“Neurological soft signs (NSS) comprise a broad range of m

“Neurological soft signs (NSS) comprise a broad range of minor motor and sensory deficits which are frequently found in schizophrenia. However, the cerebral changes underlying NSS are only partly understood. We therefore investigated the cerebral correlates of NSS by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 102 patients with first episode schizophrenia. NSS were assessed after remission of acute psychotic symptoms using the Heidelberg scale (HS), which consists of five NSS subscales (“motor coordination”, “complex motor tasks”, “orientation”, “integrative functions”, and “hard signs”). Correlations between NSS scores this website and cerebral changes

were established by optimized voxel-based morphometry. NSS total scores were significantly associated with

reduced gray matter densities in the precentral and postcentral gyri, the inferior parietal lobule and the inferior occipital gyrus. Both check details of the NSS subscales “motor coordination” and “complex motor tasks”, referred to motor strip changes but showed differential correlations with parietal, insular, cerebellar or frontal sites, respectively. The NSS subscales “orientation” and “integrative functions” were associated with left frontal, parietal, and occipital changes or bihemispheric frontal changes, respectively. The NSS subscale “hard signs” was associated with deficits in the right cerebellum and right parastriate cortex. Repeated analyses for white matter changes revealed similar results. These findings confirm the associations between NSS and cerebral changes in areas important for motor and sensory functioning. This variety of cerebral sites corresponds to the heterogeneity of NSS and are consistent with the hypothesis that NSS reflect both a rather generalized cerebral dysfunction and localized deficits specific for particular signs. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Previous studies have shown that 7-b (6-(dodecylamino)-2-(3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl)-1H-benzo-[de]isoquinoline-1,3(2H)-dione), Caspase inhibitor a novel amonafide-based DNA intercalator, was generated as a new anticancer candidate. However, the effects induced by 7-b and the molecular mechanisms

involved remain poorly understood in Burkitt’s lymphoma. To shed light on these issues, we have investigated the effects of 7-b on proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis activity and oxidative stress levels of lymphoma Raji cells in vitro. Our results showed that 7-b inhibited the proliferation of Raji cells and induced G1 cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, 7-b treatment triggered programmed cell death, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alteration of the mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta psi m). Altogether our results showed that 7-b mediated its growth inhibitory effects on Raji cells via the activation of a ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway and cell cycle checkpoint signaling pathway which subsequently targeted p21.

Surprisingly, we found that p38 is most active under darkness and

Surprisingly, we found that p38 is most active under darkness and, besides its circadian activation, additionally gets inactivated by light. Moreover, locomotor activity recordings revealed that p38 is essential for a wild-type timing of evening activity and for maintaining similar to 24 h behavioral rhythms under constant darkness: flies with reduced p38 activity in clock neurons, delayed evening activity and lengthened the period of their free-running rhythms. Furthermore, nuclear translocation of the clock protein Period was significantly delayed on the expression of a dominant-negative form of p38b find more in Drosophila’s most important clock neurons. Western

Blots revealed that p38 affects

the phosphorylation degree of Period, what is likely the Selleckchem AS1842856 reason for its effects on nuclear entry of Period. In vitro kinase assays confirmed our Western Blot results and point to p38 as a potential “clock kinase” phosphorylating Period. Taken together, our findings indicate that the p38 MAP Kinase is an integral component of the core circadian clock of Drosophila in addition to playing a role in stress-input pathways.”
“Individuals born preterm can demonstrate reductions in brain volume, cortical surface area and thickness. However, the extent of these neuroanatomical deficits and the relation among these measures in middle childhood, a critical developmental period,

have not been determined. We assessed differences in brain structure by acquiring high-resolution T-1-weighted scans in 25 children born very preterm (< 32 weeks gestational age) without significant post-natal neurological sequelae and 32 age-matched term-born children (7-10 years). Children born very preterm had decreased brain volume, surface area and cortical thickness compared to term-born children. Furthermore, children born preterm did not display the robust relation between total brain volume and basal ganglia and thalamic volume apparent in the term-born children. Cortical XMU-MP-1 molecular weight thickness analyses revealed that the cortex was thinner for children born preterm than term-born children in the anterior cingulate cortex/supplementary motor area, isthmus of the cingulate gyrus, right superior temporal sulcus, right anterior insula, postcentral gyrus and precuneus. Follow-up analyses revealed that right precuneus thickness was correlated with gestational age. Thus, even without significant postnatal medical sequelae, very preterm-born children showed atypical brain structure and developmental patterns in areas related to higher cognitive function. Disruptions of the typical neurodevelopmental trajectory in the third trimester of pregnancy likely underlie these differences persisting into middle childhood.

For the nerve-cut group, the facial nerve was cut and a 5-mm part

For the nerve-cut group, the facial nerve was cut and a 5-mm part was removed (10 rats). 10 rats with intact facial nerve served as control. CMAP (compound muscle action potantial) recordings were obtained at each time interval. Measurements were compared with Variance-analysis.\n\nResults: In the nerve-crush group, recovery of the latency from 1st week to 1st month (0.029, p <= 0.05) and excitability thresholds in 1st week was statistically significant (p <= 0.05) as compared to the control. Recovery of the reduced amplitude at consecutive intervals was not statistically significant. In the nerve-cut

group, no electrical response was obtained throughout the follow-up.\n\nConclusion: In the follow-up of electrophysiological changes of traumatic injury of the facial nerve in rats, the results appear to indicate that parameters “latency and threshold” may reflect the different BTSA1 clinical trial aspect of injured nerve condition from the parameter “amplitude”. Amplitude comparison alone could bring some problems in the clinical setting. These findings suggest complete measurement of all parameters to outline the prognosis of traumatic selleck screening library facial paralysis.”
“The presence of foreign bodies inserted into the rectum is not an uncommon situation. Precise guidelines for the management and extraction

of these foreign bodies are not frequently described in the literature.\n\nAnal access, whether endoscopic or surgical, varies depending on the type of foreign

WZB117 cell line bodies, their size and morphology, and their location in the lower digestive tract.\n\nIn this report, we describe a case of three rectal foreign bodies that necessitated a mixed endoscopic and surgical approach, and provide a review of the literature. (Acta gastroenterol belg., 2010, 73, 274-277).”
“Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel type of RNA that, unlike linear RNAs, form a covalently closed continuous loop and are highly represented in the eukaryotic transcriptome. Recent studies have discovered thousands of endogenous circRNAs in mammalian cells. CircRNAs are largely generated from exonic or intronic sequences, and reverse complementary sequences or RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are necessary for circRNA biogenesis. The majority of circRNAs are conserved across species, are stable and resistant to RNase R, and often exhibit tissue/developmental-stage-specific expression. Recent research has revealed that circRNAs can function as microRNA (miRNA) sponges, regulators of splicing and transcription, and modifiers of parental gene expression. Emerging evidence indicates that circRNAs might play important roles in atherosclerotic vascular disease risk, neurological disorders, prion diseases and cancer; exhibit aberrant expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC); and serve as diagnostic or predictive biomarkers of some diseases.

7 t km(-2) year(-1) Simulations indicated increased biomasses ac

7 t km(-2) year(-1). Simulations indicated increased biomasses across a wide range of species including important forage and commercially important species. The marsh restoration also significantly impacted ecosystem structure increasing the ratio of production-to-respiration, increasing system path length and decreasing the ratio of production-to-biomass. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Artemisinin and artemisinin semi-synthetic derivatives (collectively known as endoperoxides) are first-line antimalarials for the treatment of uncomplicated and severe malaria. Endoperoxides display very fast killing rates and are generally recalcitrant to parasite resistance

development. These key pharmacodynamic features are a result of a complex mechanism of action, the 3-MA in vitro details of which lack consensus. Here, we report on the primary physiological events leading to parasite death. Parasite mitochondrial ((m)) and plasma membrane ((p)) electrochemical potentials were measured using real-time single-cell imaging following exposure to pharmacologically relevant concentrations of endoperoxides (artemisinin, dihydroartemisinin, artesunate and the synthetic tetraoxane RKA182). In addition, mitochondrial

electron transport chain components JQ-EZ-05 chemical structure NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (alternative complex I), bc(1) (complex III) and cytochrome oxidase (complex IV) were investigated to determine their functional sensitivity to the various endoperoxides. Parasite exposure to endoperoxides resulted in rapid depolarization of parasite (m) and (p.) The rate of depolarization was decreased in the presence of a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger and Fe-3 chelators. Depolarization of (m) by endoperoxides is not believed to be through the inhibition find more of mitochondrial electron transport chain components, owing to the lack of significant inhibition when assayed directly. The depolarization of (m) and (p) is shown to be mediated via the generation of ROS that are initiated by iron bioactivation of endoperoxides and/or catalysed by iron-dependent oxidative stress.

These data are discussed in the context of current hypotheses concerning the mode of action of endoperoxides.”
“Cyclical intravenous treatment with pamidronate is widely used to treat osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) types I, III, and IV, which are due to dominant mutations affecting collagen type I alpha chains. There is no information about the effects of pamidronate in children with OI type VII, an autosomal-recessive form of OI caused by a mutation in the cartilage-associated protein gene. In this retrospective single-center study, we compared the effects of pamidronate in four girls with OI type VII (age range 3.9-12.7 years) to those in eight girls with OI types caused by collagen type I mutations who were matched for age and disease severity.

Key model parameters, including the mature age of mosquitoes, the

Key model parameters, including the mature age of mosquitoes, the survival probability of adult mosquitoes, the human blood index, the mosquito-to-human (human-to-mosquito) transmission efficiency, the human infectious age, the recovery rate, as well as the gametocyte prevalence, were reassessed by means of entomological

and parasitological observations. This paper also revealed that various malaria variables lack information from field studies to be set properly in a malaria modelling approach.

Conclusions: Due to the multitude of model parameters and the uncertainty involved in the setting of parameters, an extensive literature survey was carried out, in order to produce a refined set of settings of various model parameters. This approach limits the degrees Wnt inhibitor of freedom of the parameter space of the model, simplifying the final calibration of undetermined parameters (see the second part of this study). In addition,

new mathematical formulations of important processes have improved the model in terms of the growth of the vector population.”
“Proxidant additives represent a promising solution to the problem of the Citarinostat cost environment contamination with polyethylene film litter. Pro-oxidants accelerate photo- and thermo-oxidation and consequent polymer chain cleavage rendering the product apparently more susceptible to biodegradation. In the present study, fungal strain, Aspergillus oryzae isolated from HDPE film (buried in soil for 3 months) utilized abiotically treated polyethylene (LDPE) as a sole carbon source and degraded it. Treatment with pro-oxidant, manganese stearate followed by UV irradiation and incubation with A. oryzae resulted in maximum decrease in percentage of elongation and tensile strength by 62 and 51%, respectively, compared with other pro-oxidant treated LDPE films which showed 45% Belinostat price (titanium stearate), 40% (iron stearate), and 39% (cobalt stearate) decrease in tensile strength. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of proxidant treated LDPE films revealed

generation of more number of carbonyl and carboxylic groups (1630-1840 cm(-1) and 1220-1340 cm(-1)) compared with UV treated film. When these films were incubated with A. oryzae for 3 months complete degradation of carbonyl and carboxylic groups was achieved. Scanning electron microscopy of untreated and treated LDPE films also revealed that polymer has undergone degradation after abiotic and biotic treatments. This concludes proxidant treatment before UV irradiation accelerated photo-oxidation of LDPE, caused functional groups to be generated in the polyethylene film and this resulted in biodegradation due to the consumption of carbonyl and carboxylic groups by A. oryzae which was evident by reduction in carbonyl peaks. Among the pro-oxidants, manganese stearate treatment caused maximum degradation of polyethylene. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The patients were divided into five groups according to their BMI

The patients were divided into five groups according to their BMI status: underweight <

20, normal 20-24.9, overweight 25-29.9, obese 30-34.9, and morbidly obese >= 35. There were no differences in race, gender, cytomegalovirus infection, type of transplant, panel-reactive antibody, retransplant status, flow cytometry cross-match results, mycophenolate mofetil therapy, and total HLA mismatch status. The mean discharge serum creatinine in the morbidly obese group was significantly higher than in other groups (p < 0.001). The difference in creatinine level disappeared at six wk and six months (p > 0.5), respectively. Acute rejection rates, delayed selleckchem graft function, graft survival, and patient survival were not different between the groups. The findings from this large single-center study suggest that obese and morbidly obese patients had similar outcomes compared to other weight groups. Obese and morbidly obese African American patients should not be excluded from kidney transplantation on the basis of weight alone.”
“Polarized cell expansion plays an important role in plant morphogenesis. Tip growth is a dramatic form of this process, which is widely used as

a model to study its regulation by RAC/ROP GTPase signalling. During the dominant haploid phase of its life cycle, the moss Physcomitrella patens contains different types of cells that expand by tip growth. Physcomitrella is a highly attractive experimental system because its genome has been sequenced, and transgene integration by homologous recombination occurs in this plant at AR-13324 research buy frequencies allowing effective gene targeting. Furthermore, together with the vascular spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii, whose genome has also been sequenced, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella SB273005 in vitro provides an evolutionary link between green algae and angiosperms. BLAST searches established that the Physcomitrella and Selaginella genomes encode not only putative RAC/ROP

GTPases, but also homologues of all known regulators of polarized RAC/ROP signalling, as well as of key effectors acting in signalling cascades downstream of RAC/ROP activity. Nucleotide sequence relationships within seven different families of Physcomitrella, Selaginella, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) genes with distinct functions in RAC/ROP signalling were characterized based on extensive maximum likelihood and Neighbor-Joining analyses. The results of these analyses are interpreted in the light of current knowledge concerning expression patterns and molecular functions of RAC/ROP signalling proteins in angiosperms. A key aim of this study is to facilitate the use of Physcomitrella as a model to investigate the molecular control of tip growth in plants.”
“Major deep levels observed in as-grown and irradiated n-type 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC epilayers have been investigated.

The earlier and dense new bone formation observed with MPCs relat

The earlier and dense new bone formation observed with MPCs relative to autograft and HA/TCP alone suggest that this approach may offer therapeutic benefit.”
“Fusarium seedling blight in cereals can result in significant reductions in plant establishment but has not received much attention. The disease often starts during seed germination due to sowing of the seeds infected by Fusarium spp. including Fusarium graminearum. In order to gain the first molecular insights into the response of the germinating barley seeds to F. graminearum for controlling the disease, germinating seeds were treated with water as control or inoculated

with E graminearum conidia and samples were harvested at 1, 2 and 3 days after inoculation (dai). Although germination selleck chemical rates were not significantly different between E graminearum-inoculated and control samples, albumins and hydrogen peroxide

were accumulated in the inoculated samples at 1-3 dai, indicating that there was an interaction between the germinating seeds and E graminearum. Subsequently, a gel-based proteomic approach was employed to identify differentially expressed proteins in the seeds responding to fungal infection at 3 dai, which revealed 42 protein spots, 41 of which were identified by mass spectrometry. SB203580 manufacturer The up-regulated proteins mainly included heat shock proteins, antioxidant enzymes and the proteins involved in primary metabolism and detoxification whereas the majority of down-regulated proteins were plant protease inhibitors. The results suggest that there is a link between increased energy metabolism and oxidative stress in the germinating barley seeds in response to E graminearum infection, which provides the first molecular insight into Fusarium seedling blight. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Objective. This study aimed to elucidate Baf-A1 the differences in antitumor

immune responses between primary tumors and metastatic regional lymph nodes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).

Study design. The clonality of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in tissue specimens from 17 HNSCC patients was examined regarding their T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoires and their complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) size spectratyping. Cytokine expression profiles and T-cell phenotypes also were measured by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Results. The host immune responses to HNSCC cells, reflected by the TCR repertoire, differed between primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes. CD8(+)-T cells and T helper type 1 (T(H)1)/T cytotoxic 1 (T(C)1) cell cytokine production in metastatic and nonmetastatic lymph nodes were similar.

Conclusions. The antitumor immune response to HNSCC cells changes during lymph node metastasis, and HNSCC cells can escape the cytotoxic immune responses mediated by CD8(+)-T cells and T(H)1/T(C)1 cells.

The presence of vitamin D insufficiency in apparently healthy ind

The presence of vitamin D insufficiency in apparently healthy individuals warrants further investigation.”
“Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is found at epidemic levels in certain populations of the Pacific Coast in northwestern 3-MA research buy Nicaragua especially in younger men. There are knowledge gaps concerning CKD’s prevalence in regions at higher altitudes.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years in 1 coffee-growing village in Nicaragua located at 1,000 m above sea level (MASL) altitude was performed. Predictors included

participant sex, age, occupation, conventional CKD risk factors and other factors associated with CKD suggested by previous surveys in Central America. Outcomes included serum creatinine (SCr) values >1.2 mg/dL for men and >0.9 mg/dL for women, estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), dipstick proteinuria stratified as microalbuminuria (30-300 mg/dL) and macroalbuminuria (>300 mg/dL), hypertension and body

mass index.

Results: Of 324 eligible participants, 293 were interviewed (90.4%), and 267 of those received the physical exam (82.4% overall). Of the sample, 45% were men. Prevalence rate of estimated GFFI <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) was 0 men (0%) and 2 for Selleck Danusertib women (1.4%). The prevalence of at least microalbuminuria was significantly higher among men compared with women (27.5% vs. 21.4%, respectively; p=0.02).

Conclusions: The CKD prevalence in this village is comparable to a previously studied Nicaraguan coffee-farming PND-1186 region and much lower than previously screened portions of northwestern Nicaragua. There is heterogeneity in CKD prevalence across Nicaragua. At this time, screenings should target individuals living in previously

identified, higher risk regions. More work is needed to understand determinants of CKD in this resource-poor nation.”
“Background: Angiopoietin-2 (ang-2) that activates endothelial cells and increases vascular inflammation might have significant roles in the pathogenesis of glomerular diseases. This study aimed at assessing the level of ang-2 as a marker of renal involvement in SLE patients to elucidate its correlation with disease activity and endothelial dysfunction.

Methods: This study included 81 subjects. The control group included 21 healthy subjects. The patients group included 60 SLE patients, 24 patients without lupus nephritis (LN) and 36 patients with LN. Clinical examination and laboratory investigations including 24 hours urinary protein, estimation of serum ang-2 and creatinine and calculation of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Measurement of SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), flow mediated dilatation (FMD) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) were done. Renal biopsy was done for patients with LN.

Results: Ang2 level was significantly higher in subjects with FMD <= 10%, than in subjects with FMD >10%.

Conclusion: Endobronchial closure of BPF using both types of Ampl

Conclusion: Endobronchial closure of BPF using both types of Amplatzer occluders (AD and AVP) is a minimally invasive effective modality of treatment with high safety profile and satisfactory long-term outcome considering the poor prognosis in this particular group of patients. Rapamycin inhibitor (C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“This study assays

therapy with basiliximab and different patterns of cyclosporin A (CsA) initiation in renal transplant (RT) recipients from expanded criteria donors (ECD) and at high risk of delayed graft function (DGF). A multicentre six-month open-label randomized trial with three parallel groups treated with basiliximab plus steroids, mycophenolate mofetil and different patterns of CsA initiation: early within 24 h post-RT at 3 mg/kg/d (Group 1; n = 38), and at 5 mg/kg/d (Group 2; n = 40), or delayed after 7-10 d at 5 mg/kg/d (Group 3; n = 36). There were no differences among groups Copanlisib supplier in six months GFR (43.1 +/- 12, 48.0 +/- 14 and 47.2 +/- 17 mL/min, respectively), DGF (Group 1: 31%, Group 2: 37%, Group 3: 42%), nor biopsy-proven acute rejection, although clinically treated and biopsy-proven acute rejection was

significantly higher in Group 3 (25%) vs. Group 1 (5.3%, p < 0.05). At six months no differences were observed in death-censored graft survival or patient survival. Induction therapy with basiliximab and three CsA-ME initiation patterns in RT recipients from ECD and at high risk of DGF presented good renal MX69 cost function and graft survival at six months. Late onset group did not achieve improvement in DGF rate and showed a higher incidence of clinically treated and biopsy-proven acute rejection.”
“We demonstrate the origin and mechanism of the hysteresis behavior that is frequently observed during the operation of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on polymer gate dielectrics. Although polar functionalities, such as hydroxyl groups, present in the polymer gate dielectrics

are known to induce hysteresis, there have only been a few detailed investigations examining how the presence of such end functionalities both at the polymer surface-forming an interface with the semiconductor layer-and in the bulk influences the hysteresis. In this study, we control the hydrophobicity of the polymer by varying the number of hydroxyl groups, and use an ultrathin polymer/SiO(2) bilayer and a thick single polymer as the gate dielectric structure so that the hysteresis behavior is divided into contributions from hydroxyl groups present at the polymer surface and in the bulk, respectively. Electrical characterizations of the OFETs, performed both in vacuum (approximate to 10(-3) Torr) and in ambient air (relative humidity of about 40%), show that the observed hysteresis is determined by the transport of water within the polymer (i.e., the adsorption at the polymer surface and the diffusion into the bulk), which in turn is controlled by the hydrophobicity and the thickness of the polymer.

Aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the overall QOL

Aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the overall QOL and of the HRQOL to predict several adverse health outcomes at a one-year follow-up in an older outpatient population living in the community.

Methods: We carried out a prospective

cohort study on 210 community-dwelling outpatients aged 65+ (mean age 81.2 yrs) consecutively referred to a geriatric clinic in Milan, Italy. At baseline participants underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment including evaluation of overall QOL and HRQOL by means of the Older People’s Quality of Life (OPQOL) questionnaire. At a one-year follow-up, between June and December 2010, we investigated nursing home placement and death in all 210 participants as well as any fall, any admission to the emergency learn more department (ED), any

hospitalisation and greater functional dependence among the subset of subjects still living at home.

Results: One Fosbretabulin year after the visit 187 subjects were still living at home (89%) while 7 had been placed in a nursing home (3.3%) and 16 had died (7.7%). At multiple logistic regression analyses the lowest score-based quartile of the OPQOL total score at baseline was independently associated with a greater risk of any fall and any ED admission. Also, the lowest score-based quartile of the health-related OPQOL sub-score was associated with a greater risk of any fall as well as of nursing home placement (odds ratio [OR] 10.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-80.54, P = 0.030)

and death (OR 4.23, 95% CI 1.06-16.81, P = 0.041). The correlation with the latter two health outcomes was found after correction for age, sex, education, income, living conditions, comorbidity, disability and the frailty syndrome.

Conclusions: In an older outpatient population in Italy the OPQOL total score and its health-related sub-score were independent predictors of several adverse health outcomes at one year. Notably, poor HRQOL predicted both nursing home placement and death even after correction for the frailty syndrome. These findings support and enhance the prognostic relevance of QOL measures.”
“Empirical studies have demonstrated the importance of maternal characteristics to egg and larval viability in Atlantic cod (Godus PD0332991 morhua) and other marine teleosts. The effects of these advantages on total reproductive output of individual fish have not yet been studied. A model of an Atlantic cod population was constructed to determine the contribution of offspring by spawners of different spawning experience. First-, second-, and third-time spawners consisted of cod ages 1-9 years old and experienced spawners consisted of ages 10 and 11. Experienced spawners contributed 10.1-12.4 times more offspring surviving to age 1 than did less experienced spawners. Reproductive efforts by first- and second-time spawners were relatively unimportant.