Patients and methods: We investigated 51 adult volunteers 28 panc

Patients and methods: We investigated 51 adult volunteers 28 pancreatic insufficient CF patients [13 with CF-related diabetes (CFRD) and

15 non-diabetic] and 23 male non-CF patients 112 with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and selleck inhibitor 11 healthy control subjects! Patients with known liver cirrhosis or portal hypertension were excluded. The size of the spleen was measured in all subjects by an investigator unaware of patients’ clinical status For comparison of spleen size in the four study groups only male CF patients were included For CF patients, spleen size was compared with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), body mass index (WAD, total number of days of intravenous (IV) antibiotic treatment for pulmonary exacerbations in year previous to study, levels of circulating white blood cells, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and exocrine function of H 89 solubility dmso the pancreas, as assessed by

daily requirement of oral

Results: Amongst the four study groups, spleen size was greatest in the male non-diabetic CF patients (P = 0 01) For CF patients, spleen size was greater in male compared to female patients (P = 0 012) For patients with CFRD, there was an inverse correlation between the spleen size and HbA1c (r = -0 59, P = 0 04) and the daily intake of supplementary lipase (r = -0.63, P = 0 02) The size of the spleen in patients with CFRD, but not in CF patients without CFRD, inversely correlated with the days of IV antibiotic treatment received in the year previous to the study (r = -0 67, P = 0 012).

There was no correlation between spleen size and BMI, FEV1 and white blood cell counts in any group

Conclusions: On MRI, the spleen size was greatest in male non-diabetic CF patients in comparison with other groups. The size of the spleen in CFRD patients was smaller when BRSK2 diabetes was poorly controlled, when exocrine pancreatic function was greatly impaired and in those with greater need for IV antibiotics in the year prior to the study”
“Objectives: Recent evidence indicated that the use of a bioprosthesis in young patients at first-time aortic valve replacement (AVR) is associated with an increased reoperation risk, but not with an increase in long-term mortality, when compared with the use of a mechanical valve. However, at reoperative AVR, follow-up data by prosthesis type have been lacking from the literature. Therefore, we examined long-term survival and valve-related complications according to the type of prosthesis used at reoperative AVR.

Methods: We studied 437 patients who underwent reoperative AVR, at a mean age of 58.6 +/- 14.2 years, for failure of a previously implanted aortic valve prosthesis. Thirty-day mortality at reoperative AVR was 6% (n = 27). A bioprosthesis was used in 135 (31%) patients. Patients were subsequently followed up for a mean of 7.6 +/- 6.8 years after reoperative AVR.

1% (P = 0001) The overall stroke rate was 3% In univariate ana

1% (P = .0001). The overall stroke rate was 3%. In univariate analysis

of risk factors for stroke, the stroke rate was 2.8% with and 4.2% without retrograde cerebral perfusion (P = .30), but when circulatory arrest time exceeded 40 minutes, the stroke rate was 1.7% with and 30% without retrograde cerebral perfusion (P = .002). Risk factors included age greater than 62 years (stroke rate, 4%; P = .04), hypertension (stroke rate, 3.7%; P = .03), emergency operations (stroke rate, 4.9%; P = .04), and glomerular filtration rate of less than 56 (stroke rate, 4.3%; P = .05). In multiple logistic regression for risk factors for stroke, age was associated with an odds ratio of 1.04 (P = .008), and emergency conditions had an odds ratio of 2.17 (P = .03).

Conclusions: Retrograde Foretinib research buy cerebral perfusion was associated with a trend toward a reduced incidence of hospital mortality and, in patients receiving prolonged hypothermic circulatory arrest, a reduced incidence of stroke. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2011;142:630-3)”
“Since the founding of the osseointegration concept, the characteristics of the interface between bone and implant, and possible ways to improve it, have been of particular interest in dental and orthopaedic implant research. Making use of standardized tools of analysis and terminology, we present here a standardized characterization code

for osseointegrated implant surfaces. This code describes the chemical composition of the surface, that is, the core material, such as titanium, and its chemical or biochemical modification through impregnation or coating. This code also defines the physical surface features, at the micro- and nanoscale, such as microroughness, microporosity, nanoroughness, nanotubes, nanoparticles, nanopatterning and fractal architecture. PD184352 (CI-1040) This standardized

classification system will allow to clarify unambiguously the identity of any given osseointegrated surface and help to identify the biological outcomes of each surface characteristic.”
“Background: Information sheets for clinical research are becoming increasingly complex but the extent to which they are understood is uncertain.

Aims: To assess, as our primary outcome, recall by healthy volunteers of key facts in a patient information sheet in a phase 3 clinical trial. As secondary outcomes, we examined whether there was a difference between medical student and non-medically trained volunteers.

Design: Questionnaire to determine recall by healthy volunteers of informed consent information.

Methods: Eighty-two healthy volunteers participating in a capsule endoscopy study were given a 13 page written information sheet and allowed to asked questions. After indicating they were ready to give consent they were asked to complete a 6-item questionnaire covering the identity and adverse effects of trial treatments and of the procedure, the duration of the trial and value of the inconvenience allowance.

Results: All 82 healthy volunteers were questioned.

The results also indicated that the LAMP reaction was highly spec

The results also indicated that the LAMP reaction was highly specific to V. corallilyticus.


The LAMP assay was a sensitive, specific and cost-effective method for the rapid detection of V. corallilyticus.

Significance and Impact of the Study:

This LAMP method provides an important diagnostic tool for the detection of V. corallilyticus infection. It can replace laborious biochemical tests for the identification

of V. corallilyticus.”
“BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Intraventricular hemorrhage related to arteriovenous malformation (AVM) rupture is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Intraventricular tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been used to treat spontaneous intraventricular hemorrhage. We demonstrate the successful application of endovascular occlusion to seal the rupture site of an AVM followed by intraventricular GSK J4 solubility dmso tPA.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 32-year-old woman presented with a right frontoparietal parasagittal AVM abutting the motor cortex. The AVM was diagnosed when the patient was 13 years old, and she initially underwent conservative management. At the age of 30, the patient suffered an intracranial hemorrhage, leaving her with left hemiparesis. After rehabilitation, the patient regained ambulation; however, she remained spastic and hyperreflexic

on the left side. Two years after her major hemorrhage, she presented for elective treatment of her AVM. The patient was advised to undergo staged embolization before surgical resection of her AVM. The initial embolization was uneventful. A second embolization was complicated by intraventricular hemorrhage and coma. The patient was treated with placement of an external ventricular drain followed by embolization of intranidal aneurysm. selleck After embolization of the intranidal aneurysm the ruptured, the patient was treated with intraventricular tPA. The patient had rapid clearance

of the intraventricular hemorrhage and significant improvement in her neurological examination, following commands 24 hours later and returning almost to baseline.

CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates the feasibility of treating AVM-related intraventricular hemorrhage with tPA if the rupture source can be confidently sealed interventionally. This strategy can be lifesaving but needs further study to ensure its safety.”
“Introduction: Cu-64-diacetyl-bis (N-4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-64-ATSM) is an imaging agent for positron emission tomography (PET) that targets hypoxic tumors. Cu-64-ATSM is also reported to be a potential agent for internal radiotherapy. In a mouse colon carcinoma (Colon-26) model, we have shown that Cu-64-ATSM preferentially localizes in intratumoral regions with a high density of CD133(+) cells, which show characteristics of cancer stem cells or cancer stem cell-like cells (collectively referred here as CSCs). In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of Cu-64-ATSM in relation to CD133 expression using this model.

Phosphoproteomic change resulting from nocodazole treatment varie

Phosphoproteomic change resulting from nocodazole treatment varied among cell lines in terms of the numbers of total phosphopeptides identified, motif groups, and functional annotation groups; however,

the cell lines were equally sensitive to nocodazole. The identified phosphoproteome subset contained major signaling proteins and proteins known to be involved in mitosis, but did not always exhibit the same changes in the tumor cells from nocodazole treatment. In spite of the complex changes observed in the phosphorylation of many of the proteins, possible common features induced by nocodazole were found, including click here phosphorylation of nucleophosmin (NPM) S254 and coatomer protein complex, subunit alpha (COPA) S173, suggesting that

the events are not cell-type specific but events generally occurring in mitosis or induced by a microtubule-interfering agent. Further, temporal analysis of phosphoproteome change revealed that phosphorylation of NPM S254 and COPA S173 was observed from the early (6 h) and late (24 h) time point after nocodazole treatment, respectively, suggesting that NPM S254 may be involved in the induction of M-phase arrest by nocodazole, whereas COPA S173 may be caused as a result of M-phase arrest.”
“In the age of genomic medicine we can often now do the genetic testing that will permit more accurate personal tailoring of medications to obtain the best therapeutic results. This is certainly a medically and morally desirable result. However, in other areas of medicine pharmacogenomics is generating

Necrostatin-1 consequences that are much less ethically benign and much less amenable to a satisfactory ethical resolution. More specifically, we will often find ourselves left with ‘wicked problems,’ ‘ragged edges,’ and well-disguised Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) ethical precipices. This will be especially true with regard to these extraordinarily expensive cancer drugs that generally yield only extra weeks or extra months of life. Our key ethical question is this: Does every individual faced with cancer have a just claim to receive treatment with one of more of these targeted cancer therapies at social expense? If any of these drugs literally made the difference between an unlimited life expectancy (a cure) and a premature death, that would be a powerful moral consideration in favor of saying that such individuals had a strong just claim to that drug. However, what we are beginning to discover is that different individuals with different genotypes respond more or less positively to these targeted drugs with some in a cohort gaining a couple extra years of life while others gain only extra weeks or months. Should only the strongest responders have a just claim to these drugs at social expense when there is no bright line that separates strong responders from modest responders from marginal responders? This is the key ethical issue we address.

Additional exploratory analyses revealed a positive association b

Additional exploratory analyses revealed a positive association between levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the right temporal N170 amplitude in response to covert expressions of fear. The arachidonic JNJ-64619178 in vitro (AA)/DHA ratio was negatively associated with the right temporal N170 amplitude also to covert expressions of fear. These findings indicate that EPA and DHA may be involved in distinct aspects of affect processing in ADHD and have implications for understanding currently inconsistent findings in the literature on EFA supplementation

in ADHD and depression. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Thalamocortical (TC) neurons provide the major sensory input to the mammalian somatosensory cortex. Decreased activity of these cells may be pivotal in the ability of general anesthetics to induce loss of consciousness and promote sleep (hypnosis).

T-type voltage-gated calcium currents (T-currents) have a key function regulating the cellular excitability of TC neurons and previous studies have indicated that volatile general anesthetics may alter the excitability of these neurons.

Using a patch-clamp technique, we investigated the mechanisms whereby isoflurane, a common volatile anesthetic, modulates isolated T-currents and T-current-dependent excitability of native TC

neurons in acute brain slices of the rat.

In voltage-clamp experiments, we found that isoflurane strongly inhibited peak amplitude of T-current, Dorsomorphin chemical structure yielding an IC50 of 1.1 vol-% at physiological membrane potentials. Ensuing biophysical studies demonstrated that inhibition was more prominent at depolarized membrane potentials as evidenced by hyperpolarizing shifts in channel availability curves. In current-clamp experiments we found that isoflurane decreased the rate of depolarization of low-threshold-calcium spikes (LTCSs) and consequently increased the latency of rebound spike firing at the same concentrations that inhibited isolated T-currents. This effect

was mimicked by a novel selective T-channel blocker 3,5-dichloro-N-[1-(2,2-dmethyl-tetrahydro-pyran-4-ylmethyl)-4-fluoro-piperidin-4-ylmethyl]-benzamid e (TTA-P2). In contrast, isoflurane and TTA-P2 had minimal effect on resting membrane potential and cell input resistance. We propose that the clinical properties of isoflurane Selleck Tenofovir may at least partly be provided by depression of thalamic T-currents. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Analyses of brain phospholipid fatty acid profiles reveal a selective deficiency and enrichment in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), respectively. In order to account for this difference in brain fatty acid levels, we hypothesized that EPA is more rapidly beta-oxidized upon its entry into the brain. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice were perfused with either (14)C-EPA or (14)C-DHA via in situ cerebral perfusion for 40 s, followed by a bicarbonate buffer to wash out the residual radiolabeled polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the capillaries.

The expression of IL-6, TSP-1 and transforming growth factor-beta

The expression of IL-6, TSP-1 and transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) were determined through Western blot analysis in HK-2 cells. Results: In HK-2 cells, purified CRP significantly induced protein release and mRNA expression of IL-6 and TSP-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. TGF-beta(1) protein was overexpressed in HK-2 cells induced by CRP, which cannot be inhibited by IL-6 or TSP-1 antibodies. CRP triggered phosphorylation of p38MAPK

and activation of NF-kappa B-mediated signal transduction. SB203580 (5 mu m) and PDTC (50 mu m) efficiently suppressed those effects of CRP in HK-2 cells. Conclusions: CRP induces IL-6 and TSP-1 protein release and mRNA expression selleck compound from HK-2 cells via activation of the p38MAPK and NF-kappa B signaling pathways and TGE-beta(1) was highly expressed in GSK461364 datasheet HK-2 cells, suggesting that CRP plays an important role in the propagation and prolongation of inflammation in renal fibrosis. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Viruses infecting hyperthermophilic archaea have intriguing morphologies and genomic properties. The vast majority of their genes do not have homologs other than in other hyperthermophilic viruses, and the biology of these viruses is poorly understood. As part of a structural genomics project on the proteins of these

viruses, we present here the structure of a 102 amino acid protein from acidianus filamentous virus 1 (AFV1-102). The structure shows that it is made of two identical motifs that have poor sequence similarity. Although no function can be proposed from structural analysis, tight binding the of the gateway tag peptide in a groove between the two motifs suggests AFV1-102 is involved in protein protein interactions.”
“Photolysis is widely used in experimental neuroscience to isolate post-synaptic receptor activation from presynaptic processes, to determine receptor mechanisms in situ, for pharmacological dissection of signaling pathways, or for photostimulation/inhibition

in neural networks. We have evaluated new caged neuroactive amino acids that use 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl- (MNI) or 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethoxycarbonyl (NPEC) photoprotecting groups to make caged ligands specific for glutamate receptor subtypes. Each was tested for interference with synaptic transmission and excitability and for receptor-specific actions in slice preparations. No adverse effects were found at glutamate receptors. At high concentration, MNI-caged, but not NPEC-caged ligands, interfered with GABA-ergic transmission.

MNI-caged amino acids have sub-microsecond release times suitable for investigating mechanisms at fast synaptic receptors in situ. MNI-NMDA and MNI-kainate were synthesized and tested. MNI-NMDA showed stoichiometric release of chirally pure NMDA. Wide-field photolysis in cerebellar interneurons produced a fast-rising sustained activation of NMDA receptors, and localized laser photolysis gave a fast, transient response.

In Experiment 2, moderately pleasant pictures elicited less activ

In Experiment 2, moderately pleasant pictures elicited less activity over corrugator supercilii when they were embedded among mildly valent (i.e., pleasant and unpleasant), as opposed to extremely valent, pictures; moderately unpleasant pictures elicited comparable EMG activity regardless of context. this website Results indicate that context can influence affective reactions underlying affective judgments of moderately pleasant stimuli.”
“To directly address whether regulating mRNA localization can influence animal behavior, we created transgenic mice that conditionally

express Zipcode Binding Protein 1 (ZBP1) in a subset of neurons in the brain. ZBP1 is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the localization, as well as translation and stability of target mRNAs in the cytoplasm. We took advantage of the absence of ZBP1 expression in the mature brain to examine the effect of expressing ZBP1 on animal behavior.

We constructed a transgene conditionally expressing a GFP-ZBP1 fusion protein in a subset of forebrain neurons and compared cocaine-cued place conditioning in these mice versus noninduced littermates. Transgenic ZBP1 expression resulted in impaired place conditioning relative to nonexpressing littermates, and acutely repressing selleck inhibitor expression of the transgene restored normal cocaine conditioning. To gain insight into the molecular changes that accounted for this change in behavior, we identified mRNAs that specifically immunoprecipitated with transgenic ZBP1 protein from the brains of these mice. These data suggest that RNA-binding proteins can be used as a tool to identify the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in the establishment Forskolin research buy and function of neural circuits involved in addiction behaviors.”

In current international guidelines, intraaortic balloon counterpulsation is considered to be a class I treatment for cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial

infarction. However, evidence is based mainly on registry data, and there is a paucity of randomized clinical trials.


In this randomized, prospective, open-label, multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 600 patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction to intraaortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP group, 301 patients) or no intraaortic balloon counterpulsation (control group, 299 patients). All patients were expected to undergo early revascularization (by means of percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery) and to receive the best available medical therapy. The primary efficacy end point was 30-day all-cause mortality. Safety assessments included major bleeding, peripheral ischemic complications, sepsis, and stroke.


A total of 300 patients in the IABP group and 298 in the control group were included in the analysis of the primary end point.

Multiple sampling sites within the tumor mass were


Multiple sampling sites within the tumor mass were

defined for a patient with a recurrent left frontal oligodendroglioma, World Health Organization grade II with chromosome 1p/19q codeletion, and mass spectrometry data indicated a correlation between lipid constitution and tumor cell prevalence.

CONCLUSION: The mass spectrometry measurements reflect a complex molecular structure and are integrated with frameless stereotaxy and imaging, providing 3-dimensional molecular imaging without systemic Microtubule Associated inhibitor injection of any agents, which can be implemented for surgical margins delineation of any organ and with a rapidity that allows real-time analysis.”
“Various factors could conceivably promote the accuracy of guesses during a recognition test. Two that we identified in previous studies

are forced-choice testing format and high perceptual similarity between the repeat target and novel foil. In restricted circumstances, the relative perceptual fluency of the target can be compared with that of the foil and used as a reliable cue to guide accurate responses that occur without explicit retrieval-a phenomenon we referred to as “”implicit recognition.”" In this issue, Jeneson and colleagues report a failure to replicate accurate guesses and also a tendency on the part of subjects to hazard guesses infrequently, even though testing circumstances were very similar to those that we used. To resolve this discrepancy, we developed a simple manipulation to encourage either guessing or confident responding. Ketanserin Encouraging guessing increased

both LDC000067 purchase the prevalence of guesses and the accuracy of guesses in a recognition test, relative to when confident responding was encouraged. When guessing was encouraged, guesses were highly accurate (as in our previous demonstrations of implicit recognition), whereas when confident responding was encouraged, guesses were at chance levels (as in Jeneson and colleagues’ data). In light of a substantial literature showing high accuracy despite low confidence in certain circumstances, we infer that both the prevalence and accuracy of guessing can be influenced by whether subjects adopt guessing-friendly strategies. Our findings thus help to further characterize conditions likely to promote implicit recognition based on perceptual fluency.”
“BACKGROUND: Chiari I malformation occurs because of an underdeveloped posterior fossa with reduced volume that cannot accommodate the normally developed hindbrain.

OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical presentation and surgical outcome of pediatric Chiari I malformation and to correlate outcome with demographic and clinical factors and radiological changes in the syrinx, spinal cord, and preoperative intracranial, posterior fossa, and foramen magnum dimensions.

To evaluate the site of action cerebral infarcted rats underwent

To evaluate the site of action cerebral infarcted rats underwent single intracerebroventricular or intrathecal administration of FYO-750. OTX015 To evaluate the mechanism of action FYO-750 was intravenously administered in diuretic rats or cerebral infarcted rats pretreated

with resiniferatoxin.

Results: For cumulative administration SC-560 (0.3 mg/kg), rofecoxib (0.3 mg/kg) and FYO-750 (0.1 to 1 mg/kg) significantly increased bladder capacity. For single administration neither SC-560 (0.03 mg/kg) nor rofecoxib (0.03 mg/kg) affected bladder capacity but SC-560 plus rofecoxib significantly increased bladder capacity vs vehicle. Intracerebroventricular and intrathecal administration of FYO-750 did not affect bladder capacity. FYO-750 did not affect urinary production in diuretic rats and the effects of FYO-750 were blocked by resiniferatoxin except at the highest drug dose.

Conclusions: Results indicate that cyclooxygenase inhibitors improve detrusor overactivity caused by cerebral

infarction by suppressing peripheral C fiber’s without affecting urinary production. The nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor showed more potent efficiency than the selective cyclooxygenase-1 or the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor alone.”
“BACKGROUND: The reported cumulative risk of post-angiographic obliteration (post-AO) Amine dehydrogenase hemorrhage from Ro 61-8048 purchase arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) following gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) over 10 years is 2.2%.

OBJECTIVE: To identify the warning signs of post-AO hemorrhage by analyzing the characteristics of enhancement on contrast-enhanced MRI

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of AVMs with post-AO hemorrhage.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 121 patients whose AVMs were angiographically obliterated within 5 years of GKRS without hemorrhage and who received at least 1 contrast-enhanced MRI after GKRS (group 1), and 7 patients who experienced post-AO hemorrhage (group 2). We analyzed the enhancement persistence ratio (the percentage of AVMs with persisting enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted image after obliteration) and the change in size of the enhanced region over time in each patient.

RESULTS: The enhancement persistence ratio showed no significant difference between the 2 groups (89.4% vs 100% for groups 1 and 2, respectively; P = .401). While most cases in group 1 showed a tendency to decrease in size and gradually stabilize following GKRS, there were significantly more cases in group 2 with obvious increment of the enhanced regions within 1 year of angiographic obliteration compared with the previous measurement (4.96% vs 71.

(C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“The fact that

(C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The fact that pictures are better remembered than words has been reported in the literature for over 30 years. While this picture superiority effect has been consistently found in healthy young and older adults, no study has directly evaluated the presence of the effect in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Clinical observations have indicated that pictures enhance memory in these

patients, suggesting that the picture superiority effect may be intact. However, several studies have reported visual processing impairments in AD and MCI patients which might diminish the picture superiority effect. Using a recognition memory paradigm, we tested AZD9291 price memory for pictures versus words in these patients. The results showed that the picture superiority effect is intact,

and that these patients showed a similar benefit to healthy controls from studying pictures compared to words. The findings are discussed in terms of visual processing and possible clinical importance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Extraversion and neuroticism influence behaviour and mood. Extreme expressions of these personality traits may predispose individuals to developing chronic functional pains and mood disorders that predominantly affect women. We acquired anatomical MRI scans and personality scores from healthy male and female adolescents and measured gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness to test the hypothesis that neuroticism and extraversion contribute to sex differences in fronto-limbic cortical development during a crucial period of social and biological maturation. In females, extraversion correlated negatively with medial frontal gyrus GMV and neuroticism correlated positively

with subgenual anterior cingulate cortex GMV and cortical thickness. Interestingly, correlations between GMV and personality in males showed an opposite effect. Given the association of these cortical areas with social cognition and emotional processing, we suggest that a neuro-maturational divergence during adolescence OSBPL9 accounts for the higher prevalence of specific chronic pains and mood disorders in females. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“While there is consistent evidence from neuropsychological and brain imaging studies for an association between the left angular gyrus and mental arithmetic, its specific role in calculation has remained poorly understood. It has been speculated that the angular gyrus mediates the retrieval of arithmetic facts during problem solving, but this hypothesis has not been directly tested. In the present functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study comprising 28 adults, we used trial-by-trial strategy self-reports to identify brain regions underpinning different strategies in arithmetic problem solving.