“In the adult mammalian brain, neurogenesis from neural st

“In the adult mammalian brain, neurogenesis from neural stem/progenitor cells continues in two regions: the subgranular zone in the dentate RepSox in vitro gyrus and the subventricular zone lining the lateral ventricles. The generated neuroblasts migrate to their appropriate location and differentiate to mature granule cells and olfactory bulb interneurons, respectively. Following injury such as stroke, neuroblasts generated in the subventricular zone migrate also into areas which are not normally neurogenic, e.g. striatum and cerebral cortex. In the initial

studies in rodents, brain inflammation and microglia activation were found to be detrimental for the survival of the new hippocampal neurons early after they had been born. The role of inflammation for adult neurogenesis has, however, turned out to be much more complex. Recent experimental evidence indicates that microglia under certain circumstances can be beneficial and support the different steps in neurogenesis, progenitor proliferation, survival, migration, and differentiation. Here we summarize the current knowledge on the role of inflammation and in particular of microglia in adult neurogenesis in the intact and injured mammalian brain. We conclude that microglia activation,

as an indicator of inflammation, is not pro- or antineurogenic per se but the net outcome is dependent on the balance between secreted molecules with pro- and antiinflammatory selleck products action. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Episomes with the NUP214-ABL1 fusion gene have been observed in 6% of T-ALL. In this multicentric study we collected 27 cases of NUP214-ABL1-positive T-ALL. Median age was 15 years with

male predominance. Outcome was poor in 12 patients. An associated abnormality involving TLX1 or TLX3 ADAM7 was found in all investigated cases. Fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed a heterogeneous pattern of NUP214-ABL1 amplification. Multiple episomes carrying the fusion were detected in 24 patients. Episomes were observed in a significant number of nuclei in 18 cases, but in only 1-5% of nuclei in 6. In addition, intrachromosomal amplification (small hsr) was identified either as the only change or in association with episomes in four cases and two T-ALL cell lines (PEER and ALL-SIL). One case showed insertion of apparently nonamplified NUP214-ABL1 sequences at 14q12. The amplified sequences were analyzed using array-based CGH.

These findings confirm that the NUP214-ABL1 gene requires amplification for oncogenicity; it is part of a multistep process of leukemogenesis; and it can be a late event present only in subpopulations. Data also provide in vivo evidence for a model of episome formation, amplification and optional reintegration into the genome. Implications for the use of kinase inhibitors are discussed.

To test this hypothesis, striatal preparations from Sprague Dawle

To test this hypothesis, striatal preparations from Sprague Dawley rats were assayed for dopamine efflux in response to amphetamine challenge. SNC80 was given either in vivo or in vitro directly to rat striatal tissue, prior to in vitro amphetamine challenge. Both in vivo and in vitro administration of SNC80 enhanced

amphetamine-mediated dopamine efflux in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. However, SNC80 in either treatment paradigm produced no stimulation of dopamine efflux in the absence of amphetamine. The effect of SNC80 on amphetamine-mediated dopamine overflow, but not the effect of amphetamine alone, was blocked by the delta selective antagonist, naltrindole and was also observed with other delta agonists. The results of this study demonstrate P505-15 mw that even though SNCSO does not stimulate dopamine efflux alone, Silmitasertib mw it is able to augment amphetamine-mediated dopamine efflux through a delta opioid receptor mediated action locally in the striatum. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase inhibitors are in clinical trials, and raltegravir and elvitegravir are likely to be the first licensed drugs of this novel class of HIV antivirals. Understanding resistance to these inhibitors is important to maximize their efficacy. It has been shown that natural variation

and covariation provide valuable insights into the development of resistance for established HIV inhibitors. Therefore, we have undertaken a study to fully characterize natural polymorphisms and amino acid covariation within an inhibitor-naive sequence set spanning all defined HIV-1 subtypes. Inter- and intrasubtype variation was greatest Baf-A1 in a 50-amino-acid segment of HIV-1 integrase incorporating the catalytic aspartic acid codon 116, suggesting that polymorphisms affect inhibitor binding and pathways to resistance. The critical mutations that determine the resistance pathways

to raltegravir and elvitegravir (N155H, Q148K/R/H, and E92Q) were either rare or absent from the 1,165-sequence data set. However, 25 out of 41 mutations associated with integrase inhibitor resistance were present. These mutations were not subtype associated and were more prevalent in the subtypes that had been sampled frequently within the database. A novel modification of the Jaccard index was used to analyze amino acid covariation within HIV-1 integrase. A network of 10 covarying resistance-associated mutations was elucidated, along with a further 15 previously undescribed mutations that covaried with at least two of the resistance positions. The validation of covariation as a predictive tool will be dependent on monitoring the evolution of HIV-1 integrase under drug selection pressure.”
“Plasma membrane serotonin transporters (SERTs) regulate serotonin (5HT) levels in brain and are a site of action of antidepressants and psychostimulant drugs of abuse.

This study aimed to examine the relationship between birth-season

This study aimed to examine the relationship between birth-season and relative age at school on the risk of delinquency.

Methods: We investigated the ratio of observed and expected births in winter/summer and that in the first/last months of the Japanese school year in 5008 young male Japanese delinquents.

Results: No significant difference was found between observed and expected numbers of births in winter/summer or those in the first/last months of the school year.

Conclusions: The present study did not provide evidence for any effect from season of birth or a relative age effect

within the school year on the risk of delinquency in Japanese male selleck compound teenagers. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: High-grade gliomas of the spinal cord are poorly understood tumors that are very commonly associated with bad outcomes. The transforming effects of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) on spinal cord Cilengitide cell line glial progenitor cells may play an important role in the development of these tumors.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible tumor-initiating effects of PDGF overexpression in the spinal cord, we delivered a PDGF retrovirus directly into the substance of the spinal cord.

METHODS: The spinal cords of wild-type adult rats were surgically exposed and injected with 10(6) colony-forming

units of a green fluorescent protein-tagged, PDGF-expressing retrovirus. A control virus was injected to assess the cell types that become infected during retroviral Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease delivery to the spinal cord.

RESULTS: It was observed that PDGF overexpression in the

spinal cord causes morbidity from high-grade intramedullary glioma formation between 27 and 49 days after PDGF retrovirus injection. Retroviral transduction was highly efficient with 100% of injected animals displaying the tumor phenotype. The tumors produced were highly proliferative, were locally invasive, and displayed the immunophenotype of virus-targeted glial progenitor cells (lig2+PDGFR+NG2+GFAP-).

CONCLUSION: PDGF is capable of driving glial progenitor cells within the adult spinal cord to form high-grade gliomas. Further investigation of PDGF signaling in the spinal cord is needed to better understand and treat these devastating tumors.”
“Fast synaptic current at most excitatory synapses in the brain is carried by AMPA and NMDA subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPARs and NMDARs). During development there is an increase in the ratio of AMPAR- to NMDAR-mediated current at these synapses. Recent studies indicate that NMDAR signaling early in development negatively regulates AMPAR expression and function at multiple levels, which likely accounts for the I small AMPAR current at developing synapses. This contrasts with the positive role of NMDAR signaling in recruiting AMPARs to synapses during long-term potentiation in the adult brain.

The participating neurosurgeons answered a questionnaire after th

The participating neurosurgeons answered a questionnaire after the planning procedure and postoperatively. In a second prospective series of 33 patients, check details we used an autostereoscopic

monitor system (MD20-3-D; Setred SA, Sweden) to plan intracranial operations. A questionnaire regarding the value of surgery planning was answered preoperatively and postoperatively.

RESULTS: The Dextroscope could be integrated into daily surgical routine. Surgeons regarded their understanding of the pathoanatomical situation as improved, leading to enhanced intraoperative orientation and confidence compared with conventional planning. The autostereoscopic Setred system was regarded as helpful in establishing the surgical strategy and analyzing the pathoanatomical situation compared with conventional planning. Both systems were perceived as a backup in case of failure of the standard navigation system.

CONCLUSION: Improvement of display and interaction techniques adds to the realism of the planning process and enables

precise structural understanding preoperatively. This minimizes intraoperative guesswork and exploratory dissection. Autostereoscopic display techniques will further increase the value and acceptance of 3-dimensional planning and intraoperative navigation.”
“Traditionally, the dried flower of Echium amoenum (Boraginaceae) has been used in Iran as an anxiolytic and mood enhancer. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of an aqueous extract of E amoenum in treatment of obsessive-compulsive buy BB-94 disorder. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase Forty-four patients were randomly assigned to receive either E amoenum aqueous extract (500 mg/day) or placebo in a 6-week, double blind, parallel-group trial. Patients were assessed before the study and during weeks 1, 2,4, and 6 by the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive (Y-BOCS), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), and a score sheet on adverse effects. In weeks 4 and 6, the extract showed a significant superiority over placebo in reducing obsessive and compulsive and anxiety

symptoms. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of adverse effects. The results suggest that E. amoenum aqueous extract has some anti obsessive and compulsive effects. However, further studies are needed to confirm these findings. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors is conferred on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 through thymidine analogue resistance mutations (TAMs) that increase the ability of RT to excise chain-terminating nucleotides after they have been incorporated. The RT mutation M184V is a potent suppressor of TAMs. In RT containing TAMs, the addition of M184V suppressed the excision of 3′-deoxy-3′-azidothymidine monophosphate (AZTMP) to a greater extent on an RNA template than on a DNA template with the same sequence.

Both the mean and maximal body temperatures (33 degrees and 35 de

Both the mean and maximal body temperatures (33 degrees and 35 degrees C, respectively) were unaffected by metabolic state. This finding suggests that the benefits of foraging effectively, evading predators, and defending territory outweigh the energetic cost of a high body temperature during fasting. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“It is unknown how antidepressants reverse mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled,

cross-over design, we investigated learn more the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor duloxetine on neural correlates of mood-congruent and mood-incongruent memory formation and retrieval in healthy volunteers who underwent a sad mood induction procedure. Duloxetine did not affect acute mood state or memory performance, but interacted with brain processes mediating mood-congruent memory. It decreased activity related to successful memory formation for mood-congruent and -incongruent items in a set of

brain regions comprising the putamen and the middle frontal gyrus, as well as the middle and the anterior cingulate cortex. Duloxetine specifically increased amygdala activity related to successful memory retrieval for mood-incongruent items. Here we show that short-term administration of duloxetine affects the neural correlates of emotional memory formation and retrieval in a set of brain regions whose processing is related to affective state and its regulation. Serine/CaMK inhibitor While duloxetine suppressed the neural correlates of emotional Molecular motor memory formation in general, it specifically enhanced amygdala processes associated with mood-incongruent memory retrieval. This pattern of results shows how an antidepressant may reduce emotional memory formation and reverse mood-congruent processing

biases at retrieval. Neuropsychopharmacology (2011) 36, 2266-2275; doi: 10.1038/npp.2011.114; published online 20 July 2011″
“Fever is an energetically expensive component of the mammalian immune system’s acute phase response. Like mammals, birds also develop fever when exposed to pathogens, but, as yet, the energy requirements of febrile mediation in birds are not known. We injected ducks (Anas platyrhynchos; n=8) with 100 mu kg(-1) LPS or sterile isotonic saline and recorded their core body temperatures while measuring their O(2) consumption and CO(2) production in an open-flow respirometric circuit. Lipopolysaccharide elicited robust increases in the core body temperatures of our birds. The metabolic rate of the ducks increased about 80 min after treatment with LPS, relative to the metabolic rate of saline injected birds, and peaked 100 min later when the highest body temperatures were recorded. Our ducks increased their energy expenditure by 33.1% for about 3 h to mount a febrile response that, on average, increased their body temperature 1.4 degrees C.

In addition, proinflammatory cytokines play a key role in depress

In addition, proinflammatory cytokines play a key role in depression and neurodegenerative diseases linked to aging. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential nutrients and essential components of neuronal and glial cell membranes. PUFA from the diet regulate both prostaglandin and proinflammatory cytokine production. n-3 fatty acids are anti-inflammatory while n-6 fatty acids are precursors of prostaglandins. Inappropriate amounts of dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids could lead to neuroinflammation https://www.selleckchem.com/products/azd9291.html because of their abundance in the brain and reduced well-being. Depending on which PUFA are present in the diet, neuroinflammation will, therefore, be kept at a minimum or exacerbated. This

could explain the protective role of n-3 fatty acids in neurodegenerative diseases linked to aging. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The glucocorticoid hormone cortisol is known to have wide-ranging

effects on a variety of physiological systems, including the morphology and physiology of the amygdala and hippocampus. Disruptions of cortisol regulation and signaling are also linked with psychiatric disorders involving GS-9973 ic50 emotional disturbances. Although there is much evidence to suggest a relationship between cortisol signaling and the brain physiology underlying emotion, few studies have attempted to test for direct effects of cortisol on the neurophysiology of emotion. We administered exogenous synthetic cortisol

(hydrocortisone, HCT) using two different dosing regimens (25 mg/day over 4 days, 100 mg single dose), in a double-blind placebo-controlled functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. During fMRI scanning, healthy subjects viewed images designed to induce happy, sad, and neutral emotional states. Subjective emotional reactions were collected for each experimental stimulus after fMRI scanning. Mood ratings were also collected throughout (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate the 4 days of the study. Both dose regimens of HCT resulted in decreased subgenual cingulate activation during sadness conditions. The 25 mg/day regimen also resulted in higher arousal ratings of sad stimuli. No effects of HCT were observed on any mood ratings. Few reliable effects of HCT were observed on brain activity patterns or subjective emotional responses to stimuli that were not sad. The inhibitory effects of cortisol on sadness-induced subgenual cingulate activity may have critical relevance to the pathophysiology of major depression, as both subgenual hyperactivity and decreased sensitivity to cortisol signaling have been documented in patients with depression. Neuropsychopharmacology (2013) 38, 826-845; doi: 10.1038/npp.2012.249; published online 16 January 2013″
“There is increasing evidence from basic science and human epidemiological studies that inflammation, oxidative stress, and metabolic abnormalities are associated with age-related cognitive decline and impairment.

Moreover, the acute anticonvulsant effect of P was undiminished i

Moreover, the acute anticonvulsant effect of P was undiminished in fully-kindled PRKO mice. These studies suggest that P exerts disease-modifying effects in the hippocampus kindling model at doses that do not significantly affect seizure expression and motor performance, and the kindling-retarding effects

of P may occur partly through a complex PR-dependent and PR-independent mechanism. (C) 2010 Elsevier Selleckchem Quisinostat Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Recent decades have witnessed the revelation of expanding roles of the vitamin D endocrine system beyond calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Along with these non-calcemic or non-classic actions of vitamin D are newly discovered therapeutic actions of vitamin D analogs in a number of pathological conditions, including kidney disease.

The kidney is the major organ involved in the synthesis of the hormonal metabolite of vitamin D, and vitamin D deficiency is a common feature of chronic kidney disease even in its early stages. Experimental data suggest that vitamin D deficiency may in turn accelerate the progression of kidney disease. Low-calcemic vitamin D analogs have exhibited A-1155463 cell line impressive therapeutic effects in various kidney disease models, with targets ranging from the NF-kappa B pathway to the renin-angiotensin system. These recent studies demonstrate that vitamin D analogs have potent renoprotective effects. The emerging experimental and clinical evidence has provided a solid foundation for the continuing exploration of vitamin D analogs in prevention and intervention in kidney disease. Kidney International (2010) 78, 134-139;doi:10.1038/ki.2009.175; published online 27 May 2009″
“The intracellular calcium overload resulting from glutamate excitotoxicity is considered major determinant for neuronal loss during cerebral ischemia. Moreover, acidosis mediated ASIC1a activation has also shown to promote intracellular calcium overload following ischemic insult. Interestingly, ASIC1a was found to be

inhibited by NSAIDs particularly flurbiprofen and ibuprofen, which could be exploited in hypoxic conditions like cerebral ischemia. This prompted us to investigate neuroprotective Vasopressin Receptor effect of flurbiprofen, besides its possible downstream signaling mechanism in rodent model of focal cerebral ischemia.

The flurbiprofen treatment, 30 min prior to ischemia and 4 h post-reperfusion, afforded significant neuroprotection from ischemic injury as evidenced by reduction in cerebral infarct volume and neurobehavioral deficit. Further, an early calcium dependant rise in levels of nitrite and MDA was also found to be significantly (P < 0.01) reduced in ischemic brain regions following flurbiprofen pretreatment. It also reduced the proteolytic products (SBDPs) caused by ischemic activation of calcium dependant protease calpain.

We report that HCV-infected patients display increased circulatin

We report that HCV-infected patients display increased circulating FoxP3(+) Tregs that are phenotypically and functionally indistinguishable from FoxP3(+) Tregs in uninfected subjects. Furthermore, HCV-specific FoxP3(+) Tregs were detected in

HCV-seropositive Selleck Entospletinib persons with antigen-specific expansion, major histocompatibillity complex class II/peptide tetramer binding affinity, and preferential suppression of HCV-specific CD8 T cells. Transforming growth factor 0 contributed to antigen-specific Treg expansion in vitro, suggesting that it may contribute to antigen-specific Treg expansion in vivo. Interestingly, FoxP3 expression was also detected in influenza

virus-specific CD4 T cells. In conclusion, functionally active and virus-specific FoxP3(+) Tregs are induced in HCV infection, thus providing targeted immune regulation in vivo. Detection of FoxP3 expression in non-HCV-specific CD4 T cells suggests that immune regulation through antigen-specific Treg induction Evofosfamide solubility dmso extends beyond HCV.”
“High-frequency stimulation (HFS) induces long-term potentiation (LTP) at inhibitory synapses of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in developing rat visual cortex. This LTP requires postsynaptic Ca2+ rise for induction, while the maintenance mechanism is present at the presynaptic site, suggesting presynaptic LTP expression and the necessity of retrograde signaling. We investigated whether the supposed signal is mediated

by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is expressed in pyramidal neurons but not inhibitory interneurons. LTP did not occur when HFS was applied in the presence of the Trk receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a in the perfusion medium. HFS produced UP when bath application of K252a was started after HFS or when K252a was loaded many into postsynaptic cells. LTP did not occur in the presence of TrkB-IgG scavenging BDNF or function-blocking anti-BDNF antibody in the medium. In cells loaded with the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA, the addition of BDNF to the medium enabled HFS to induce UP without affecting baseline synaptic transmission. These results suggest that BDNF released from postsynaptic cells activates presynaptic TrkB, leading to LTP. Because BDNF, expressed activity dependently, regulates the maturation of cortical inhibition, inhibitory UP may contribute to this developmental process, and hence experience-dependent functional maturation of visual cortex. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Cells infected with human cytomegalovirus in the absence of UL97 kinase activity produce large nuclear aggregates that sequester considerable quantities of viral proteins.

02) Female cocaine-dependent subjects

also had a lower o

02). Female cocaine-dependent subjects

also had a lower odds of a positive cortisol response to the TRIER as compared to the other three groups (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = [0.02, 1.01]). During the CUE task, cocaine-dependent subjects had overall higher mean cortisol levels (p = 0.0001), and higher odds of demonstrating a positive cortisol response to the CUE (OR = 2.61, 95% CI = [1.11, 6.11]). No gender differences were found in ACTH responses to the CUE. The results are reviewed in the context of the existing literature on gender differences in cocaine dependence and potential implications for treatment are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Although it is more common for drug abuse to progress from tobacco to cannabis, in many cases cannabis use develops before P505-15 molecular weight tobacco use. Epidemiological evidence indicates that prior cannabis use increases the likelihood of becoming dependent on tobacco. To determine whether this effect might be due to cannabis exposure per se, in addition to any genetic, social, or environmental factors that might contribute, we extended our series of studies on ‘gateway drug’ effects in animal models

of drug abuse. Rats were exposed to THC, the Selleckchem Silmitasertib main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, for 3 days (two intraperitoneal injections/day). Then, starting 1 week later, they were allowed to self-administer nicotine intravenously. THC exposure increased the likelihood of acquiring the nicotine self-administration response from 65% in vehicle-exposed rats to 94% in THC-exposed rats. When the price of nicotine was manipulated by increasing the response requirement, THC-exposed rats maintained higher levels of intake than vehicle-exposed rats, indicating that THC exposure increased the value of nicotine reward. These results contrast sharply with Baf-A1 datasheet our earlier findings that prior THC exposure did not increase

the likelihood of rats acquiring either heroin or cocaine self-administration, nor did it increase the reward value of these drugs. The findings obtained here suggest that a history of cannabis exposure might have lasting effects that increase the risk of becoming addicted to nicotine.”
“Human papillomaviruses (HPV) activate the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent DNA damage response to induce viral genome amplification upon epithelial differentiation. Our studies show that along with members of the ATM pathway, HPV proteins also localize factors involved in homologous DNA recombination to distinct nuclear foci that contain HPV genomes and cellular replication factors. These studies indicate that HPV activates the ATM pathway to recruit repair factors to viral genomes and allow for efficient replication.”
“Estrogen (E2) influences brain function to induce gender differences in neuronal processes. In contrast to its well-described effects on signaling systems and gene transcription factors, our knowledge of E2-regulated protein networks is rather limited.

Experiments with nystatin, a drug known to depolarize cell membra

Experiments with nystatin, a drug known to depolarize cell membranes, produced changes in solute uptake that are similar but not identical to those that occurred during virus infection. Therefore, these studies indicate that chlorovirus infection causes a rapid and sustained depolarization of the

host plasma membrane and that this depolarization leads to the inhibition of secondary active transporters that changes solute uptake.”
“Pain is associated with swallowing abnormalities in dysphagic patients. Understanding neuronal mechanisms underlying the swallowing abnormalities associated with orofacial abnormal pain is crucial for developing new methods to treat dysphagic patients. However, how the orofacial abnormal pain is involved in the swallowing abnormalities is not known. In order to evaluate neuronal mechanisms of modulation of the swallows by masticatory muscle pain, here we first

induced swallows by topical Tideglusib administration of distilled water to the pharyngolaryngeal region. The swallowing reflex was significantly inhibited after capsaicin (10, 30 mM) injection into the masseter muscle compared to vehicle injection. Moreover the number of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-like immunoreactive (pERK-LI) neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NITS) was significantly increased in the rats with capsaicin injection into the masseter Muscle compared to that with vehicle injection. Rostro-caudal distribution of pERK-LI neurons in the NTS was peaked at the obex level. The https://www.selleckchem.com/products/SB-202190.html capsaicin-induced inhibitory effect on swallowing reflex was reversed after intrathecal administration of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor, PD98059. The present findings Suggest that phosphorylation of ERK in NTS neurons may be involved in capsaicin-induced inhibition of swallowing reflex. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) readily infects and reinfects during Acetophenone infancy and throughout life, despite maternal antibodies and immunity from prior infection and without the need for significant antigenic change. RSV has two neutralization antigens, the

F and G virion glycoproteins. G is expressed in both membrane-bound (mG) and secreted (sG) forms. We investigated whether sG might act as a decoy for neutralizing antibodies by comparing the in vitro neutralization of wild-type (wt) RSV versus recombinant mG RSV expressing only mG. wt RSV indeed was less susceptible than mG RSV to monovalent G-specific and polyvalent RSV-specific antibodies, whereas susceptibility to F-specific antibodies was equivalent. This difference disappeared when the virus preparations were purified to remove sG. Thus, sG appears to function as a neutralization decoy. We evaluated this effect in vivo in mice by comparing the effects of passively transferred antibodies on the pulmonary replication of wt RSV versus mG RSV.