N Y : Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 1989 58 Shi W, Zusm

N. Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 1989. 58. Shi W, Zusman DR: The two motility systems

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Authors’ contributions PLH conceived the general outline of the experiments. SAF, NSB and PLH participated in planning and executing all molecular constructs and performed the assays. SAF performed the Immunofluorescence. SAF and PLH crafted the manuscript and constructed find more figures and movies. All authors have read and Mirabegron approved the final manuscript.”
“Background The physiological activities of bacteria growing in biofilms are difficult to divine, because these activities are diverse, change with time as the biofilm develops, and are subject to extreme micro scale spatial heterogeneity [1]. It is also

clear that the metabolism and activities of a particular biofilm will be shaped by the specific chemical and physical environment in which it grows. These realities make it difficult to develop a consensus picture of the physiology of the biofilm state as there is so little overlap in the lists of genes differentially expressed between the planktonic and biofilm states of Pseudomonas aeruginosa prepared by different experimenters [2–7]. However, there are biofilm physiological traits, such as antimicrobial tolerance [8] and reduced growth rate [1], for which there is considerable consensus. These robust phenotypes, with their functional and evolutionary importance, should have discernable biochemical and genetic bases. We sought to understand these phenotypes with an unconventional interpretation of transcriptional profiling studies. Conventional interpretations of transcriptional profiling studies compare two paired data sets that differ in a single controlled variable (e.g., iron concentration, quorum sensing signal molecule addition).

Jpn J Appl Phys 2002, 41:528–532 CrossRef 5 Momose K,

Jpn J Appl Phys 2002, 41:528–532.CrossRef 5. Momose K, Staurosporine Yonezu H, Fujimoto Y, Furukawa Y, Motomura Y, Aiki K: Dislocation-free and lattice-matched Si/GaP 1-x N x /Si structure for photo-electronic integrated systems. Appl Phys Lett 2001, 79:4151–4153.CrossRef 6. Fujimoto Y, Yonezu H, Utsumi A, Momose K, Furukawa Y: Dislocation-free GaAs y P 1-x-y N x /GaP 0.98 N 0.02 quantum-well structure lattice matched to a Si substrate. Appl Phys Lett

2001, 79:1306–1308.CrossRef 7. Thinh NQ, Vorona IP, Buyanova IA, Chen JAK inhibitor WM, Limpijumnong S, Zhang SB, Hong YG, Xin HP, Tu CW, Utsumi A, Furukawa Y, Moon S, Wakahara A, Yonezu H: Properties of Ga-interstitial defects in Al x Ga 1− x N y P 1− y Phys Rev B 2005, 71:125209.CrossRef 8. Buyanova IA, Chen WM, Tu CW: Recombination processes in N-containing III–V ternary alloys. Solid State Electron 2003, 47:467–475.CrossRef 9. Duan X, Huang Y, Cui Y, Wang J, Lieber CM: Indium phosphide nanowires as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. Nature 2001, 409:66–69.CrossRef 10. Gudiksen MS, Lauhon LJ, Wang J, Smith DC, Lieber CM: Growth of nanowire superlattice structures for nanoscale photonics

and electronics. Nature 2002, 15:617–620.CrossRef 11. Mårtensson T, Svensson CPT, Wacaser BA, Larsson MW, Seifert W, Deppert K, Gustafsson A, Wallenberg LR, Samuelson L: Epitaxial III−V nanowires on silicon. Nano Lett 2004, 4:1987–1990.CrossRef 12. Kuang YJ, Sukrittanon S, Li H, Tu CW: Growth and photoluminescence of self-catalyzed GaP/GaNP core/shell nanowires on Si(111) by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. Appl Phys Lett 2012, 100:053108.CrossRef Trichostatin A research buy 13. Dobrovolsky A, Stehr JE, Chen SL, Kuang YJ, Sukrittanon S, Tu CW, Chen WM, Buyanova IA: Mechanism for radiative recombination and defect properties of GaP/GaNP core/shell nanowires. Appl Phys Lett 2012, 101:163106.CrossRef 14. Dean PJ, Thomas DG, Frosch CJ: New isoelectronic

trap luminescence in gallium phosphide. J Phys C: Solid State Phys 1984, 17:747–762.CrossRef Mirabegron 15. Rudko GY, Buyanova IA, Chen WM, Xin HP, Tu CW: Temperature dependence of the GaNxP1−x band gap and effect of band crossover. Appl Phys Lett 2002, 81:2984–2987.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions AD carried out the experiments and analyzed the data with guidance from IAB and WMC. YK and SS performed the growth of the NWs with guidance from CWT. IAB wrote the final version of the manuscript with contributions from the co-authors. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Recently, hybrid composites have attracted large attention and have received increasing interest in various fields [1–4]. Researchers with different mixtures have been tried out, such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with carbon black [1], few layer graphene with single-walled carbon nanotubes [2], and MWCNTs with graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) [3]. Kumar et al.

J Immunol 2002,168(2):846–852 PubMed 13 Degrandi D, Hoffmann R,

J Immunol 2002,168(2):846–852.PubMed 13. Degrandi D, Hoffmann R, Beuter-Gunia C, Pfeffer K: The proinflammatory cytokine-induced IRG1 protein associates with mitochondria. J Interferon Cytokine Res 2009,29(1):55–67.PubMedCrossRef 14. Pessler F, Mayer CT, Jung SM, Behrens EM, Dai L, Menetski JP, Schumacher HR: Identification of novel monosodium urate crystal

click here regulated mRNAs by transcript profiling of dissected murine air pouch membranes. Arthritis Res Ther 2008,10(3):R64.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 15. Samuel CE: Antiviral actions of interferon: interferon-regulated cellular proteins and their surprisingly selective antiviral activities. Virology 1991,183(1):1–11.PubMedCrossRef

16. Cebulla CM, Miller DM, Sedmak DD: Viral inhibition of interferon signal transduction. Intervirology 1999,42(5–6):325–330.PubMedCrossRef 17. Lind K, Richardson SJ, Leete P, Morgan NG, Korsgren O, Flodstrom-Tullberg M: Induction of an antiviral state and attenuated coxsackievirus replication in type III interferon-treated primary human pancreatic islets. J Virol 2013,87(13):7646–7654.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 18. Staeheli P, Grob R, Meier E, Sutcliffe JG, Haller O: Influenza virus-susceptible mice carry Mx genes with a large CX-5461 cost deletion or a nonsense mutation. Mol Cell Biol 1988,8(10):4518–4523.PubMedCentralPubMed 19. Terui K, Haga S, Enosawa S, Ohnuma N, Ozaki M: Hypoxia/re-oxygenation-induced, redox-dependent activation of STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1) confers resistance to apoptotic cell death via hsp70 induction. Biochem J 2004,380(Pt 1):203–209.PubMedCrossRef 20. Dudley AC, Thomas D, Best

J, Jenkins A: The STATs in cell Protein kinase N1 stress-type responses. Cell Commun Signal 2004,2(1):8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions MP experimental design, animal work, laboratory analyses, graphics, data analysis, preparation of manuscript. MT experimental design, laboratory and data analyses, preparation of manuscript. FK data analysis. KS experimental design, preparation of manuscript. FP experimental design, preparation of the manuscript, supervision of the study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is an important intestinal pathogen of man and animals [1]. It normally invades the host in the HSP inhibitor drugs intestine leading to a self-limiting gastro-enteritis [2], but it may also cause a systemic disease in which it resides inside professional phagocytic cells [3]. In mice it causes a Typhoid-like disease, and in this model the contribution of many genes to disease is well-characterized [4].

F) Photo micrograph of skin tissue of nasal mucosa of mice receiv

F) Photo micrograph of skin tissue of nasal mucosa of mice receiving combined therapy (group 5) with nearly normal skin (H and E 100X). Discussion Mupirocin is considered as the best topical antibiotic available for gram positive bacteria [23,24] and has been applied for nasal decolonisation since eFT508 mouse 1980s. However, emergence of bacterial resistance to mupirocin is fast rising leading to treatment failures and relapses [25-28]. In this study protection afforded by phage was therefore compared with mupirocin treatment. In addition, the additive effect if any, of the two agents as combination therapy in reducing/eliminating MRSA colonisation

was also evaluated. The first step in the colonisation by S. aureus is adherence to nasal epithelial

cells and mucous membrane via bacterial cell surface moieties such as fibronectin binding protein, teichoic acid and adhesins [29-35]. In this study, the adherence and invasion pattern of MRSA 43300 on nasal cells was evaluated. Cultured murine nasal epithelial cells were used as substrates for studying the bacterial adherence. MRSA 43300 showed high adherence of 58.6 ± 7.01 and 73.77 ± 7.8% when added at a multiplicity of 1:1 and 10:1. The results confirmed the colonising ability of S. aureus MRSA 43300 onto GS-1101 datasheet the mouse nasal epithelium and its ability to survive in such cells for longer time. Additional five clinical MRSA isolates tested for their adherence ability also showed high adherence to murine nasal cells ranging from 62% to 75%. S. aureus has the ability to invade the epithelial and endothelial cells, osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and human embryonic kidney cell lines [36-41]. These intracellular reservoirs of S. aureus possibly protect the bacteria from extracellular host defense mechanisms and antimicrobial treatment instilled for their elimination. This intracellular PAK5 residency is now considered as one of the reasons of possible long term nasal carriage and persistence seen among chronic nasal carriers [40,42]. Invasion of the epithelium by S. aureus and intracellular localisation of bacteria in the nasal epithelial

cells in vitro has been demonstrated by Sachse et al. [43]. The presence of heavily infected foci of intracellular S. aureus in nasal epithelium cells was demonstrated by inverted confocal laser scan fluorescence and electron microscopy [44]. This was the first in vivo evidence of existence of internalized S. aureus in nasal carriers. The invasion of S. aureus is primarily promoted by fibronectin-binding proteins and integrin-mediated invasion of S. aureus into RXDX-101 mw nonprofessional phagocytes has also been demonstrated [36-39,45-48]. The ability of MRSA 43300 to invade the nasal epithelial cells in this study is supported by the fact that S. aureus ATCC 43300 posesses the fnbB gene which mediates invasion and thus 30% of the adhered population invaded the nasal epithelial cells.

The present study sheds light on the novel role of JMJD2A in brea

The present study sheds light on the novel role of JMJD2A in breast cancer. However, our results were based on a single cell line. Further researches to determine the differential expression of JMJD2A between normal and cancer breast tissue and the mechanism of JMJD2A in breast cancer are

required. Acknowledgements The work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China (No. 81172897 and No. 81072512). References 1. Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D: Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin CA Cancer J Clin 2011, 61:69–90.CrossRef 2. Sen GL, Blau HM: A brief history of RNAi: the silence see more of the genes. FASEB J 2006, 20:1293–1299.PubMedCrossRef 3. Katoh M, Katoh M: Identification and characterization

of JMJD2 family genes in silico. Int J Oncol 2004, 24:1623–1628.PubMed 4. Trojer P, Reinberg D: Histone lysine demethylases and their impact on epigenetics. Cell 2006, 125:213–217.PubMedCrossRef 5. Whetstine JR, Nottke A, Lan F, Huarte M, Smolikov S, Chen Z, Spooner E, Li E, Zhang G, Colaiacovo M, Shi Y: Ilomastat supplier Reversal of Histone Lysine Trimethylation by the JMJD2 Family of Histone Demethylases. Cell 2006, 125:467–481.PubMedCrossRef 6. Nottke A, Colaiácovo MP, Shi Y: Developmental roles of the histone Talazoparib lysine demethylases. Development 2009, 136:879–889.PubMedCrossRef 7. Gray SG, Iglesias AH, Lizcano F, Villanueva R, Camelo S, Jingu H, Teh BT, Koibuchi N, Chin WW, Kokkotou E, Dangond F: Functional Characterization of JMJD2A, a Histone Deacetylase- and Retinoblastoma-binding Protein. J Biol Chem 2005, O-methylated flavonoid 280:28507–28518.PubMedCrossRef 8. Shin S, Janknecht R: Activation of androgen receptor by histone demethylases JMJD2A and JMJD2D. Biochem Biophys Res

Commun 2007, 359:742–746.PubMedCrossRef 9. Zhang XD, Wang Y, Wang Y, Zhang X, Han R, Wu JC, Liang ZQ, Gu ZL, Han F, Fukunaga K, Qin ZH: p53 mediates mitochondria dysfunction-triggered autophagy activation and cell death in rat striatum. Autophagy 2009, 5:339–350.PubMedCrossRef 10. Luo CL, Li BX, Li QQ, Chen XP, Sun YX, Bao HJ, Dai DK, Shen YW, Xu HF, Ni H, Wan L, Qin ZH, Tao LY, Zhao ZQ: Autophagy is involved in traumatic brain injury-induced cell death and contributes to functional outcome deficits in mice. Neuroscience 2011, 184:54–63.PubMedCrossRef 11. Dai HY, Liu L, Qin SK, He XM, Li SY: Lobaplatin suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in the human colorectal carcinoma cell Line LOVO in vitro. Biomed Pharmacother 2011, 65:137–141.PubMedCrossRef 12. Li L, Zhang C, Li X, Lu S, Zhou Y: The candidate tumor suppressor gene ECRG4 inhibits cancer cells migration and invasion in esophageal carcinoma. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2010, 29:133.PubMedCrossRef 13. Jovanovic J, Rønneberg JA, Tost J, Kristensen V: The epigenetics of breast cancer. Mol Oncol 2010, 4:242–254.PubMedCrossRef 14. Martin C, Zhang Y: The diverse functions of histone lysine methylation. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2005, 6:838–849.PubMedCrossRef 15.

The diversity

of LAB has been characterized in other type

The diversity

of LAB has been characterized in other types of fermentation processes. In the United States, the fermentation process uses corn starch or fiber hydrolysates as substrate for fermentation. In this process, L. acidophilus, L. agilis, L. amylovorus, L. brevis, L. casei, L. hilgardii, L. fermentum, L. plantarum and W. paramesenteroides are commonly found [6, 7]. The bacterial diversity was also analyzed in ethanol fermentation processes in Vietnam [12]. L. brevis, L. plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella confusa and W. paramesenteroides were the most frequently found LAB. Moreover, acetic acid bacteria Proteasome inhibitor (Acetobacter orientalis and A. pasteurianus), amylase-producing bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, B. circulans, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. sporothermodurans) and some plant pathogen bacteria (Burkholderia ubonensis, Ralstonia solanacearum and Pelomonas puraquae) were also reported. The species Lactobacillus vini was observed in association with the growth of the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis in a Swedish bioethanol refinery [13]. This process passed by a period

of decrease in fermentation before stabilization. The present study also found a high abundance of Dekkera bruxellensis (107 CFUs/mL), possibly indicating an association between this yeast and LAB. Effects of LAB on Sacharomyces cerevisiae viability were reported by the inoculation of L. fermentum and L. delbrueckii others in wheat mash batch fermentation [14]. Lactobacillus Selleckchem Momelotinib paracasei was reported to affect yeast viability when lactic acid concentration in the process exceeded 8 g/L [15]. This effect is more

pronounced when in combination with acetic acid [16]. Induction of yeast flocculation has been associated with some L. fermentum strains in synergy with the presence of calcium, which leads to loss of yeast viability [17]. Decrease of yeast cell viability was also induced by inactivated cells of L. fermentum, suggesting that bacterial metabolites can interfere in the yeast population [18]. Strains of L. plantarum, L. fructivorans, L. fructosus and L. buchneri were also able to induce yeast flocculation depending on the cell density [19, 20]. Experiments performed at laboratory scale simulating the contamination with L. fermentum showed that viability of the yeast cells, sugar consumption and ethanol yield were NVP-BGJ398 datasheet severely affected when acetic acid was higher than 4.8 g/L [10]. In the present work observations such as the microbiota alterations throughout the process, the presence of distinct populations of L. vini and L. fermentum, and the co-ocurrence of high numbers of D. bruxellensis and L. vini indicate a complex microbial ecology in the bioethanol process.

Jul 1907 (S, type as Metasphaeria sepalorum Vleugel) Notes Morp

Jul. 1907 (S, type as Metasphaeria sepalorum Vleugel). Notes Morphology Bricookea was formally established by Barr (1982a) as a monotypic genus represented by B. sepalorum this website based on its “globose to depressed ascomata, slit-like ostiole with labial cells, bitunicate asci, cellular pseudoparaphyses, and hyaline septate ascospores”. Bricookea was morphologically assigned to Phaeosphaeriaceae. Holm (1957) checked the authentic collections from North America and type material from Europe, and observed that the ascospores of collections from North America were significantly larger than those from the type material from Sweden. Thus, Shoemaker

and Babcock (1989a) considered that the collections from North America represented a new species, which they introduced as B. barrae Kinase Inhibitor Library concentration Shoemaker & C.E. Babc. Although the

short slit-like ostiole has previously been reported (Shoemaker and Babcock 1989a), it is inconspicuous in the type specimen from Sweden. Currently, only two selleck chemical species are accommodated in this genus. Phylogenetic study None. Concluding remarks The knob-shaped pedicel, slit-like ostiole, hyaline ascospores as well as the herbaceous substrate all disagree with any current pleosporalean family. Thus, we temporarily retain this genus under Phaeosphaeriaceae until DNA sequence comparisons can be carried out. Byssolophis Clem., in Clements & Shear, Gen. fung., Edn 2 (Minneapolis): 286 (1931). (Pleosporales, genera incertae sedis) Generic description Habitat terrestrial, saprobic. Ascomata medium-sized, gregarious, semi-immersed to erumpent, coriaceous, ovoid, with a conspicuous elongate slit-like ostiole on the top. Peridium not observed. Hamathecium of dense, long pseudoparaphyses, anastomosing and branching between and above the asci. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindrical or cylindro-clavate, with a furcate pedicel. Ascospores fusoid, hyaline, turning faintly brown when old, 1-septate,

with a short terminal appendage at each end. Anamorphs old reported for genus: none. Literature: Clements and Shear 1931; Holm 1986; Müller and von Arx 1962. Type species Byssolophis byssiseda (Flageolet & Chenant.) Clem., Gen. Fung. (Minneapolis): 286 (1931). (Fig. 16) Fig. 16 Byssolophis byssiseda (from K(M):164030, isotype). a Ascomata gregarious on the host surface. b Numerous pseudoparaphyses. c Fusoid ascospores with or without terminal appendages. d Clavate ascus with a short furcate pedicel. Scale bars: a = 1 mm, b–d = 10 μm ≡ Schizostoma byssisedum Flageolet & Chenant., in Chenantaise, Bull. Soc. mycol. Fr. 35: 125 (1919). Ascomata 300–450 μm high × 600–750 μm long × 350–420 μm broad, gregarious, semi-immersed to erumpent, coriaceous, ovoid with a flattened base and apex with a elongate slit-like ostiole, up to 700 μm long and 200 μm wide (Fig. 16a). Peridium not observed. Hamathecium of dense, long pseudoparaphyses, up to 1.5–2.5 μm broad, anastomosing and branching between and above the asci (Fig. 16b). Asci 80–105 × (5-)7.

In a review of the literature

In a review of the literature concerning the efficacy of commercially available CE, Coombes and Hamilton [20] noted that studies supporting the use of CE for improved performance during prolonged endurance exercise frequently included participants exercising after a 12-h fast. Similar conditions were found for the majority of the ~ 1–h duration studies www.selleckchem.com/products/ipi-145-ink1197.html cited above in which positive results were found for carbohydrate beverages [2, 4–9, 11–15, 17]. Of the 17 studies reviewed in this current paper, five [3, 6, 10, 16, 18] reported a benefit of CE use for subjects who were not fasted prior to exercise, and 1 of those investigations only included 5 moderately trained participants

[10]. Cyclists [21] and runners [22] who were fed before exercise failed to

show improved performance during 1-h time trials when consuming CE as compared to a sweetened placebo during exercise. Ingesting carbohydrate-rich gels with water before and during runs lasting 75 min also has also not proven CH5183284 effective in improving performance of fed runners [23]. Similarly, the ergogenic effect of a carbohydrate mouth rinse reported in the studies mentioned above has not been confirmed in fed runners [24] or cyclists [25]. Conflicting results and few investigations in which a pre-exercise meal was consumed make it difficult to extrapolate results to individuals who are fed prior to exercise. Given the preceding discussion, it remains unknown whether CE improves performance in recreational Proteasome purification exercise bouts lasting ~ 1 h. Non-caloric electrolyte beverages (NCE), similar to the placebos prepared and used in the investigations cited above, may be an appealing alternative to water for exercisers concerned with caloric intake but who prefer flavored beverages over water, potentially increasing fluid intake during and after exercise [26]. However, it is unclear whether a NCE is as efficacious as a CE in improving or maintaining performance in recreational exercise bouts lasting ~ 1 h. Therefore, the purpose crotamiton of this study was to determine if recreational exercisers, while in a post-prandial

state, would; a) exhibit improved performance in exercise lasting ~ 1 h in duration, b) perceive exercise as less difficult, or c) report lower levels of fatigue, when consuming a CE during exercise compared to a NCE or water (W). It was hypothesized that there would be no differences in performance, mood, or rate of perceived exertion among beverages. Methods Participants Men (n = 23) and women (n = 13) ages 19–30 who reported participating in a minimum of 150 but no more than 450 min of aerobic exercise per week for the previous 3 months volunteered to participate in this study. Thirteen of the thirty-six participants reported that they engaged in indoor or outdoor cycling (2.3 ± 1.4 times per week).

The GI included putative phage integrase genes (HPF16_0475

The GI included putative phage integrase genes (HPF16_0475 TPCA-1 ic50 and HPF16_0476) that suggest the mobility of this region, and a DNA primase gene (HPF16_0468). The gene (HPF16_0469) next to the DNA primase gene had weak sequence similarity to a putative phage helicase gene (ORF35 of bacteriophage phi3626, e-value 5e-5 by TBLASTN against phage nucleotide Selleck Small molecule library database), which can be assumed to be the primase-helicase system found in several bacteriophages such as T3, T4, T7 and P4 [50]. Recently, a partial Hac II prophage region was reported for another H. pylori strain [51]. The other four GIs in the other three strains had sequence similarity to TnPZs [48]. One GI in F57 was entirely homologous

to the type 1 TnPZ inserted into the coding region for a DNA methyltransferase Sapanisertib clinical trial with 8-bp target duplication (5′ ACATTCTT) (Figure 6B). The GI in F32 appeared to have been deleted by a

type 2 TnPZ (Figure 7B). Among the Korean strains, a Type 2 TnPZ was observed only in strain 51. The plasmid in F32 (pHPF32) was similar in sequence to known theta replication plasmids with a RepB family (Rep_3 superfamily) replication protein and R3 iterons [52–54]. The plasmid in F30 (pHPF30) was similar to a group of previously characterized H. pylori plasmids such as pHel4 in H. pylori [52, 55]. This carries genes for microcin (7-aa peptide; MKLSYRN), MccB (microcin C7 biosynthesis protein), MccC (microcin C7 secretion protein), MobBCD (for plasmid mobilization), a replication initiator protein, and two relaxases. When compared to other related plasmids, a substitution in mobB and a deletion covering several small ORFs were seen.

Homologous plasmids are found in G27 (pHPG27 [56]), P12 (HPP12 [49]), and v225d [22]. HPAG1 [30], B8 [57], PeCan4 and Sat464 carry a similar plasmid without the MccBC genes. Insertion sequences (ISs) were searched for in the Japanese strains using GIB-IS [58]. An apparently intact known IS was detected in two strains: IS607 in F16; IS605 in F32. Divergence of genes between the East Asian (hspEAsia) and the European (hpEurope) strains We systematically examined the amino acid-based phylogenetic trees of GNA12 the orthologous genes (gene families) common to the six hspEAsia genomes and the seven hpEurope genomes. Trees of 687 OGs were selected with genes of the hspEAsia strains forming a sub tree with no genes of the hpEurope strains and vice versa. Each of the orthologs was plotted according to two distance parameters: d a for the hspEAsia-hpEurope divergence and d b for intra-hspEAsia divergence (Figure 8A). An hspEAsia-hpEurope divergence greater than twice that of the well-defined core tree (d a *) was seen in 47 gene families (Table 5 and 6; genes of those orthologs in each strain are listed in Additional file 5 (= Table S4)). These genes were further divided by the intra-hspEAsia divergence (d b ) into zone 1 (lowest divergence), zone 2 (average divergence) and zone 3 (highest divergence) (Figure 8B).

J Med Chem 2008,51(2):219–237 CrossRefPubMed

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