According to Teixeira et al (2007), this particular behavior can

According to Teixeira et al. (2007), this particular behavior can be attributed buy GSK2126458 to the fact that sucrose has

a higher number of OH groups than other sugars and, therefore, is more hydrophilic and is a more efficient plasticizing agent. In the second phase of the work, as can be observed in Table 3, an increase of clay and glycerol contents caused a decrease of TS. For each content of clay nanoparticles, an increase of glycerol content from 0.75 g to 1.25 g caused a significant decrease of TS (P < 0.05). The same tendency can be observed for each glycerol content: an increase of clay nanoparticles content decreases significantly the TS of the films (P < 0.05). The regression analysis applied on results, using the response surface methodology, Alectinib cell line indicated that both glycerol (G) and clay nanoparticles (C) content, as well as their interaction, influenced significantly this property and the fitted model, in real values is (r2 = 72%): equation(4) TS=(5.62−1.83×G+21×C−28×G×C)±0.59(0.75≤G≤1.25)(0.00≤C≤0.10)wherein

TS is the tensile strength of films [MPa]; G is the glycerol content [g/100 g of filmogenic solution]; and C is the clay nanoparticles content [g/100 g of filmogenic solution]. As can be observed in Fig. 2(a), higher contents of glycerol and clay yield films with lower TS. For films formulated without clay nanoparticles, the E decreased as glycerol content increased, as Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase expected, confirming the results obtained in the first phase. An opposite effect was observed for films produced with clay nanoparticles, i.e., for each clay content, with increasing glycerol content, E of the films increased. This effect was more pronounced and significant (P < 0.05)

with higher clay nanoparticles content (0.10 g/100 g). ANOVA applied on results of water vapor permeability and oxygen permeability coefficient indicated that the glycerol content influenced significantly these properties (P < 0.05), since a rise in glycerol content caused an increase in both permeabilities ( Table 2). As mentioned earlier, glycerol is a relatively small hydrophilic molecule, which can be entrapped between adjacent polymeric chains, decreasing intermolecular attractions and increasing molecular mobility, facilitating migration of water vapor and oxygen molecules ( Rodríguez, Osés, Ziani, & Maté, 2006). Similar tendencies have been reported for BF based on potato starch (Rodríguez et al., 2006 and Talja et al., 2007), yam starch (Mali, Grossmann, García, Martino, & Zaritzky, 2004), corn starch (Bertuzzi et al., 2007) and cassava starch (Alves et al., 2007 and Chillo et al., 2008). In Table 3, the positive influence caused by the addition of clay nanoparticles on water vapor permeability and oxygen permeability coefficient can be noticed.

Samples were centrifuged at 4 °C, 3000 rpm for 20 min Plasma vas

Samples were centrifuged at 4 °C, 3000 rpm for 20 min. Plasma vasopressin levels were measured by specific radioimmunoassay after previous ABT-737 molecular weight extraction from plasma using acetone and petroleum ether (Glick and Kagan, 1979 and Elias et al., 1997). The recovery rates were greater than 87%. The assay sensitivity and intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 0.9 pg/mL, 4.6 and 18.6%, respectively. All samples from a single

experiment were assayed in duplicate in the same assay. Carbachol (Sigma, St Louis, MO, USA) and CoCl2 (Sigma) were dissolved in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), with the following composition: 100 mM NaCl, 2 mM Na3PO4, 2.5 mM KCl, 1.0 mM MgCl2, 27 mM NaHCO3 and 2.5 mM CaCl2 (pH 7.4). Tribomoethanol (Sigma) and urethane (Sigma) were dissolved in saline (0.9% NaCl). Flunixine meglumine (Banamine®, Schering Plough, Brazil) and poly-antibiotic preparation of streptomycins and penicillins (Pentabiotico®, Fort Dodge, Brazil) were used as provided. On the day of the experiment, animals were transported to the experimental room and were allowed 60 min period to adapt to the experimental room conditions, such as sound and illumination, before starting arterial

Fluorouracil chemical structure pressure and HR recording. The experimental room was acoustically isolated and a constant background noise was generated by an air exhauster to minimize sound interference within the experimental room. This experiment aimed to study the

effect of carbachol microinjection into the BST of unanesthetized rats on plasma vasopressin levels. For this, two different groups of animals received vehicle (aCSF, 100 nL, n = 6) or carbachol (1 nmol/100 nL, n = 6) injected into the BST (Alves et al., 2007). Five minutes after BST treatment, animals were decapitated and blood samples were collected to determine of plasma vasopressin levels. These experiments aimed to study the involvement of the SON in cardiovascular responses to carbachol microinjection into the BST of unanesthetized rats. For this, animals were divided into two groups, ipsilateral and contralateral SON groups. In the ipsilateral SON group, rats had cannulas implanted unilaterally in the BST and in the ipsilateral SON, in relation to BST cannula, and were Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subdivided into vehicle (aCSF, 100 nL, n = 7) and CoCl2 (1 mM/100 nL, n = 7) groups (Busnardo et al., 2007, Crestani et al., 2009a, Crestani et al., 2009b and Scopinho et al., 2008). In the contralateral SON group, rats had cannulas implanted unilaterally in the BST and in the contralateral SON and were subdivided into vehicle (aCSF, 100 nL, n = 6) and CoCl2 (1 mM/100 nL, n = 6) groups (Alves et al., 2007, Busnardo et al., 2007, Crestani et al., 2009a and Crestani et al., 2009b). Carbachol (1 nmol/100 nL) was microinjected into the BST on the first day and again 24 h later, at 10 min after aCSF or CoCl2 microinjection into the SON (Alves et al., 2007).

More research is needed to understand the dietary implications of

More research is needed to understand the dietary implications of prolonged sedentary time, and how these might vary by sex. The Early ACTID intervention did not specifically target sedentary behaviours. However, women in the cohort achieved an average reduction of sedentary time of 24 min/day after 6 months follow-up and furthermore UK-371804 mouse the change in sedentary time was associated with CRP such that for every hour reduction in sedentary time, CRP was reduced by 24%. It has been suggested that improvements in IL-6 and

CRP following lifestyle intervention are dependent upon increases in MVPA [28], or reductions in weight [29]. However, CRP was reduced at 6 months compared to baseline in women, despite no changes in MVPA and the addition of change in MVPA or weight into the regression model PD0332991 research buy did not attenuate the observed associations. This finding further strengthens

the cross-sectional associations between breaks in sedentary time and CRP observed in the NHANES cohort that were independent of time spent in MVPA [14]. The health benefits of MVPA are well documented and for people with type 2 diabetes include beneficial effects on lipid profiles, glucose control and inflammation [9]. However, people with type 2 diabetes commonly exhibit low levels of physical activity and interventions to increase MVPA often fail to achieve levels suggested to confer metabolic benefits [21]. In the current study, sedentary behaviour accounted for over 60% of the participants waking day [21], and plausible physiological mechanisms exist to explain the association between prolonged sedentary time and CRP [30]. The accumulating evidence of the detrimental Interleukin-2 receptor health effects of prolonged sedentary time suggest targeting sedentary time may be an alternative strategy for improving the health of people

with type 2 diabetes. These types of interventions may be particularly beneficial for women, who have a heightened state of inflammation and CVD risk and who may find increasing MVPA more difficult. In conclusion, our data suggest that in women with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, sedentary behaviour can have a harmful effect on markers of inflammation which may be important for future risk of CVD. Inflammatory profiles were improved following 6 months of lifestyle intervention, with a change in sedentary time predictive of a change in CRP for the women only, a finding that warrants further investigation. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce sedentary time should be explored as potential ways to reduce chronic inflammation in women with type 2 diabetes. The incorporation of recommendations for reducing sedentary time into national guidelines would provide further impetus for the development of interventions to reduce sedentary time.

The studies have typically been conducted in individual departmen

The studies have typically been conducted in individual departments, often by implementing single interventions and without any follow-up [4] and [9]. Furthermore, it is unknown if any of these studies

have ever been translated into praxis on a larger scale. It has been suggested that large-scale effectiveness studies should be conducted to include elements that can improve a sustainable adoption and implementation of the intervention [10] and [11]. Studies that also take the complexity of the clinical praxis into account [12]. Even so, it has not been possible to find any large-scale scientific studies meeting these criteria. Based on the experience of implementing a communication skills training course in four different clinical departments at the hospital and on findings from both efficacy [13] and [14] PCI32765 and effectiveness studies [15] and [16] conducted in two of these departments, we were encouraged to provide the course to the entire hospital [17]. A project plan

that included an estimate of the costs for implementing the communication program was prepared and accepted by the managers of the departments and the hospital. The economic estimate showed that a department would spend 1.6 person-years for each 100 staff participating in the course, and that the total operating expenses would be approximately 2 million Danish kroners, corresponding to 270,000 EUR. The estimate was based on the assumption that NVP-BKM120 clinical trial there will be no decrease in production. In this article we describe the communication program, the implementation, and an initial assessment of the process thus far. The program is implemented at Lillebaelt Hospital, a regional hospital consisting of 18 clinical departments and 10 clinical service departments.

The total number of health professionals is approximately 3000. A steering committee is responsible for monitoring, adjusting, and further development of the program and the course administration is carried out by the hospital administration in close cooperation with the research group. The program includes mandatory and continuous BCKDHA communication skills training to all health professionals employed in the clinical departments and to staff in the clinical service departments, who usually has shorter patient contact (radiology staff, medical laboratory assistants, secretaries, and hospital porters). The communication program consists of the following parts: (1) Courses for health professionals employed in clinical departments. (a) Training of the trainers. The training course is the central part of the program. The training course is based on a communication course founded on Albert Bandura’s theory of social learning [18], and on the description of the specific communication skills referenced to the current evidence [19]. The intervention is comprised of three basic elements.

The mean signal intensity drop of 50% was reached 60 minutes afte

The mean signal intensity drop of 50% was reached 60 minutes after bolus injection in the TMJ disc, compared to a nearly 40% drop in meniscal tissue intensity after three hours [32]. Contrast agent kinetics in the TMJ disc seem to be substantially different compared to the fibrocartilage selleck chemicals llc of the menisci. The limitations of this feasibility study are the low number of asymptomatic volunteers included. In order to specify the drop in T1 values more precisely and also recommend time frame for post-contrast agent T1 measurement more precisely, the number of subjects should be higher in future studies. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of measuring contrast agent kinetics in asymptomatic

volunteers to provide a clinical time frame for the best dGEMRIC measurements of the TMJ disc in patients. In contrast to other studies on contrast agent kinetics in cartilage, the volunteers were not instructed to move the mandible for a faster uptake check details of contrast agent. The use of double dose (0.2 mmol/kg) Gadolinium-based contrast agent pose another limitation of our study. According to the updated ESUR Contrast Medium Safety Committee guidelines [35] single dose (0.1 mmol/kg) Gadolinium-based contrast agent should be used. The ESUR

Contrast Medium Safety Committee guidelines pose a regularly updated evidence for reducing the risk of Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), which is associated with the intravenous application of a gadolinium based contrast media during dGEMRIC. The potential long-term problems from retention of small amounts of free gadolinium in the body after procedures enhanced with gadolinium-based contrast media are also considered [35]. In addition, these preliminary results with the three ROI evaluations

within the TMJ disc provided an initial regional analysis of the contrast agent distribution within the disc, and thus, differences in the GAG content in different regions of Resveratrol the normal articular disc. The individual variations, even at time point T130, could be due to individually different functional loading of the TMJ. Biochemical MR may lead to a better understanding of the important biomechanical role of the TMJ, its different pathologies and could, in the long term, be useful in monitoring of the patients after different therapeutic procedures for different TMDs. The preliminary results of our study showed that T1(Gd) maps calculated from 2D inversion recovery and 3D-GRE sequences are feasible for the in vivo assessment of the fibrocartilage disc of the TMJ. Similar to articular cartilage, but unlike preliminary results from the meniscal tissue, there seems to be a plateau for contrast agent uptake, starting 60 minutes after administration. The beginning of this plateau may be considered a suitable time point for dGEMRIC-like T1 mapping of the TMJ disc, even though the 3D gradient echo sequences indicate a statistically significant T1 drop earlier.

There is controversy in discussions about this procedure because

There is controversy in discussions about this procedure because many physicians report that the complication rate is almost the same as without a filter. Fig. S10 (online supplementary file) demonstrates that particles captured in the filter can escape if the closing of the filter occurs during the diastolic phase. It has been demonstrated that it is crucial that the

filter is closed during the systolic phase to prevent this escape. From these experiments the following can be clearly seen: All three velocity components have to be measured. The flow rate ratio between the internal and external carotid artery is the most important and significantly influences the flow separation region. The experiments show that particles in flow separation regions sometimes PARP inhibitor rotate over several pulse cycles before they are washed away. They can, however, suddenly adhere to the wall and remain there. The Selleck NSC 683864 pulse wave is not strong enough to wash these small deposits away. The procedure of plaque formation starts. More particles are attracted to and adhere to this area and the flow rate ratio is altered because of the higher resistance caused by the deposits. This effect continues and the stenosis enlarges. The geometry only plays a significant role in these regions with larger bifurcation angles, >40°, where a backward flow is created. In 3D measurements, the calculated shear stresses are

up to 20% higher than those found when measuring only the axial velocity component. With an increasing flow rate, the separation region is slightly reduced but the shear stresses increase. 10–16 Pa are the highest shear Resveratrol stresses in a healthy carotid artery and are found just at the apex. Shear stresses higher than 180–250 Pa have been measured in models with 90% stenosis for 100–200 ms. Downstream of such stenoses, vortices are created where particles can remain over several pulse cycles. They can also adhere to the wall, creating a growing stenosis. Oscillation

causes shear stresses between 1–40 Pa in such recirculation zones. Biochemical reactions are released. It is very important that stents have to be placed precisely. End threads or wires should never reach into the vessel lumen. Filters have to be closed during the systolic phase, so that no particles escape during the diastolic phase, before they can be pulled out. Experimental studies including MRI, ultrasound measurements and new ultrasound imaging which can measure all three velocity components will be increasingly important in the future to aide in training and refinement of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. “
“Wall shear stress (WSS), the friction force of flowing blood that acts on the endothelial wall, can vary considerably throughout the vascular beds and has shown to be altered at the outlet or at the inner curvature of arteries, respectively. In an animal model, Cheng et al.

05) Low-NBNA scores resulted from low-level prenatal mercury exp

05). Low-NBNA scores resulted from low-level prenatal mercury exposure (seafood consumption) should be further validated in the long-term prospective study. Mercury concentration in hair has been found to be an accurate16 and the most frequently useful indicator of individual mercury exposure in children and adults,

and over a million hair samples were examined in a study in the United States.17 And it also has advantages on convenient Akt tumor sample acquisition and storage for monitoring and field studies.18 In this study, the mean total mercury level in maternal hair was 1.20 μg/g, which was higher than those measured in most other Chinese regions, including Beijing (n = 684; mean = 0.14 μg/g), Changchun (n = 920; mean = 0.18 μg/g), Shanghai (n = 938; mean = 1.15 μg/g), and Hangzhou (n = 500; mean = 1.16 μg/g),19 but PFI-2 ic50 was lower than those in the population of Hong Kong (n = 137; mean = 2.2 μg/g and n = 1057; median = 1.7 μg/g).20 Of

the mothers included in our study, 55.02% had higher hair mercury level than the safe hair mercury criterion set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, <1 μg/g).21 For newborns, cord blood analysis is a reliable method for evaluating the level of mercury exposure.22 In the present study, the mean cord blood mercury level was 7.92 μg/L, which is much lower than those found in other fish-eating populations such as Faroe Islands (mean = 22.9 μg/L) and Tokushima (mean = 24.8 μg/L).23 The American National Research Council performed a benchmark dose (BMD) analysis on a number of endpoints in three longitudinal prospective studies in Seychelles Islands, Faroe Islands, and New Zealand. They recommended a BMD lower confidence limit (95% CI of the benchmark dose) of 58 μg/L mercury in cord blood.24 Based on the analysis by the National Research Council, the EPA set a reference dose of 5.8 μg/L (BMD lower confidence limit and/or uncertainty factor = 5.8 μg/L)

for mercury in cord blood.25 In this study, cord blood mercury concentrations were higher than the reference dose in 271 subjects, accounting for 56.34% of the study population. Furthermore, many epidemiological studies have suggested that fetal mercury exposure at doses as low as 5.8 μg/L Methane monooxygenase may have long-term consequences for neurobehavioral development.8 and 26 Maternal blood mercury concentration was also an important biomarker for fetal mercury exposure. The maternal biomarker was initially used to reflect mercury exposure to the mother herself. A strong correlation was found between maternal blood and cord blood mercury levels. However, there was certain variability between the maternal and fetal mercury levels. This study revealed that individual cord and/or maternal blood mercury ratios varied between 0.85 and 22.36 in the 418 mother-neonates pairs and revealed individual differences in mercury concentrations between maternal and fetal circulations during late gestation.

3), it can be stated that weekly flow series of the Canadian rive

3), it can be stated that weekly flow series of the Canadian rivers under question obey the

two-parameter Gamma pdf. The underlying dependence structure of weekly flow series was investigated through week-by-week standardization resulting into weekly SHI sequences. The weekly SHI sequences were subjected to autocorrelation analysis to uncover the presence of Markovian or other higher order dependence. The values of ρ1 ( Table 2) in all rivers are large thus suggesting a strong dependence in successive occurrences of flows. To discern the underlying dependence structure, the values of autocorrelations PD0332991 cell line at lag-1 (ρ1) and lag-2 (ρ2) in weekly SHI sequences ( Table 2) were used to estimate the parameters by fitting ARMA class of models ( Box and Jenkins, FRAX597 concentration 1976). The ARMA models tended to fit AR-1 (autoregressive order-1), AR-2, and ARMA (1,1) dependence structures suggesting dependence terms extending up to the second, and even higher orders in some cases ( Table 2). After fitting the potential models as stated above to the weekly SHI sequences, the autocorrelation function of the residuals was also computed. The Portmanteau statistic based on first 25 autocorrelations

of the residuals formed the basis for suggesting the suitable structure of the model ( Table 2, last column). In particular, rivers in northern Ontario showed dependence structure beyond AR-2, which is comprehensible in view of the significant storage effects caused by the presence of a large number of lakes in watersheds of this region. In a nutshell and as a first approximation of dependence in successive weekly flows, it would be prudent to regard such a dependence to influence flows up to 2 weeks and hence the prediction model for drought length on weekly time scale should be capable to embed the second order dependence. The Markov Chain-2 offers such a capability and thus it should be considered suitable for modeling drought lengths on weekly time scale. The extreme number theorem was used for the prediction of E(LT) using SHI sequences of appropriate time scale. Succinctly, the extreme number theorem culminates in PIK3C2G the following equations

for the prediction of E(LT) ( Sen, 1980a) equation(1) P(LT=j)=exp[−T q (1−r) rj−1][exp T q 2(1−r) rj−1−1]P(LT=j)=exp[−T q (1−r) rj−1][exp T q (1−r)2 rj−1−1] equation(2) E(LT)=∑j=1∞j P(LT=j) where j stands for length of the drought duration and takes on values 1, 2, 3,… up to infinity, q stands for the probability of drought at the given truncation level, say z0 and T is the time equivalent to the sample size of the data involved in the drought analysis. The value of r (first order conditional probability) representing dependence characteristics of a drought is related to ρ1 as shown by Sen (1977) through the following relationship equation(3) r=q+12πq∫0ρ1[exp−z02/(1+ν)](1−ν2)−0.5dνwhere v is a dummy variable for integration. The integral in Eq.

The mechanism of uncompetitive inhibition was determined at the i

The mechanism of uncompetitive inhibition was determined at the intersection of the Cornish–Bowden plot occurring in the second quadrant and the intersection of the Dixon plot occurring at y = −∞(Ki>>>Ki′). Fisetin (3,3′,4′,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) was four times more potent than

quercetin (3,3′,4′,5–7-pentahydroxyflavone), which indicates that the hydroxyl at position 5 may not be necessary to inhibit arginase. Moreover, quercetin, which has a hydroxyl at position 3, is twice as potent as luteolin (3′,4′,5–7-tetrahydroxyflavone). Direct comparison of fisetin with luteolin indicates that the hydroxyl at position 3 of fisetin provides HSP inhibitor an inhibition ten times greater than that when the hydroxyl is at position 5 in luteolin. Surprisingly, tetrahydroxyflavone fisetin was expected to have the optimal number and a better distribution of hydroxyls, but we found that 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (IC50 = 12 μM) presented an IC50 close to the IC50 of luteolin (tetrahydroxyflavone). A key feature of the inhibitors is the presence of the catechol group because, in its absence, the compounds apigenin, vitexin and isovitexin displayed no significant inhibition. A comparative analysis of quercetin and structurally related compunds (kaempferol and galangin) showed that the catechol group is more important for inhibition than are the phenol AZD5363 and

benzyl groups. The 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, in which the aromatic ring has no hydroxyls, contrasts with the other inhibitors. The hydroxyl at position 8 exhibited ten times the inhibition of galangin (benzyl group) and five times the inhibition of kaempferol (phenol

group). The optimum docking protocol was constructed with flexibility in the enzyme binding pocket (‘induced fit’). Each compound was docked with softened potentials (steric, hydrogen bonding, and electrostatic forces) and, at this point, the enzyme residues were kept rigid at their default conformation. Then, all residue sidechains that were close enough to the compound to interact with it were Exoribonuclease energy-minimized. The final step was the energy minimization of the compounds. The docking scores of the interactions between the arginase from L. amazonensis and the target compounds, as well as the hydrogen bonding, steric, and van der Waals energy contributions and the number of possible atom–atom free torsions, are shown in Table 2. Fig. 2A shows the solvent-accessible surface of arginase from L. amazonensis, including the docked compounds in the binding pocket. A close up of the docking interaction with the enzyme is shown in Fig. 2B and C. Fig. 3 shows a 2D-representation of the flavonoid-enzyme interactions ( Schomburg, Ehrlich, Stierand, & Rarey, 2010). The intermolecular hydrogen bonds are shown as black dashed lines in both Fig. 2B and Fig. 3.

e would explain the overall lower concentration of anthocyanins

e. would explain the overall lower concentration of anthocyanins per head. Consistently, it has been established Sorafenib molecular weight that inner leaves of lettuce heads have lower concentrations of flavonols than outer leaves- not due to a lack of competence but due to lower incident radiation intensity compared to the situation with outer leaves (Hohl, Neubert, Pforte, Schonhof, & Böhm, 2001). The observation that there was no significant difference anymore between mature heads of warm- and cool-cultivated plants (Fig. 3 and Table 1) may indicate an acclimation of the all the time cool-cultivated plants to the lower temperature.

In these plants the light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna may have been down-scaled and the chlorophyll a/b ratio altered (Havaux & Kloppstech, 2001). Thereby, again, the amount of energy captured and funnelled into the electron transport chain would be reduced and no anthocyanin accumulation would be necessary to encounter an enhanced oxidative load. Regarding quercetin-3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide/luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, and quercetin-3-O-glucoside concentration, there were no significant

differences between small heads that were cultivated either cool or warm ( Fig. 3 and Table 1). Furthermore, there were no significant differences concerning these compounds between mature heads cultivated in different temperature regimes ( Fig. 3 and Adenosine triphosphate Table 1). If we compare warm- and cool-cultivated Selleckchem TSA HDAC plants after the same number of days, we detect significantly higher

concentrations of quercetin-3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-glucuronide/luteolin-7-O-glucuronide ( Table 2 and Fig. 3). However, the data of Romani et al. (2002) suggest a higher concentration of quercetin glycosides in early growth stage-lettuce compared to later stages. In Section 3.2 we demonstrated that warm- and cool-cultivated plants in our experiment were in different growth stages after 26 days of treatment. Hence, we conclude that the higher concentrations in the cool-cultivated plants were rather due to their growth stages than to the temperature treatment. This is in line with results Løvdal et al. (2010) obtained on leaves of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum): Quercetin glycosides were accumulated in response to increasing light intensity and nitrogen depletion rather than to lowered temperature alone. Indeed, quercetin glycoside concentration in red leaf lettuce does respond sensitively to radiation intensity ( Becker et al., 2013). In our experiment, we closely monitored the macro nutrients in the nutrient solution to ensure they are sufficient and the PPFD we applied was constant (247 μmol m−2 s−1). The lowest temperature in our experiment (7 °C) was applied outside of the photoperiod and it, therefore, did not concur with radiation.