa3mw clustered together in a sea-group designated sea 1, while Φ252B and ΦNM3 formed a sea group, designated sea 2. All six phages shared a homologous region of 3.2 kb downstream of the sea gene containing the sak gene. Thereafter, the nucleotide sequences diverged, forming three subgroups of sea phages. The same grouping of phages was observed immediately upstream of the translational start site of sea (Figure 6). An analogous phage grouping was recently reported when comparing the integrase (int) nucleotide sequences of these bacteriophages [25]. To improve the resolution of phylogenetic analysis of these bacteriophages based on int genes, we repeated the int gene grouping (data not shown). The ΦMu3A/ΦMu50A branch was found to be closer to the Φ252B/ΦNM3 branch than to the ΦSa3ms/ΦSa3mw branch. This is in direct

contrast to what was found for the sea gene. Figure 6 Gene map of the sea virulence region of S. aureus. Gene map of the sea gene and regions immediately upstream and downstream GNE-0877 of the gene in six different S. aureus strains. The map is based on nucleotide sequence analysis of the strains. Solid lines are sequences within the sea-carrying prophage. Dotted lines represent sequences outside the prophage region. The letters a-h indicates were PCR amplicons are located within the region; numbers 1-2 indicate transcription start sites [14]. In order to identify the phage- and sea-group of SA45, eight different regions were targeted by PCR (see Table 1 and Figure 6). This analysis showed that SA45 carries the sea 1-version of the sea gene and belongs to the same subgroup as ΦSa3mw.

The PCR conditions were the same as described above Both PCR pro

The PCR conditions were the same as described above. Both PCR products (0.5 μg) were digested with NdeI and HindIII and analyzed by electrophoresis on a 1% agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. Specifically, approximately 420 bp amplification products were cut out of the gel and purified using the Gel-Out AX kit (A&A Biotechnology, Poland). The purified

DNA fragments were ligated into pET30Ek/LIC between the NdeI and HindIII sites. E. coli strains TOP10F’ cells were transformed with the ligation mixtures and the colonies obtained were examined for the presence of ssb genes from T. maritima and T. neapolitana by PCR amplification and restriction analysis. Single clones, named pETSSBTma and pETSSBTne, were selected and sequenced to ascertain the authenticity of the clones. The constructed plasmids were used in the expression and purification procedure described this website below. Protein sequence analysis of the TmaSSB and TneSSB The amino acid sequences of the TmaSSB and TneSSB proteins were analyzed using standard protein-protein BLAST and RPS-BLAST. Multiple sequence alignments were created using the program MAFFT and the results PD332991 were analyzed and edited using the editor program GeneDoc (copyright by Karl Nicholas). Dendogram of the amino acid sequences of SSB proteins were edited using the editor program Dendroscope [25]. Expression and purification of the TmaSSB and TneSSB The E. coli BL21(DE3)pLysS

strain transformed with pETSSBTma or pETSSBTne was grown at 37°C in 0.5 L LB containing

34 μg/ml kanamycin and 50 μg/ml chloramphenicol to an OD600 of 0.4. Expression was then induced by addition of IPTG to a final concentration of 0.5 mM. After 6 h, the cells were harvested by centrifugation, and suspended in 50 ml buffer A (20 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, 50 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1% Triton X-100). The purification procedure was very similar to the previously published purification scheme for the SSB from calf thymus [26], and that for thermostable SSB proteins [6]. Generally, the cells were disrupted by sonication and the insoluble debris were removed by centrifugation. The supernatant was heat-treated at 80°C Edoxaban for 20 min and denatured mesophilic proteins were discarded by centrifugation. This supernatant was directly loaded on a QAE-cellulose Selleck KU55933 column (50 ml bed volume, Sigma-Aldrich, USA), from which the proteins were eluted with a linear gradient of 0.05-2 M NaCl in buffer B (20 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, 50 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA). The SSB-containing fractions, detected by SDS-PAGE, were combined and loaded on a ssDNA-cellulose column (5 ml, USB, USA). SSB proteins were eluted with gradient of 0.5-1.5 M NaCl and 50% ethylene glycol. The fractions with SSB proteins were collected and dialyzed against buffer B, concentrated using an Amicon Ultra-10 centrifugal filter device (Millipore, USA), and stored at -20°C in buffer C (20 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript “
“Backgr

All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Leptospirosis, the most common zoonotic illness affecting humans, is caused by spirochetes of click here the genus Leptospira[1, 2]. Some Leptospira species live exclusively in water or soil, while others cycle between environmental and mammalian reservoirs. Leptospira can colonize/infect

renal tubules of a wide variety of wild and domesticated mammals. Human disease follows buy Acadesine exposure to water or soil contaminated with urine of infected animals. Leptospirosis can be asymptomatic, or manifest as a mild flu-like illness. In another subset of individuals (5-10 % of patients) Leptospira can produce more serious systemic infections resulting in pulmonary hemorrhage, jaundice, renal failure, refractory shock, myocarditis, and/or aseptic meningitis. Despite its medical importance, few virulence determinants of pathogenic Leptospira have been characterized in any detail.

Investigation of the organism is hampered by its fastidiousness, slow growth in culture and the lack of available genetic tools. To date, only Omp-A like lipoprotein Loa22 has been demonstrated selleck screening library to be necessary for virulence, appearing to be cytotoxic and capable of inducing apoptosis. [3–5] LipL32, a major outer membrane protein of pathogenic Leptospira, is expressed in vivo and, although it has been shown to bind to host extra-cellular membrane, LipL32 does not seem to be required for acute or chronic infection in vivo in animal models. [6, 7] Other potential virulence leptospiral factors include LigA and LigB that contain immunoglobulin-like repeats associated with adhesion to host cells in other gram-negative bacteria. Other proteins shown to have laminin binding activity in-vitro include LenA/LfhA/Lsf24 and related proteins LenBCDEF. LenA seems to also bind factor H of complement, so it might have more than one role in virulence. [8, 9]. Leptospiral LPS, although not characterized in detail, has some unique characteristics ADP ribosylation factor which could explain why

it is poorly recognized by the TLR4- MD2 complex. This diminished recognition could contribute to leptospiral survival in the bloodstream and dissemination. Other potential virulence factors for which more evidence remains to be published include mediators of motility and chemotaxis, including chemotaxis towards hemoglobin [10]. Sialic acids are a diverse family of acidic nine-carbon backbone (nonulosonic) monosaccharides found in abundance on the surfaces of mammalian cells and are sometimes expressed by microbial pathogens. The most common sialic acid in nature is N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac). Expression of Neu5Ac by pathogenic bacteria has been linked mechanistically to complement and neutrophil evasion in disseminated infections with Streptococcus and Neisseria and with the induction of autoimmune neuropathy following infection with Campylobacter.

The majority of patients in this study were young, secondary scho

The majority of patients in this study were young, secondary school students/leavers, unmarried, nulliparous, unemployed and most of them presented late to our centre in poor general condition. Early recognition of the diagnosis, aggressive resuscitation and early institution of surgical management is of paramount importance if morbidity and mortality associated with bowel perforation are to be avoided. Selleckchem Lazertinib Appropriate measures focusing at Selleck BIX 1294 reducing the occurrence of illegally induced abortion are

vital in order to reduce the incidence of bowel perforation following illegally induced abortion in this region. Acknowledgements The authors thank all those who participated in the preparation of this manuscript, and those who were involved in the care of our patients. References 1. Grimes DA, Benson J, Singh S, Romero M, Ganatra B, Okonofua FE, Shah IH: Unsafe abortion: the preventable pandemic. Lancet 2006,368(9550):1908–1919.PubMedCrossRef 2. Tekle H, Kumbi S: Uterine perforation AC220 manufacturer following abortion in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa Ethiopia: a case series study. Ethiop J Repro Health 2007,1(1):17–27. 3. Laguardia KD, Rotholz MV, Belfort P: A 10-year review of maternal mortality in a municipal hospital in Rio de Janeiro: a cause for concern. Obster Gynaecol 1990, 75:186–190. 4. Justesen A, Kapiga SH, van Asten HA: Abortions in a hospital setting: hidden realities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Stud Fam Plann 1992,23(5):325–329.PubMedCrossRef 5.

Bankole A, Singh S, Haas T: Characteristics of women who obtain induced abortion: a worldwide review. Int Fam Plann Perspec 1999,25(2):68–77.CrossRef 6. Kinoti SN, Gaffikin L, Benson J: How research can affect policy and programme advocacy: example from a three-country study on abortion complications in sub-Saharan Africa. East Afr Med J 2004,81(2):63–70.PubMed 7. Kaye DK, Mirembe FM, Bantebya G, Johansson A, Ekstrom AM: Domestic violence as risk factor for unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Trop Med Int Health 2006,11(1):90–101.PubMedCrossRef 8. Sherigar JM, Dalal AD, Patel JR: Uterine

Perforation Oxaprozin with subtotal small bowel prolapse A rare complication of dilatation and curettage. Online J Health Allied Scs 2005, 1:6. 9. Oludiran OO, Okonofua FE: Morbidity and mortality from Bowel Injury secondary to Induced Abortion. Afr J Reprod Health 2003,7(3):65–68.PubMedCrossRef 10. Adesiyun AG, Ameh C: An analysis of surgically managed cases of pelvic abscess complicating unsafe abortion. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2006,18(2):14–16.PubMed 11. Jhobta RS, Attri AK, Jhobta A: Bowel injury following induced abortion. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2007,96(1):24–27.PubMedCrossRef 12. Jain V: Unsafe abortion: a neglected tragedy. Review from a tertiary care hospital in India. J Obstet Gynaecol 2004,30(3):197–201. 13. Naib JM, Siddiqui MI, Afridi B: A review of septic induced abortion cases in one year at Khyber teaching hospital, Peshwar.