Hernia was repaired using a tensio and on free mesh technique Pr

Hernia was repaired using a tensio and on free mesh technique. Prophylactic antibiotic (ceftriaxone) was given for 3 days. Foley’s catheter removed after 4 days and the patient was discharged. Six months after surgery, none Epigenetics inhibitor of the hernias recurred, but his lower urinary symptoms were only partially relieved by the medical treatment. Discussion Hernias are usually the result of musculo-apponeurotic weakness or secondary to an increased intra-abdominal pressure. Patients with prostatic hypertrophy usually have increased intrarvesical pressure and at increased risk of the development of a bladder diverticula [4]. Femoral hernias are more often

found in females and usually contain small intestine and omentum in their sacs. Reported uncommon contents include cecum, appendix, meckel’s diverticulum

(Littre Hernia), testis, ovary, transverse colon and even stomach or kidney [5]. Urinary bladder diverticula can be contained in inguino-scrotal hernias. To the best of our knowledge, NVP-HSP990 solubility dmso there has been only one case reported in the literature of a femoral hernia containing a urinary bladder diverticulum [6], (Table 1). Table 1 Reported case of a right femoral hernia containing a urinary bladder diverticulum Number Age Sex Side Chronic dysuria Author Journal Year 1. 72 Male Right Present N.P. Buchholz et al. British Journal of Urology 1998 Present case 59 Male Right Present Omari AK, Alghazo MA     Bladder diverticula are usually caused by an increased intravesical pressure as a result of infravesical obstruction

resulting from benign prostatic hypertrophy, urethral stricture, bladder neck contracture and others. In our case, the infravesical obstruction was caused by benign prostatic hypertrophy. A long standing history of difficulty of urination, incomplete voiding and straining in the setting of a groin hernia as seen in our case should increase the suspicion for the diagnosis of a sliding inguino-scrotal hernia containing the urinary bladder or a bladder diverticulum. The diagnosis of groin hernia is usually based on the clinical findings. However, it is important to know its exact location, its relationships, and the characteristics of its contents before planning surgical Vorinostat order intervention [1]. As a noninvasive technique, several authors report the useful diagnostic application of ultrasonography in determining the contents of groin hernia [7, 8]. In this case, ultrasonography showed the bladder diverticulum as a content of the groin hernia but did not provide solid information about its relationships. NCT-501 order Nowadays, CT scan imaging is believed to be the study of choice in correctly localizing the groin hernia, in demonstrating its relationship with the inferior epigastric vessels and in the characterization of its contents [9, 10]. We requested a CT scan study but the patient could not do it due to financial reasons.

Nevertheless, as Steinert and Snell [3] indicate interactive appr

Nevertheless, as Steinert and Snell [3] indicate interactive approaches require utilization of various forms of questioning which “”can this website stimulate interest, arouse attention, serve as an ‘ice-breaker’ and provide

valuable feedback to the teacher and student alike”". Questioning and probing students effectively are skills that educators should be trained on during teaching enhancement programs for Faculty [22, 23]. The dynamics of the tutorial process is multifaceted including the educational methods, the tutor, and the learners. Concentrating on one of them will lead to an incomplete understanding of the educational process [24]. Thus, it is important to take a holistic approach to evaluate teaching and learning. This opinion was supported by others [25]. Contemporary instructional strategies that considers only instructor behaviors, is unlikely to succeed in improving the quality of education. Action

should be done at the same time on educational methods and promoting selleckchem active students’ learning. We tried to achieve that by developing an educational tool which actively involves the students in the learning process. In summary The interactive problem-solving approach for tutorials can be an effective enjoyable Compound high throughput screening alternative or supplement to traditional instruction for teaching traumatology to medical students. Training for this approach should be encouraged for Faculty development. Consent An informed consent was taken from patients to use their images for medical

education/publication. References 1. Goldstein GS, Benassi VA: Students’ and instructors’ beliefs about excellent lecturers and discussion leaders. Research in Higher Education 2006, 47:685–707.CrossRef 2. Brown G, Manouge M: AMEE Medical Education Gudie No 22: refreshing lecturing: Quinapyramine a guide for lecturers. Med Teach 2001, 23:231–234.CrossRefPubMed 3. Steinert Y, Snell LS: Interactive lecturing: strategies for increasing participation in large group presentations. Med Teach 1999, 21:37–42.CrossRef 4. Norman GR, Schmidt HG: The psychological basis of problem-based learning: a review of the evidence. Acad Med 1992, 67:557–565.CrossRefPubMed 5. Marsh HW: Students’ evaluations of university teaching: Research findings, methodological issues and directions for future research. Int J Educ Res 1987, 11:255–388.CrossRef 6. Johns M: Design of slides. J Audiov Media Med 1995, 18:121–128.PubMed 7. Cox KR, Ewan CE: Designing illustrations for teaching. In The Medical Teacher. Edited by: Cox KR, Ewan CE. Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone; 1982:144–149. 8. Centre for Professional Development: S.E.C.A.T Student evaluations of courses and teaching booklet. The University of Auckland, Auckalnd, New Zealand; 1996:8–11. 9.

References 1 Taguchi A (2009) Alveolar density measurement and b

References 1. Taguchi A (2009) Alveolar density measurement and bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. Osteoporosis Int. doi:10.​1007/​s00198-009-1094-8 2. Takaishi Y, Ikeo T, Nakajima M, Miki T, Fujita T (2009) A pilot case–control study on the alveolar bone density measurement in risk assessment for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Osteoporosis Int. doi:10.​1007/​s00198-009-1021-z”
“Background Acute promyelocytic

leukemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which causes approximately 1.2% of cancer deaths in USA [1, AZD5582 clinical trial 2]. APL is a blood cancer that affects all age groups of people and strikes about 1,500 patients selleck chemicals in the United States each year [3]. Initially, APL was treated with conventional chemotherapy method by using cytarabine and daunorubicin to achieve complete remissions (CRs) in approximately 70% of patients having 5-year disease-free survival of 35–45% [4, 5]. All trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has brought revolutionary change for APL patients treatment. Combination of ATRA plus an anthracycline, with or without cytarabine achieved remission rates of nearly 90% for APL patients [1]. Although many therapeutic advances such as combined chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem

cell transplantation have been made to improve the survival rate of APL patients, a higher proportion of patients relapse and hence do not Crenigacestat datasheet undergo complete remission. Also, because of the growing Leukocyte receptor tyrosine kinase evidence of resistance to ATRA treatment of APL patients [6], the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved arsenic trioxide (ATO) for APL patient treatment in September 2000 on the basis of several human clinical trials showing very promising results [7]. ATO is a drug of choice for the treatment of both relapsed and refractory APL patients. It is used alone or combination with all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) to achieve

complete remission and maximum survival rate [8, 9]. Existing evidence has shown that APL patients treated with ATO achieved complete remission with high survival rate without ATRA combination [10]. In a Phase II clinical trial study, it was reported that these APL patients treated with ATO alone observed a high rate of 5-years disease free survival (DFS) and an overall survival (OS) [11]. Few reports have suggested that ATO inhibits proliferation of human myeloma cells by cell cycle arrest [12] and induces apoptosis in HL-60 cells by phosphotidylserine externalization as well as DNA laddering [3]. ATO is a clastogenic/genotoxic compound. It has been shown to induce DNA damage/mutation in cultured mouse lymphoma cells [13] and bone marrow cells of Sprague–Dawley rats [14].

8 mg/dL

and albumin is 3 1 g/dL, then corrected Ca = 7 8 

8 mg/dL

and albumin is 3.1 g/dL, then corrected Ca = 7.8 + (4 − 3.1) = 7.8 + 0.9 = 8.7 mg/dL In case of hyperphosphatemia is associated with kidney failure, phosphorus intake is restricted. Phosphorus intake has a close positive relation with protein intake. Accordingly, implementation #NSC 683864 datasheet randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# of low-protein diet is beneficial for phosphorus restriction. Milk products, liver, dried young sardine, smelts, or whole dried fish contain high phosphorus. Exercise Throughout all stages of CKD, overprescription of rest is unnecessary, although it is important to avoid overwork and to get sufficient sleep and good rest. Exercise plans should be tailored to fit an individual patient, carefully considering blood pressure, urinary protein, kidney function, and others. Smoking cessation Smoking is regarded as a serious risk factor for CKD progression and has a harmful GSK458 manufacturer effect on general health. Alcohol intake No report is available on alcohol exerting an adverse influence on CKD. Generally, appropriate alcohol intake as expressed in ethanol is less than 20–30 mL/day in men (180 mL of Japanese sake) and less than 10–20 mL/day in women.”
“Table 23-1

Emergency treatment of hyperkalemia: CKD stage 3 and over Measures Effect Example of the treatment Ca gluconate, iv Cardiac protection Ca gluconate 10 mL, 5 min, iv Loop diuretics, iv Increase the urinary excretion Furosemide 20 mg + saline 20 mL NaHCO3 Shift into cells 7% NaHCO3 20 mL, iv Glucose-insulin Shift into cells 10 g of glucose with 1 unit insulin, div. No glucose if hyperglycemia Cation exchanger resin Removal 30 g, dissolved in 100 mL warm water, then given into rectum, and left for 1 h Hemodialysis Removal 3 h or longer

depending on the plasma K As CKD stage progresses, metabolic acidosis develops and serum potassium (K) increases. In case of severe hyperkalemia, ECG recording should be performed to evaluate the emergency. A hyperkalemic patient with abnormal ECG findings should be treated as emergency and be consulted with nephrologists thereafter. The causes of hyperkalemia in CKD are mainly due to drugs such as ACE inhibitors, ARBs, spironolactone, etc. and to excess of potassium-rich diet (Table 23-1). Hyperkalemia As CKD progresses in stage, acidosis and hyperkalemia are observed. Hyperkalemia is defined Pazopanib as serum potassium level greater than or equal to 5.5 mEq/L. Hyperkalemia greater than 7 mEq/L may potentially cause cardiac arrest and thus should be treated as emergency. If severe hyperkalemia is observed despite the absence of reduced kidney function, pseudohyperkalemia due to hemolysis of blood specimen or else is considered. Hyperkalemia is a risk for arrhythmia. In case of severe hyperkalemia emergency levels should be confirmed by ECG abnormalities such as tenting T wave, prolongation of PQ times followed by disappearance of P wave and widening of QRS complex.

Biochim

Biophys Acta 2005,1703(2):213–219 PubMedCrossRef

Biochim

Biophys Acta 2005,1703(2):213–219.PubMedCrossRef 37. Hullo MF, Auger S, Dassa E, Danchin A, Martin-Verstraete I: The metNPQ operon of Bacillus subtilis encodes an ABC permease transporting methionine sulfoxide, D- and L-methionine. Res Microbiol 2004,155(2):80–86.PubMedCrossRef 38. Grifantini R, Toukoki C: Colaprico A. The Peroxide Stimulon and the Role of PerR in Group A Streptococcus. J Bacteriol, Gryllos I; 2011. 39. Traore DA, El Ghazouani A, Jacquamet L, Borel F, Ferrer JL, Lascoux D, Ravanat JL, Jaquinod M, Blondin G, Caux-Thang C, et al.: Structural and functional characterization of 2-oxo-histidine in oxidized PerR protein. Nat Chem Biol 2009,5(1):53–59.PubMedCrossRef 40. Li W, Liu L, Chen H, Zhou R: Identification of Streptococcus suis genes preferentially expressed under iron starvation by selective capture of transcribed sequences. FEMS click here Microbiol Lett 2009,292(1):123–133.PubMedCrossRef 41. van de Rijn I, Kessler RE: Growth characteristics of group A streptococci in a new chemically defined medium. Infect Immun 1980,27(2):444–448.PubMed 42. Takamatsu D, Osaki M, Sekizaki T: Thermosensitive PND-1186 ic50 suicide vectors

for gene replacement in Streptococcus suis. Plasmid 2001,46(2):140–148.PubMedCrossRef 43. King KY, Horenstein JA, Caparon MG: Aerotolerance and peroxide resistance in peroxidase and PerR mutants of Streptococcus pyogenes. J Bacteriol 2000,182(19):5290–5299.PubMedCrossRef 44. Takamatsu D, Osaki M, Sekizaki T: Construction and characterization of Streptococcus suis-Escherichia coli shuttle cloning vectors. Plasmid 2001,45(2):101–113.PubMedCrossRef 45. Trieu-Cuot P, Carlier C, Poyart-Salmeron Ribonucleotide reductase C, Courvalin P: Shuttle vectors containing a multiple cloning site and a lacZ alpha gene for conjugal transfer of DNA from Escherichia coli to gram-positive bacteria. Gene 1991,102(1):99–104.PubMedCrossRef

Authors’ contributions TZ Napabucasin in vitro participated in the design of study, performance of the experiments and the writing of manuscript. YD, TL and YW participated in the performance of the experiments. WL participated in the design of the study. RZ and HC participated in the design of study and the writing of manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease or Paratuberculosis, a chronic enteritis that mainly affects ruminants, causing a general debilitation of the infected organisms [1]. The disease is characterized by several phases that include, besides the initial phase of infection, a subclinical asymptomatic stage dominated by a Th1 type immune response, which usually is not able to eliminate the infection due to bacterial mechanisms of evasion [2], and then gradually replaced by a Th2 humoral immune response [3].

Expression of the ST6Gal I protein was determined by western blot

Expression of the ST6Gal I protein was selleck kinase inhibitor determined by western blotting. Respiratory epithelial cells (A549, HBE,

and HEp-2) were transfected with control or ST6GAL1 siRNAs (2.5–50 nmol). At 48 h post-transfection we used an RNeasy Mini kit (Qiagen) for RNA extraction according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The extracted total RNA (500 ng/sample) was then used for cDNA synthesis. The resulting cDNA was amplified LGX818 in a 20-μL reaction containing ST6GAL1-specific forward (0.25 μmol) and reverse (0.25 μmol) primers (Additional file 1: Table S2), and 1× Power SYBR Green PCR Master Mix (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). Reactions were subjected to thermal cycling with an IQ5 System (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA) involving an initial 10-min denaturation step at 95°C, followed by 40 cycles of 95°C for 15 s and 60°C for 60 s. Fluorescence signals from these reactions were captured at the end of the 60°C extension step for each cycle. To determine

the specificity of the assay, amplicons were subject to melting curve analysis after the 40th cycle (65–95°C, 0.1°C/s). Our data were analyzed using the 2-ΔΔCT method, according to the manufacturer’s instructions, with ST6GAL1 expression levels normalized to β-actin mRNA levels. After transfection for 48 h, A549 cells were lysed in 50 mM Tris–HCl buffer (pH 7.4) containing 1% Triton X-100, 0.5 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), 20 μg/mL Megestrol Acetate leupeptin, 4 mM sodium fluoride, and 200 μM sodium pervanadate. Protein concentrations in P-gp inhibitor the lysates were determined with a BCA assay kit (Pierce, Rockford, IL, USA). Proteins in lysates were resolved under reducing conditions for sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). We probed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes with 5 μg/mL of a rabbit antihuman ST6Gal Ι polyclonal antibody (Abcam, Cambridge, MA, USA) followed by a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)conjugated antirabbit IgG secondary antibody(Abcam). Specific signals were visualized using an ECL kit (Pierce). Protein concentrations between wells were normalized

using HRP-conjugated β-actin-specific monoclonal antibodies (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). Cell viability Cultured cells in the logarithmic growth phase were trypsinized, seeded into 96-well plates, and transfected with ST6GAL1 (2.5–50 nmol) or control (10 nmol) siRNAs. At 24, 48, and 72 h post-transfection, cell viability was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays (Sigma-Aldrich). The absorbance at 492 nm was measured in a spectrophotometer (Molecular Devices, Palo Alto, CA, USA). Background values were subtracted from the average absorbance value obtained for each siRNA treatment and then compared with the value obtained when siRNAs were absent (100% viability). Each assay was performed in duplicate in at least four wells.

In this study, a novel deposition of In2O3 NPs using a modified p

In this study, a novel deposition of In2O3 NPs using a modified plasma-assisted hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (PA-HWCVD) system is reported. The deposition was done by evaporating the bulk indium wire in a nitrous oxide plasma environment. The vaporized indium atoms were oxidized by the oxidizing agents, then forming In2O3 NPs on the substrates. We selleck products demonstrate an effective way to improve the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the In2O3 NPs by introducing an in situ thermal radiation treatment under an oxidizing agent

plasma condition. Compared to the previously reported treatment methods [13–16], the proposed method offers a cost-effective, single-step deposition process to perform treatment on the as-deposited samples. In addition to surface treatment, this method can also be used to control the microstructure morphology and crystallinity of the In2O3 nanostructures to

suit desired applications. Methods In2O3 NPs were deposited on a quartz substrate using a home-built PA-HWCVD system (Additional file 1: Figure SN-38 S1). Indium wire (purity 99.999%) with a diameter of 0.5 mm and a length of approximately 2 mm was used as indium source. Tantalum filament coils were used for indium evaporation. The filament coils were preheated in H2 ambient at approximately 1,500°C for 10 min to remove the contamination before being used for deposition. The distance of the electrode and Avelestat (AZD9668) the filament with the substrate is fixed at 5 and 3 cm, respectively. The quartz substrate was heated to 300°C in vacuum (10−3 mbar) before starting deposition. buy SC79 evaporation process was then carried out at a filament temperature of approximately 1,200°C in a N2O plasma environment. The rf power density for the N2O plasma generation is fixed at 1.273 W cm−2. The deposition pressure and N2O gas flow rate were controlled at 1

mbar and 60 sccm, respectively. For thermal radiation treatment, the temperature of the filament increased rapidly to about 1,800°C for 7 to 10 min after complete evaporation of the indium wire by the hot filament. The N2O plasma generation was terminated at 5 min after the evaporation process or the thermal treatment process. A Hitachi SU 8000 field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM; Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan) attached with an EDAX Apollo XL SDD detector energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscope (EDAX Inc., Mahwah, NJ, USA) was utilized to perform surface morphology study and chemical composition analysis of the samples. Structural properties of the samples were studied using a Siemens D5000 X-ray diffractometer (Siemens Corporation, New York, NY, USA) and a Renishaw InVia photoluminescence/Raman spectrometer (Renishaw, Wotton-under-Edge, UK). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were obtained using Cu Kα radiation at a glazing angle of 5°, and Raman spectra were recorded under an excitation of argon laser source with a wavelength of 514 nm.

trachomatis strains Statistical significance is indicated with t

trachomatis strains. Statistical significance is indicated with the asterisk above the individual

treatment groups, as compared to pcDNA-transfected cells (Student’s t-test, p < 0.01). The multinuclear phenotype was manifested by the carboxy-terminal 179 amino acids of CT223p (Fig. 4). A reduced but still significant level of multinuclear cells were identified in cells transfected with a plasmid encoding only the carboxy-terminal 56 amino acids of CT223p, but, transfection of a plasmid encoding an internal fragment of CT223p (CT223/CT91p) did not lead to a significant level of multinuclear cells. These data suggest that the FK228 domain of the protein responsible for blocking cytokinesis was present in the carboxy-terminal 56 amino acids. Cytosolic expression of other incs The orf encoding CT223p is within a likely operon encoding known and candidate inc genes CT223-CT227, and is adjacent to a very early operon containing two inc genes (CT228 and CT229). We tested each orf in these operons for an association with a polynuclear phenotype. Each orf was expressed in transfected cells and there was no

apparent difference in expression level, based on fluorescence microscopy of transfected cells (not shown). Orfs CT224 and CT225 also were associated with a reduced but still statistically significant percentage of polynuclear cells Tacrolimus (FK506) in a transfected population (Fig. 4). None of the other tested orfs were associated with an increased number of polynuclear cells. The same approach was used for testing the effects SB202190 chemical structure on cell cytokinesis of other Inc proteins. HeLa or McCoy cells transfected with plasmids encoding each protein from C. trachomatis incA and incC, and C. caviae incA, incB and incC were compared with cells expressing full length and truncated CT223. None of these plasmids led to an increase in polynuclear cells relative to AZD3965 ic50 controls (Fig. 4). The CT223 coding sequence

from different C. trachomatis strains encode proteins with up to 5% difference in amino acid sequence (22). We therefore tested plasmids encoding CT223p from strains with known amino acid sequence differences for their ability to block cytokinesis. Transfection of plasmids encoding each CT223p sequence was associated with an increase in multinucleate cells (Fig. 5). In contrast, transfection of a plasmid expressing C. muridarum TC0495, which is a syntenous, apparent CT223 homolog (less than 30% predicted amino acid sequence identity), did not lead to an increase in the number of multinucleate cells relative to controls (Fig. 5). Cells producing CT223p and CT223/179p have increased numbers of centrosomes To further explore the multinuclear phenotype, cells expressing CT223 were labeled with antibodies specific against γ-tubulin.

Consistent with these data is another study [35], which failed to

Consistent with these data is another study [35], which failed to show a correlation between histopathological findings and clinical status of patients with colon cancer treated pre-operatively with irradiation. The observations of this study indicate that acute radiation colitis may remain clinically silent and resolve spontaneously within a few weeks after irradiation. PXD101 supplier Given the increasing acceptance of short-term preoperative irradiation protocols for rectal cancer, pathologists should be aware of the rather characteristic histopathologic findings of acute radiation

colitis and avoid unnecessary concern of clinicians. Conclusions In conclusion, this is one of the first studies to assess the efficacy of prophylactic amifostine efficacy by using clinical, endoscopic and histologic assessment in patients receiving radical https://www.selleckchem.com/products/hsp990-nvp-hsp990.html radiotherapy to pelvic tumors. Subcutaneous amifostine prophylactic was safe and seemed to provide protection to the development of severe and acute radiation colitis. Larger studies and longer follow up is needed to confirm and evaluate the long-term protective function of amifostine. The poor concordance of endoscopic and histologic findings undercores the need for a global assessment of radiation-induced bowel injury by clinical, endoscopic, and histological means. Acknowledgements We offer our thanks to Mrs Olga Siarabi, data manager in the Department of Oncology,

AZD9291 Medical School of Ioannina for the excellent data handling and secretarial support in this study. References 1. Andreyev HJ: Gastrointestinal problems after pelvic radiotherapy: the past, the present and the future. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2007, 19:790–799. 2. Zimmermann FB, Feldmann HJ: Radiation proctitis. Clinical and pathological manifestations, therapy and prophylaxis of acute and late injurious effects of radiation on

the rectal mucosa. Strahlenther Onkol 1998, 174:85–9.PubMed 3. Schumacher C, Paul K, Robbe Y, Sicart MT, Chanal JL, Delard R, Dubois JB: Mice’s rectum radioprotection: comparative efficacy of a series of aminothiols and aminothiol precursors. Farmaco 1997, 52:729–31.PubMed 4. Keshavarzian A, Haydek J, Zabihi R, Doria M, D’Astice M, Sorenson JR: Agents capable of eliminating reactive oxygen species. Catalase, WR-2721, or Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4 decrease experimental colitis. Dig Dis Sci 1992, 37:1866–73.PubMedCrossRef Ureohydrolase 5. Athanassiou H, Antonadou D, Coliarakis N, Kouveli A, Synodinou M, Paraskevaidis M, Sarris G, Georgakopoulos GR, Panousaki K, Karageorgis P, Throuvalas N, Oncology Hellenic Group: Protective effect of amifostine during fractionated radiotherapy in patients with pelvic carcinomas: results of a randomized trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003, 56:1154–60.PubMedCrossRef 6. DeCosse JJ, Rhodes RS, Wentz WB, Reagan JW, Dworken HJ, Holden WD: The natural history and management of radiation induced injury of the gastrointestinal tract. Ann Surg 1969, 170:369–384.

NNU EWC WNCIEON EWAOUE 31:445–447 Van der

Leeuw, Sander,

NNU EWC WNCIEON EWAOUE 31:445–447 Van der

Leeuw, Sander, Wiek, Arnim, Harlow, John, Buizer, James (2012). How much time do we have? Urgency and rhetoric in sustainability science. Sustain Sci: 7 (Supplement 1:115–120). doi 10.​1007/​s11625-011-0153-1. Vitousek P, Mooney H, Lubchenco J, Melillo JM (1997) selleckchem Human Domination of Earth’s Ecosystems. Science, New Series, Vol. 277, No. 5325: 494–499. Available online at http://​webspace.​pugetsound.​edu/​facultypages/​kburnett/​readings/​vitousek.​pdf. Accessed July 1, 2014 Wiek A, Ness B, Schweizer-Ries P, Brand F, Farioli F (2012) From complex systems thinking to transformational change: a comparative study on the epistemological and methodological challenges in sustainability find more click here science projects. Sustain Sci 7(s1):5–24CrossRef Footnotes 1 see, http://​sustainabledevel​opment.​un.​org/​futurewewant.​html.   2 See, also, Klein (1990) on the history of interdisciplinarity which tracks the types of border traffic between disciplines (e.g., multidisciplinarity, crossdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity) to overcome problems of specialization to better address complex issues.   3 See the special

issue of Sustainability Science, Sustainability science: bridging the gap between science and society. Sustain Sci vol 7, supplement 1, February 2012.   4 www.​futureearth.​com/​info.”
“Introduction In the past decade, the new academic

research program (sensu Khagram et al. 2010) of sustainability has rapidly emerged (Yarime et al. 2012; van der Leeuw et al. 2012), seeking to understand the complex, dynamic interactions between human and environmental systems (Kates et al. 2001; Clark and Dickson 2003). The recent increase in conferences, departments, educational programs, and journals (such as this one) with an explicit focus on sustainability demonstrates the emergence and growing level of establishment of a new academic field. The field of sustainability explicitly aims to integrate environmental, social, and economic dimensions (Komiyama and Takeuchi 2006). To do so, sustainability draws heavily from a wide variety of foundational disciplines (e.g., geography, environmental science, ecology, economics, political science, and selleck chemical sociology) that span academic divisions across natural and social sciences and the arts and humanities, although sustainability is defined more by the problems it addresses rather than the disciplines it employs (Clark 2007). Reflecting the growth in the field of sustainability overall, there has been a recent expansion of programs in higher education explicitly focused on sustainability (Vincent et al. 2013). In the US, for example, sustainability degree programs have grown from just one in 2006 to over 140 programs in 2012 (Vincent et al. 2013).