Note that the fluorous solvent is chemically inert to most organic and inorganic materials [14, 15]. The patterned TNP layer was annealed at 80°C for 2 h and then at 450°C for 30 min. As shown in Figure
2a, the TNP pattern whose width (w) and distance (d) were 500 μm, respectively, was well defined according to the PDMS pattern. In principle, the TNP patterns can be achieved down to selleck kinase inhibitor a submicrometer scale depending on the dimension of the elastomer stamp patterns or the SL patterns . Figure 1 Schematic diagram showing each step of our micropatterning www.selleckchem.com/products/gw3965.html method of TNPs. (a) Transfer printing of the SL on a patterned FTO glass using a PDMS stamp. (b) Doctor-blading TNP paste on the SL-patterned FTO glass to form a TNP layer of 2.5 μm thick.
(c) Soft-curing of the TNP layer at 50°C for 3 min and the lift-off process of the SL. Figure 2 Schematic diagram of TiO 2 pattern, images taken with optical microscopy and FE-SEM, and solid 19 F-NMR spectra. (a) Dimension of a TiO2 pattern: the width (w), the distance (d), and the height (h) are 500, 500, and 2.5 μm, respectively. (b) The optical microscopic image of the TNP patterns on the FTO glass. (c) The FE-SEM QNZ price image of the cross section of the patterned TNP layer of 2.5 μm thick. (d) The high-resolution FE-SEM image of the highly packed TNPs. The solid 19 F-NMR spectra of (e) an empty rotor and (f) a TNP layer after being treated with a fluorous solvent. Preparation of a DSSC array Each patterned TNP used 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase as an individual photoanode for a unit cell was connected in series for
a high-voltage DSSC array. The patterned TNP layer was immersed in a solution of 3 mM Z907 dye (Solaronix SA) dissolved in a 1:1 mixture of acetonitrile and tert-butyl alcohol for 24 h. The dye-coated TNP layer was simply washed with acetonitrile. For the solid-state hole transport material (HTM), spiro-OMeTAD (American Dye Source, Inc., Baie D’Urfé, Quebec, Canada) dissolved in chlorobenzene was mixed with a lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide salt ionic dopant dissolved in acetonitrile. The solution was placed on the whole TNP-patterned FTO glass, and the pores in the TNP layer were filled with the solution by capillary action for 1 min. The TNP-patterned FTO glass was then spun at the rate of 2,000 rpm. For the preparation of a cathode, Au of 100 nm thick was thermally deposited at the rate of 1 Å/s through a shadow mask to connect 20 cells in series. The array of 20 DSSCs connected in series has a total active area of 1.4 cm2. Characterization methods An optical microscope and a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM; SU-70, Hitachi, Ltd., Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan) were used for taking the images of the patterned TNP layer.