[Conclusion] The study suggests that subjects’ ability to descend

[Conclusion] The study suggests that subjects’ ability to descend stairs is lessened with the addition of the concurrent secondary attention-demanding task, and that the addition of divided attention

tasks places an apparently higher demand on balance control that may prove to be challenging for subjects at high risk of falling.”
“The 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 post-pandemic influenza outbreaks were characterized by variability in the A(H3N2) influenza viruses, resulting in low to moderate vaccine effectiveness (VE). The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular evolution and vaccine strain match of the A(H3N2) influenza viruses, having been circulated throughout the population of the French Corsica RG-7112 ic126 Island in 2011-2012 and again in 2012-2013. Clinical

samples from 31 patients with confirmed A(H3N2) influenza viruses were collected by general practitioners (GPs) over these two consecutive seasons. An analysis of genetic distance and antigenic drift was conducted. Based on a hemagglutinin (HA) aminoacid sequence analysis, the Corsican A(H3N2) viruses fell into the A/Victoria/208/2009 genetic clade, group 3. All influenza viruses were characterized by at least four fixed amino acid mutations which were: N145S (epitope A); Q156H and V186G (epitope B) Y219S (epitope D), with respect to the A/Perth/16/2009 (reference vaccine find more strain for the 2011-2012) and the A/Victoria/361/2011 (reference vaccine strain for the 2012-2013). Using the p(epitope) model, the percentages of the perfect match VE estimated against circulated strains declined within and between seasons, with estimations of smaller than 50%. Overall, these results seem to indicate an antigenic drift of the A(H3N2) influenza

viruses which were this website circulated in Corsica. These findings highlight the importance of the continuous and careful surveillance of genetic changes in the HA domain during seasonal influenza epidemics, in order to provide information on newly emerging genetic variants. J. Med. Virol. 86:585-591, 2014. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“The aim of the present study was to characterize traumatic deaths of major trauma patients occurring in a university trauma centre and to assess retrospectively the quality of given care by evaluating whether any of the deaths could be identified as potentially preventable. All consecutive deaths of trauma patients between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2008 in the Toolo Hospital Trauma Centre were retrospectively reviewed. The inclusion criterion was death of a trauma patient occurring during stay at hospital.

“Anaplasmosis in animals is caused by Anaplasma spp inclu

“Anaplasmosis in animals is caused by Anaplasma spp. including A. phagocytophilum, NSC23766 nmr A. marginale, A. centrale, A. ovis, and A. bovis, which are obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogens transmitted by ticks. Infection in animals is considered an important constraint on livestock production. In Korea, the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. has been investigated in several species, including cattle, dogs, and rodents,

but there are no available data on anaplasmosis in goats. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of Anaplasma spp. in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae) using a commercial competitive ELISA which specifically detects antibodies against A. marginale, A. centrale, and A. ovis. A total of 36 (6.6%) of 544 goat serum samples tested seropositive for Anaplasma spp. With regard to age, 4.9% (7/144), 9.5% (27/283), and 1.7% (2/117) of samples tested seropositive in the young ( smaller than 1 year), adult ( bigger than = 1 year), and unknown age groups, respectively, with significant differences among groups (P smaller than 0.05). The seroprevalence by region was 1.7% (2/121), 2.6% (2/77), and 9.2% (32/346) in the northern, central, and southern regions, respectively, with significant differences among regions (P smaller than 0.05). With regard to the season of sample collection, 3.3% (4/122) and 7.6% (32/422) Cell Cycle inhibitor samples tested seropositive

during the cold and warm seasons, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first known study reporting the seroprevalence of Anaplasma spp. in native Korean goats. Despite the relatively low prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in native Korean goats compared with that in animals from other countries, these results should not be disregarded because infection with Anaplasma spp. in animals has long been recognised, and the potential for horizontal transmission cannot be excluded.”
“Rituximab (RTX), a chimeric anti-CD20 antibody, is associated with direct induction of apoptosis and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) with clinical efficacy in mantle cell

lymphoma (MCL). Lenalidomide (LEN), a novel immunomodulatory agent, sensitizes tumor cells and LY411575 clinical trial enhances ADCC. Our study attempted to elucidate the mechanism of LEN-enhanced RTX-mediated cytotoxicity of MCL cells. We found that LEN and RTX induced growth inhibition of both cultured and fresh primary MCL cells. LEN enhanced RTX-induced apoptosis via upregulating phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinases (JNK), Bcl-2, Bad; increasing release of cytochrome-c; enhancing activation of caspase-3, -8, -9 and cleavage of PARP. Meanwhile, LEN activated NK cells and increased CD16 expression on CD56(low)CD16(+) NK cells. Whole PBMCs but not NK cell-depleted PBMCs treated with LEN augmented 30% of RTX-dependent cytotoxicity.

The technical success rate was 82% (28/34), with only three minor

The technical success rate was 82% (28/34), with only three minor complications. In the three cases with a functioning radial arteriovenous fistula, we successfully treated the ulnar artery. PTA was unsuccessful

in 18% (6/34) hands due to inability to cross severely calcified lesions. The hand-healing rate was 65% CH5183284 molecular weight (22/34). The predictors of hand healing were PTA technical success (odds ratio (OR) 0.5, confidence interval (Cl) 0.28-0.88; p <= 0.0001) and digital run-off (OR 0.37, Cl 0.19-0.71; p <= 0.003).\n\nThe mean follow-up period was 13 +/- 9 months. Six patients (18%) underwent secondary procedures due to symptomatic restenosis. In all these cases, a successful re-PTA was performed TGF-beta inhibitor at a mean 6 months after the index procedure, and there were no major procedure-related

events. Ten patients (36%) died during follow-up.\n\nConclusions: Angioplasty of BTE vessels for CHI is a feasible and safe procedure with acceptable rates of technical success and hand healing. Poor digital run-off due to obstructive disease of the digital vessels can reduce the hand-healing rate after a successful PTA. Pure isolated BTE vessel disease seems to characterise patients with ESRD and diabetes mellitus. (C) 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Lung cancers are the most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide, causing 1.59 million deaths in 2012. Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), 84% of total lung cancers, have a dismal 5-year survival rate of 18%. The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase receptor has been implicated in human cancer tumorigenesis; in fact, 3-7% of all NSCLC patients show translocations affecting the ALK gene. Brigatinib (AP-26113), an oral, potent, small-molecule reversible inhibitor of ALK fusions and mutant (but not native) epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which has received FDA breakthrough therapy designation, is currently in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of advanced NSCLC. In a clinical trial in ALK+ NSCLC patients, 55 evaluable patients showed

a median progression-free survival time of 10.9 months. Among ALK+ NSCLC patients with prior crizotinib SB525334 ic50 treatment, 69% (35 out of 51 evaluable patients) responded, with duration of response ranging from 1.6 to more than 14.7 months.”
“In recent years, a new cell-based high throughput paradigm has emerged, which seeks to identify novel, pharmacologically active cytoprotective compounds. The essence of this approach is to create experimental models of cell injury relevant for a particular disease by establishing in vitro cell-based models. followed by high-throughput testing of compounds that affect the cellular response in a desired manner Prior approaches typically used simple. end-point analyses. To assess the cytoprotective effects of novel drug candidates in real-time.

Alkalization increased relative cellulose content and exhibited m

Alkalization increased relative cellulose content and exhibited more crystalline due to a rearrangement of the crystalline regions. It also prolonged the degradation of the wheat straw fiber at higher temperatures due to the increased crystallinity of cellulose. Compared with alkalization, acetylation had more effect on the thermal and chemical stability in the wheat straw fiber contributing to a formation of ester bonding. MAPP improved the thermal stability partly because of a lower grafted

ratio of maleic anhydride. Acetylation and MAPP treatment both decreased the crystallinity of the wheat straw fiber. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 3049-3056, 2009″
“Global climate is changing and food production

is AG-014699 mw very sensitive to weather and climate variations. Global assessments of climate change impacts on food production have been made since the early 1990s, initially with little attention to the uncertainties involved. Although there has been abundant analysis of uncertainties in future greenhouse gas emissions and their impacts on the climate system, uncertainties related Rapamycin solubility dmso to the way climate change projections are scaled down as appropriate for different analyses and in modelling crop responses to climate change, have been neglected. This review paper mainly addresses uncertainties in crop impact modelling and possibilities to reduce them. We specifically aim to (i) show ranges of projected climate change-induced impacts on crop yields, (ii) give recommendations on QNZ clinical trial use of emission scenarios, climate models, regionalization and ensemble crop model

simulations for different purposes and (iii) discuss improvements and a few known unknowns’ affecting crop impact projections.”
“Selenium (Se) is a key component of iodinases; higher Se levels are associated with lower titers of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO). Pregnancy exerts profound effects on thyroid function and autoimmunity. To assess the relationship of urine Se levels with thyroid function and autoimmunity in pregnant women residing in Athens, Greece, we studied prospectively 47 euthyroid women in uncomplicated singleton pregnancies (mean age + SD: 30+ 5 years) in each trimester, measuring urine Se levels, urine iodine, plasma thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine and triiodothyronine (FT4 and FT3), as well as levels of anti-TPO antibodies. Changes of the measured parameters were assessed over each trimester; thyroid parameters were assessed with relation to Se levels. Urine Se dropped by the third trimester, whereas urine iodine did not change appreciably during pregnancy. TSH and anti-TPO did not show appreciable changes; FT4 and FT3 gradually decreased as the pregnancy advanced. No relationship between urine Se levels and anti-TPO was found. During pregnancy, changes in urine Se levels accompany mild changes in thyroid function.

However, youth with ADHD showed

However, youth with ADHD showed JNJ-26481585 concentration greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), greater functional

connectivity between the left DLPFC and left intraparietal sulcus, and reduced left DLPFC connectivity with left midcingulate cortex and PCC for the high load contrast compared to controls (p smaller than .01; k bigger than 100 voxels). Reanalysis using a more conservative statistical approach (p smaller than .001; k bigger than 100 voxels) yielded group differences in PCC activation and DLPFC-midcingulate connectivity. Conclusion: Youth with ADHD show decreased efficiency of DLPFC for high-load visuospatial working memory and greater reliance on posterior spatial attention circuits to store and update spatial position than healthy control youth. Findings should be replicated in larger samples.”
“About 2000 tons of chrysotile is used annually to produce friction materials in Islamic CP-456773 mouse Republic

of Iran. Approximately, 3000 workers are exposed to the asbestos fibers in the different processes of brake and clutch manufacturing. In the current study, asbestos fiber concentrations during brake and clutch manufacture were measured. This study also evaluated the fiber size and morphology distribution according to the Asbestos International Association (AIA) for standardization analytical method for asbestos.\n\nThe airborne asbestos fiber concentrations LOXO-101 inhibitor and its chemical composition of 92 personal samples were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM)

and scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX).\n\nPersonal monitoring of fiber levels demonstrated counts that ranged from 0.31 to 1.3 PCM f/ml ( 15.5-51.5 SEM f/ml). Geometric means of the asbestos concentrations were 1.3 PCM f/ml (51.5 SEM f/ml) and 0.86 PCM f/ml (42.1 SEM f/ml) according to the brake weighting and mixing and clutch mixing process, respectively. The geometrical mean concentrations were 0.63 PCM f/ml (31 SEM f/ml), which is considerably higher than threshold limit value (TLV) of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) which is 0.1 f/ml. The SEM data demonstrate that the fibrous particles consisted, approximately, of chrysotile (50%), tremolite (30%), and actinolite (20%).\n\nBased on these findings, the 50% of airborne fibers inhaled by the workers were amphiboles asbestos with fibers equal and greater than 5 mu m in length and 0.2 mu m in diameter, and thus not included in the PCM-based fiber counts. Therefore, it might be expected that workers who worked in the brake and clutch manufacture will suffer from negative health effects of exposing to the amphibole asbestos fibers. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

“Nekoite Ca3Si6O15 center dot 7H(2)O and okenite Ca10Si18O

“Nekoite Ca3Si6O15 center dot 7H(2)O and okenite Ca10Si18O46 center dot 18H(2)O are both hydrated calcium silicates found respectively in contact metamorphosed limestone and in association with zeolites from the alteration of basalts. The minerals form two-dimensional infinite sheets with other than six-membered rings with 3-, 4-, or 5-membered rings and 8-membered rings. The two minerals have been characterised by Raman, near-infrared and infrared spectroscopy. The find more Raman spectrum of nekoite is characterised by two sharp peaks at 1061 and

1092 cm(-1) with bands of lesser intensity at 974, 994, 1023 and 1132 cm(-1). The Raman spectrum of okenite shows an intense single Raman band at 1090 cm(-1) with a shoulder band at 1075 cm(-1). These bands are assigned to the SiO stretching vibrations of Si2O5 units. Raman water stretching bands of nekoite are observed at 3071,

3380, 3502 and 3567 cm(-1). Raman spectrum of okenite shows water stretching bands at 3029, 3284, 3417, 3531 and 3607 cm(-1). NIR spectra of the two minerals are subtly different inferring water with different hydrogen bond strengths. By using a Libowitzky empirical formula, hydrogen bond distances based upon these OH stretching vibrations. Two types of hydrogen bonds are distinguished: strong hydrogen bonds associated with structural water and weaker hydrogen bonds assigned to space filling water molecules. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background\n\nIntercostal catheters are commonly used for the drainage of intrathoracic collections in newborn infants, including pneumothorax GNS-1480 solubility dmso and pleural effusions. Placement of an intercostal drain is a potential A-1210477 risk factor for nosocomial infection due to breach of the

cutaneous barrier. Therefore, neonates who require intercostal drainage, especially those in high risk groups for nosocomial infection, may benefit from antibiotic prophylaxis. However, injudicious antibiotic use carries the risk of promoting the emergence of resistant strains of micro-organisms or of altering the pattern of pathogens causing infection.\n\nObjectives\n\nTo determine the effect of prophylactic antibiotics compared to selective use of antibiotics on mortality and morbidity (especially septicaemia) in neonates undergoing placement of an intercostal catheter.\n\nSearch methods\n\nThe standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1948 to June 2011) and CINAHL (1982 to June 2011).\n\nSelection criteria\n\nRandomised controlled trials or some types of non-randomised (that is, quasi-randomised) controlled trials of adequate quality in which either individual newborn infants or clusters of infants were randomised to receive prophylactic antibiotics versus placebo or no treatment.

Results: Approximately 88 1% of the study population had both

\n\nResults: Approximately 88.1% of the study population had both a USC and insurance; 1.1% had neither one; 7.6% had a USC only, and 3.2% had insurance only. Children EVP4593 order with both

insurance and a USC had the fewest unmet needs. Among insured children, those with no USC had higher rates of unmet needs than did those with a USC.\n\nDiscussion: Expansions in health insurance are essential; however, it is also important for every child to have a USC. New models of practice could help to concurrently achieve these goals. J Pediatr Health Care. (2012) 26, e25-e35.”
“critical step in an automatic fingerprint recognition system is the segmentation of fingerprint images. Existing methods are usually designed to segment fingerprint images originated from a certain sensor. Thus their performances are significantly affected when dealing with fingerprints collected by different sensors. This work studies the sensor interoperability of fingerprint find more segmentation algorithms, which refers to the algorithm’s ability to adapt to the raw fingerprints obtained from different sensors.

We empirically analyze the sensor interoperability problem, and effectively address the issue by proposing a k-means based segmentation method called SKI. SKI clusters foreground and background blocks of a fingerprint image based on the k-means algorithm, where a fingerprint block is represented by a 3-dimensional feature vector consisting of block-wise coherence, mean, and variance (abbreviated as CMV). SKI also employs morphological postprocessing to achieve favorable LY333531 nmr segmentation results. We perform SKI on each fingerprint to ensure sensor interoperability. The interoperability and robustness of our method are validated by experiments performed on a number of fingerprint databases which are obtained from various sensors.”
“Several new fossil remains of Felidae from the late Miocene (Turolian age, MN 13, local zone M2) locality

of Las Casiones (near the village of Villalba Baja, Teruel, Spain) are studied in the present paper. This felid community includes the machairodontines Amphimachairodus giganteus, Paramachaerodus orientalis, and Metailurus major, and the felines Pristifelis attica and a small, undetermined species, previously unknown in the late Miocene. With this high diversity of felids, the environment of Las Casiones was probably relatively vegetated, with shrubs and trees that allowed smaller felid species to avoid dangerous encounters with the larger ones.”
“Modern orb-weaving spiders use micron-sized glue droplets on their viscid silk to retain prey in webs. A combination of low molecular weight salts and proteins makes the glue viscoelastic and humidity responsive in a way not easily achieved by synthetic adhesives.

Case study We present the case of a 53-year-old woman


Case study. We present the case of a 53-year-old woman

who had a witnessed out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest, was resuscitated by paramedics, but remained comatose. An EEG, performed 36 hours post-insult, showed an unremitting, non-evolving, unresponsive 2-6 Hz high-voltage spike burst/isoelectric suppression pattern, which remained unchanged at 96 hours post-insult, following therapeutic AMN-107 solubility dmso hypothermia. During this period, she was completely off sedation and taking triple antiepileptic treatment, without systemic confounding disorders. Although the initial pattern was indicative of poor neurological outcome, she eventually made meaningful functional recovery; the last EEG showed satisfactory background

rhythms and stimulus-induced epileptiform discharges without seizures. Conclusion. CBL0137 In post-anoxic coma, non-evolving >2 Hz spike burst/isoelectric suppression pattern may still reflect NCSE and therefore should be considered in the diagnostic EEG criteria for NCSE. Such borderline patterns should not dissuade physicians from intensifying treatment until more confident prognostication can be made.”
“Controlled-release drug delivery systems are capable of treating debilitating diseases, including cancer. Brain cancer, in particular glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is an extremely invasive cancer with a dismal prognosis. The use of drugs capable of crossing the blood brain barrier has shown modest prolongation in patient survival, but not without unsatisfactory systemic, dose-limiting toxicity. Among the reasons for this improvement include a better understanding of the challenges of delivery of effective agents directly to the brain tumor site. The combination of carmustine delivered

by biodegradable polyanhydride wafers (Gliadel (R)), with the systemic alkylating agent, temozolomide, allows much higher effective doses of the drug while minimizing the systemic toxicity. We have previously shown that locally GS-7977 concentration delivering these two drugs leads to further improvement in survival in experimental models. We postulated that microcapsule devices capable of releasing temozolomide would increase the therapeutic capability of this approach. A biocompatible drug delivery microcapsule device for the intracranial delivery of temozolomide is described. Drug release profiles from these microcapsules can be modulated based on the physical chemistry of the drug and the dimensions of the release orifices in these devices. The drug released from the microcapsules in these experiments was the clinically utilized chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide. In vitro studies were performed in order to test the function, reliability, and drug release kinetics of the devices.

9 (range 20 7-26 8) There were 38 snorers and 39 OSA patients T

9 (range 20.7-26.8). There were 38 snorers and 39 OSA patients. The AHI improved in patients with OSA, 25.3 +/- 12.6

to 11.0 +/- 9.9 (P < 0.05). The overall Success rate for this OSA group was 71.8 percent (at mean 33.5 months). The mean snore scores (visual analog score) improved from 8.4 to 2.5 (for all 77 patients). Lowest oxygen saturation also improved in all OSA patients. Subjectively, all patients felt less tired.\n\nCONCLUSION: This technique has been shown to be effective in the management of patients with snoring and mild-moderate OSA. (c) 2009 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. All rights reserved.”
“Many smallholder breeding programs in WH-4-023 developing countries failed because of neglecting basic conditions, particularly the no involvement of farmers in a participatory manner from design to the implementation phase of the programs. Inadequate centralized breeding plans to improve local breeds and various plans prescribing crossbreeding with European highly producing breeds, failed. Though some nucleus breeding programs were successful

and check details attained some sustainability if the farmers’ participation was considered, they still are vulnerable once the funding provided ends. An evolving approach, emerging from participatory research experiences, involves community-based breeding programs for smallholder farmers in low-input systems. These are being implemented in pilot research sites with promising results and already rendering lessons learned that merit

consideration in relation with the sustainability of a program. The paper discusses important factors for the success of these programs. Farmers’ participation along with main issues for program implementation are highlighted in relation to site selection, the communication Taselisib concentration processes, recording schemes, role of scientists, the institutionalisation of cooperation and the enabling environment. Finally, ongoing case studies of successful community-based breeding programs are mentioned. Shortcomings in farmers’ participation require attention and institutional strengthening for effective application of participatory tools and knowledge exchange between farmers and researchers. But participatory research alone is not the sole prescription for success. No matter how participatory the plans will be, they will always depend on technical support and institutional support for data collection, analysis and feedback. This is hindered because of the short-term projection of funding for research projects. An important issue relates to the out scaling of successful experiences at project level that benefits only a limited number of farmers.

05, 0 075, and 0 10 Our experimental results demonstrated the fe

05, 0.075, and 0.10. Our experimental results demonstrated the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic and metal-insulator transitions taking place at temperatures T-C 265-300K and T-MI = 280-310 K, respectively, which increase with increasing Ba-doping content. While the x = 0.05 sample undergoes a first-order magnetic phase transition (FOMT), x = 0.10 undergoes a second-order magnetic phase transition

(SOMT). The other sample with x = 0.075 is considered as a threshold concentration of the FOMT-SOMT transformation. Further, URMC-099 rho(T) data in different temperature regions were fitted to different models. The activation energy E-p and density of states at the Fermi level N(E-F) were accordingly determined. Notably, N(E-F) increases while E-p decreases in the case of applying an external field. We also have found that N(E-F) increases when materials transfer from the FOMT to the SOMT, which becomes smallest for the sample having the coexistence of the FOMT and SOMT (i.e., x = 0.075). (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“Porous polymers were prepared by cyclotrimerization reaction in molten p-toluenesulfonic acid. Their properties could be tailored by functionalization of the aromatic diacetyl monomers. Thus, a range of homo- and copolymers based on hydrogen-, amine-, or nitro-functionalized 4,4′-diacetylbiphenyl derivatives and 1,4-diacetylbenzene was synthesized. The pores size could

be tuned from mainly microporous to hierarchical micro- and mesoporous or even hierarchical micro- and macroporous. BET surface areas up to 720 m(2)/g and total pore volumes up to 1.76 cm(3)/g were achieved. AZD2014 The formation of different pore types was related to the solvent-monomer/polymer interactions, which is shown by N-15 solid state MAS NMR spectroscopy and SEM. Other physical properties such as surface polarity and thermal stability were influenced by the different monomers as well.”
“Alternanthera sessilis, also known as ‘sessile joyweed’ or ‘dwarf copperleaf’, is a popular vegetable and used in traditional medicine in some Asian countries

including Bangladesh for the CB-839 purchase treatment of various ailments. Anthelmintic activity of the ethanol extract of A. sessilis (ASE) and one of its major constituents ellagic acid (EA) was tested against cattle nematode Haemonchus contortus by adult motility test and egg hatch assay. In adult motility test, both ASE (1.56-50 mg/ml) and EA (0.09-3 mg/ml) showed a concentration dependent inhibitory effect on H. contortus. All test worms died 6 h post-exposure of 12.5 mg/ml of ASE treatment and 6 h post-exposure of 1.5 mg/ml of EA treatment. For the concentration of 1.5 mg/ml of the reference drug albendazole, all test worms died 2 h post-exposure of the treatment. In egg hatch assay, both ASE (0.0125-25 mg/ml) and EA (0.0125-25 mu g/ml) showed a concentration dependent inhibition of the larval production from H. controtus eggs with the LC50 value of 150.00 and 3.097 mu g/ml, respectively. The LC50 for albendazole (0.0125-25 mu g/ml) was 0.