After the rats were offered 0.1% sodium saccharin (Sac) as conditioned stimulus (CS), an intra peritoneal (i.p.) injection of several concentrations (5-30 mg/kg) of midazolam was followed by an i.p. injection of 0.15 M LiCl (2% of body weight) as unconditioned
stimulus (US). The rats, which acquired CTA by every CS-US paradigm, strongly avoided Sac on the 1st test day after conditioning and maintained the avoidance for 3 days. We have already reported that Sac intake abruptly increased on the 2nd test day and the almost complete extinction occurred on the 3rd click here test day after conditioning by injection of subhypnotic dose of propofol before LiCl-injection. In contrast, we found that subhypnotic dose of midazolam suppressed not only CTA acquisition, but also CTA retention. On the other hand, an alpha 2-adrenergic blocker, yohimbin (1 mg/kg) suppressed only the CIA retention. These results suggest that the subhypnotic doses of midazolam firstly affect the acquisition mechanism of the GSK3326595 in vivo CTA memory (CTAM), resulting the suppression of the retention of CTAM. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A physiologically based quantitative
model of the human ascending arousal system is used to study sleep deprivation after being calibrated on a small set of experimentally based criteria. The model includes the sleep-wake switch of mutual inhibition between nuclei which use monoaminergic neuromodulators, and the ventrolateral preoptic area. The system is driven by the circadian rhythm and sleep homeostasis. We use a small number of experimentally derived criteria to calibrate the model for sleep deprivation, then investigate model predictions for other experiments, demonstrating the scope of application. Daporinad in vitro Calibration gives an improved parameter set, in which the form of the homeostatic drive is better constrained, and its weighting relative to the circadian drive is increased. Within the newly constrained parameter ranges, the model predicts
repayment of sleep debt consistent with experiment in both quantity and distribution, asymptoting to a maximum repayment for very long deprivations. Recovery is found to depend on circadian phase, and the model predicts that it is most efficient to recover during normal sleeping phases of the circadian cycle, in terms of the amount of recovery sleep required. The form of the homeostatic drive suggests that periods of wake during recovery from sleep deprivation are phases of relative recovery, in the sense that the homeostatic drive continues to converge toward baseline levels. This undermines the concept of sleep debt, and is in agreement with experimentally restricted recovery protocols. Finally, we compare our model to the two-process model, and demonstrate the power of physiologically based modeling by correctly predicting sleep latency times following deprivation from experimental data. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd.
years, several new technologies have emerged that have widened and deepened the targeted analysis of one important, albeit functionally ill-defined modification, namely protein acetylation. This modification can take place both co- and post-translationally by the transfer of acetyl groups under the catalysis of acetyltransferases. The acetyl group can modify either the alpha-amino group at the N-terminus, so-called N-terminal acetylation, or the epsilon-amino group on the side chain of lysine residues. Here, we review several emerging targeted technologies to chart both N-terminal acetylation as well as acetylation at the lysine side chain, on a proteome-wide scale, highlighting in particular studies that have expanded the biological knowledge on the appearance buy CBL0137 and function
of these common but functionally still less investigated co- and post-translational modifications.”
“Determining the viability of a pregnancy is a major challenge, especially with a pregnancy of RAD001 clinical trial unknown location. This review provides specific guidance, including stringent criteria for nonviability, that can reduce the risk of inadvertent harm to a potentially normal pregnancy. Over the past two to three decades, pelvic ultrasonography and measurement of the serum concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (Table 1) have become mainstays in the diagnosis and management of early-pregnancy problems. These tests, which allow earlier detection of pregnancy and more accurate diagnosis of its complications than were previously possible, have revolutionized the management of intrauterine pregnancies and markedly reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with ectopic pregnancy.(1),(2) Although these tests have indisputable benefits, their misuse and misinterpretation can lead to interventions that inadvertently damage pregnancies that might have had normal outcomes.(3),(4) There are well-documented instances …”
“Current Sonidegib proteomics technology is limited in resolving the proteome complexity of biological systems. The main issue at stake is to increase throughput and spectra quality so that
spatiotemporal dimensions, population parameters and the complexity of protein modifications on a quantitative scale can be considered. MS-based proteomics and protein arrays are the main players in large-scale proteome analysis and an integration of these two methodologies is powerful but presently not sufficient for detailed quantitative and spatiotemporal proteome characterization. Improvements of instrumentation for MS-based proteomics have been achieved recently resulting in data sets of approximately one million spectra which is a large step in the right direction. The corresponding raw data range from 50 to 100 Gb and are frequently made available. Multidimensional LC-MS data sets have been demonstrated to identify and quantitate 2000-8000 proteins from whole cell extracts.
A subsequent enhanced N2 to fearful faces was only present for subliminal trials. In contrast, a P3 enhancement to PI3K inhibitor fearful faces was observed on supraliminal but not subliminal trials. Results demonstrate rapid emotional expression processing in the absence of awareness.”
“Do general principles govern the genetic causes of phenotypic evolution? One promising idea is that mutations in cis-regulatory regions play a predominant role in phenotypic evolution because they can alter gene activity without causing pleiotropic effects. Recent evidence that revealed the genetic basis of pigmentation pattern evolution in Drosophila santomea supports this notion. Multiple mutations
that A-1331852 order disrupt an abdominal enhancer of the pleiotropic gene tan partly explain the reduced pigmentation observed in this species.”
“Factor H is a regulator of the alternative pathway of complement, and genetic studies have shown that patients with mutations in factor H are at increased risk for several types of renal disease. Pathogenic activation of the alternative pathway in acquired diseases, such as ischemic acute kidney injury, suggests that native factor H has a limited capacity to control the alternative pathway in the kidney. Here we found that an absolute
deficiency of factor H produced by gene deletion prevented complement activation on tubulointerstitial cells after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, likely because alternative pathway proteins were consumed in the fluid phase. In contrast, when fluid-phase regulation by factor H was maintained while the interaction of factor H with selleck inhibitor cell surfaces was blocked by a recombinant inhibitor protein, complement activation after renal I/R increased. Finally, a recombinant form of factor H, specifically targeted to sites of C3 deposition, reduced complement activation in the tubulointerstitium after
ischemic injury. Thus, although factor H does not fully prevent activation of the alternative pathway of complement on ischemic tubules, its interaction with the tubule epithelial cell surface is critical for limiting complement activation and attenuating renal injury after ischemia. Kidney International (2011) 80, 165-173; doi:10.1038/ki.2011.115; published online 4 May 2011″
“We compared the transcription regulatory interactions inferred from three high-throughput methods. Because these methods use different principles, they have few interactions in common, suggesting they capture distinct facets of the transcription regulatory program. We show that these methods uncover disparate biological phenomena: long-range interactions between telomeres and transcription factors, downstream effects of interference with ribosome biogenesis and a protein-aggregation response. Through a detailed analysis of the latter, we predict components of the system responding to protein-aggregation stress.
To determine the role of FGF2 and Talazoparib TGF alpha in inducing proliferation, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation was examined in adult olfactory epithelium. Intranasal treatment with FGF receptor inhibitor PD173074 or epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor AG1478 following ATP instillation significantly blocked ATP-induced BrdU incorporation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ATP induces proliferation in adult mouse olfactory epithelium by promoting FGF2 and TGF
alpha synthesis and activation of their receptors. These data suggest that different mechanisms regulate neurogenesis in neonatal and adult OE, and FGF2 and TGF alpha may have different roles throughout development. (C) 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was employed to develop a simple and efficient system for the detection of squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) in diseased plants of squash (Cucurbita pepo) arid melon (Cucumis melo). Completion of LAMP assay required 30-60 mm under isothermal conditions at 65 degrees C by employing a set of four primers targeting SLCV. Although the sensitivity of the LAMP assay arid Selleckchem EPZ004777 the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was comparable at high virus concentrations,
the LAMP assay was by a 10-fold dilution factor more sensitive than the PCR assay for the detection of SLCV in diseased plants. No reaction was detected in the tissues of healthy plants by either the LAMP or the PCR. The LAMP products can be visualized by staining directly in the tube with SYBR (R) Safe DNA gel stain dye. The sensitivity of the SYBR (R) Safe DNA gel stain is similar to analysis by gel electrophoresis. Although both the LAMP selleck and the PCR methods were capable of detecting SLCV in infected
tissues of squash and melon, the LAMP method would be more useful than the PCR method for detection of SLCV infection in cucurbitaceous plants because it is more rapid, simple, accurate and sensitive. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
Prenatal repair of myelomeningocele, the most common form of spina bifida, may result in better neurologic function than repair deferred until after delivery. We compared outcomes of in utero repair with standard postnatal repair.
We randomly assigned eligible women to undergo either prenatal surgery before 26 weeks of gestation or standard postnatal repair. One primary outcome was a composite of fetal or neonatal death or the need for placement of a cerebrospinal fluid shunt by the age of 12 months. Another primary outcome at 30 months was a composite of mental development and motor function.
The trial was stopped for efficacy of prenatal surgery after the recruitment of 183 of a planned 200 patients.
Results: A total of 518 renal arteries were treated with uncovered or covered renal stents (287 patients). Mean follow-up was 25 months. The estimated freedom from stenosis at 12, 24, and 36 months were 95% (95% confidence interval [CI] 93-98), 92% (89-96), and 89% (85-93) for uncovered stents,
and 98% (96-100), 97% (95-100), and 95% (91-100) for covered stents (log rank P=.04). Secondary interventions were performed in 20% of the patients who developed stenoses. Only one of the detected stenoses that was not treated with a secondary intervention progressed to occlusion. Duplex scan criteria derived from ROC analysis correlating with curved planar reconstruction BGJ398 (CPR) from axial imaging data calculated a 60-99% in-stem stenosis to be associated with a PSV >280 cm/s or RAR >4.5. Occlusions were best identified by a mid renal artery PSV <57 cm/s in conjunction with an RAR <1.2.
Conclusion: Revised ultrasound scan criteria have been developed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of non-invasive interrogation of renal
stents following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Covered renal stents are associated with a lower incidence of in-stent stenosis and are thus recommended Roscovitine manufacturer over uncovered stents for use in fenestrated or branched endografts. (J Vasc Surg 2009;49:827-37.)”
“Although morphine and heroin analgesia is mediated by mu-opioid receptors NCT-501 concentration encoded by the MOR-1 gene, distinct isoforms are involved. Both opioids also induce dependence by acting at mu-opioid receptors, but which variants are utilized is not known. Here, we assayed morphine and heroin analgesia and dependence in mice treated with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AO) targeting MOR-1 exons 1-4. Whereas AOs targeting exons 1 and 4 blocked morphine analgesia, those targeting exons 2 and 3 blocked heroin analgesia. Neither morphine
nor heroin analgesia was compromised 5 days after the last AO injection. In morphine and heroin dependent mice, only exon 1 AO significantly reduced jumping incidence during naloxone (50 mg/kg) precipitated withdrawal. Neither analgesia nor withdrawal jumping was attenuated in controls pretreated with saline or a mismatch oligodeoxynucleotide control sequence. While these data confirm previous reports that morphine and heroin analgesia are not mediated by a single mu-opioid receptor, both opiates nonetheless apparently induce dependence via a mu-opioid receptor isoform containing exon 1. For heroin, the possibility that analgesia and dependence are mediated by distinct mu-opioid receptor isoforms offers the prospect of developing potent opiate analgesics possessing reduced dependence liability. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Benefit of prophylactic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair requires sufficient survival to overcome operative risk.
“GABA-A receptor positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) mediate robust analgesia in animal models of pathological pain, in part via enhancing injury-induced loss of GABA-A-alpha 2 and -alpha 3 receptor function within the spinal cord. As yet, a lack of clinically LXH254 cell line suitable tool compounds has prevented this concept being tested in humans.
Prior to assessing the efficacy of GABA-A receptor PAMs in a human volunteer pain model we have compared compounds capable of variously modulating GABA-A receptor function in comparable rat models of capsaicin-induced acute nocifensive flinching behaviour and secondary mechanical hypersensitivity. The subtype-selective PAM NS11394 (0.3-10 mg/kg), and the non-selective PAM diazepam (1-5 mg/kg) variously reduced capsaicin-induced secondary mechanical hypersensitivity (180 min post-injection). However, the low efficacy subtype-selective PAM TPA023 (3-30 mg/kg) was completely ineffective. This was surprising as both NS11394 and TPA023 robustly selleck chemicals llc attenuated late phase (6-30 min post-injection) capsaicin-induced flinching, a pain-like behaviour that is putatively driven by peripheral and central sensitizing mechanisms. Diazepam also attenuated capsaicin-induced nocifensive behaviours, albeit at doses
previously shown to impair locomotor function. Our data indicate that GABA-A receptor PAMs with optimal selectivity and efficacy profiles reduce centrally-mediated mechanical hypersensitivity in capsaicin-injected rats, an observation that we expect can translate directly to human volunteer studies. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background. Adverse childhood experiences have been described as one of the major environmental risk factors for depressive disorder. Similarly, the deleterious impact of early traumatic experiences on depression seems to be moderated by individual genetic variability. Serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) modulate the effect of childhood adversity on adult depression, although inconsistencies across studies have been found. Moreover,
the gene x environment (G x E) interaction concerning the different types of childhood adversity remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to analyse the putative SN-38 supplier interaction between the 5-HTT gene (5-HTTLPR polymorphism), the BDNF gene (Val66Met polymorphism) and childhood adversity in accounting for adult depressive symptoms.
Method. A sample of 534 healthy individuals filled in self-report questionnaires of depressive symptomatology [the Symptom Check List 90 Revised (SCL-90-R)] and different types of childhood adversities [the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)]. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (5-HTT gene) and the Val66Met polymorphism (BDNF gene) were genotyped in the whole sample.
Results. Total childhood adversity (beta=0.27, p<0.001), childhood sexual abuse (CSA; beta=0.17, p<0.001), childhood emotional abuse (beta=0.
However, levels of [H-3]mesulergine binding to 5-HT2C receptors were increased by approximately 70% in the dorsal hippocampus of rats with serotonin depletion in this region, while those in the ventral hippocampus were unaffected. Therefore, despite intact baseline PPI, abnormal PPI regulation in rats with >70% serotonin depletion in the hippocampus was unmasked by acute risperidone KU-60019 treatment. Selective upregulation of 5-HT2C receptors
in the dorsal, but not ventral, hippocampus of these lesioned rats suggests that hippocampal 5-HT2C receptors vary in their adaptability to changes in serotonergic tone along the dorsoventral axis. These findings suggest that 5-HT2C receptors in the dorsal hippocampus may contribute to risperidone-induced enhancement of PPI.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Serotonin: The New Wave’. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Previous work has shown that 5-HT2C receptor agonists and 5-HT2A receptor antagonists reduce impulsive action, as well as the locomotor stimulant effect of psychomotor stimulants. Since psychomotor stimulants also increase impulsive action we examined the effects of the 5-HT2C receptor agonist Ro60-0175, and the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 on impulsive action induced by amphetamine, cocaine and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK801
(dizocilpine). Impulsive action was measured in adult male Long-Evans rats as premature responding Alvespimycin cell line in the 5-choice serial reaction time (5-CSRT) test. Initially, we determined that amphetamine (0.3 mg/kg), cocaine (15 mg/kg) and MK801 (0.03 mg/kg) induced comparable premature
response rates of approximately 50-70 per session, compared to 10-15 responses under baseline conditions. Each drug and its vehicle were then tested in combination with Ro60-0175 (0.1 and 0.6 mg/kg) or its vehicle, or M100907 (0.5 mg/kg) or its vehicle. At 0.1 mg/kg Ro60-0175 did not modify the effects of amphetamine, cocaine or MK801. In contrast, the 0.6 mg/kg dose reduced premature responses induced by amphetamine, cocaine and MK801. M100907 also reduced premature responding induced by all three of these drugs. In general, treatment with Ro60-0175 or M100907 by itself did not consistently alter any of the selleck chemical other aspects of task performance in the 5-CSRT test including number of trials completed, and accuracy of responding. These data show that activation of 5-HT2C receptors and blockade of 5-HT2A receptors have seemingly similar functional effects on a measure of impulsive action.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Serotonin: The New Wave’. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Selective serotonin (5-HT) re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly used in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder in Humans.
Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A novel sea turtle egg incubator
CH5183284 concentration was developed in which the heating element is placed above the clutch, which more closely simulates solar heating in nature. An electronic thermometer in conjunction with a thermostat located in sand beneath a heater plate was used to obtain the desired temperature in the placed eggs, as compared to previous methods of controlling global temperature within the interior of a chamber. To test the new incubator, Lepidochelys olivacea eggs were incubated under different thermal conditions in order to identify the temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) period more precisely. Four incubation experiments were designed to test the performance of the incubator where the temperature was lowered from 32 to
28 degrees C during 60 h and then reestablished at 32 degrees C until Alisertib hatching occurred. A significant mean hatching success rate of 89.6% was obtained for all the experiments. The main result from these preliminary findings was that the sex determination period to produce males was reduced from 15 (days 15-30) to eight days (days 19-27). Overall, the incubator provides precise control and simulates a natural thermal environment that may improve control of TSD in sea turtles. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) has been extensively used for investigation as a specific marker for astroglia in vivo and activity-dependent dye for monitoring regulated exocytosis. Here, we report that SR101 has bioactive effects on neuronal activity. Perfusion of slices with SR101 (1 mu M) for 10 min induced long-term potentiation of intrinsic neuronal excitability (LTP-IE) and a long-lasting increase in evoked EPSCs (eEPSCs) in CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices. The increase in intrinsic neuronal excitability was a result of negative shifts in the action potential
(AP) threshold. The N-methyl n-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, AP-5 (50 mu M), blocked SR101-induced LTP-IE, but glutamate receptor blockers, AP-5 (50 mu M), MCPG (200 mu M), and MSOP (100 mu M), only partially blocked SR101-induced potentiation of eEPSCs. SR101 induced an enhancement of VX-661 cost evoked synaptic NMDAR currents, suggesting that SR101 enhances activation of synaptic NMDARs. SR101-induced LTP-IE and potentiation of synaptic transmission triggered spontaneous neuronal firing in slices and in vivo epileptic seizures. Our results suggest that SR101 is an epileptogenic agent that long-lastingly lowers the AP threshold to increase intrinsic neuronal excitability and enhances the synaptic efficacy to increase synaptic inputs. As such, SR101 can be used as an experimental tool to induce epileptic seizures. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“(1) We estimated the standard metabolic rate (SMR) of wild-caught Plethodon cinereus across a range of body masses and ecologically relevant temperatures.
The purified VP7 protein was recognized by antibody to BTV in Western blot analysis. The capability of the recombinant VP7 protein to differentiate hyperimmune serum of rabbit to BTV from normal rabbit serum was evident in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent
assay (ELISA). The purified VP7 reacted well with the 24 BTV serotype-specific sera obtained from OIE Reference Laboratory on bluetongue. Our results indicated that the expressed VP7 protein could be used as antigen for development of antibody-capture ELISA for detection BTV group-specific antibodies. This recombinant protein may also be used as antigen in competitive ELISA format. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease clinically Selleckchem Fedratinib characterized by dementia selleckchem and neurobehavioral deterioration. Hippocampal neurons are vulnerable to injury induced by Alzheimer’s disease. The immediate early gene c-Fos has been used as a marker of neuronal activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on long-term memory capacity and c-Fos expression in the hippocampus of rats with Alzheimer’s disease. The rat model of Alzheimer’s disease used in the present study was induced by the intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) using a stereotaxic instrument. The rats in the exercise
Elacridar mw group were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once daily for 14 consecutive days starting at 3 days after the ICV injection of STZ. The results of the present study showed that ICV injection of STZ impaired long-term memory capacity and decreased the number of c-Fos-positive cells in several regions of the rat hippocampus. However, treadmill exercise alleviated long-term memory deficits and enhanced c-Fos expression in the rats with ICV injection of STZ. The results of the present study showed that treadmill exercise could be a useful strategy for treating several neurodegenerative diseases. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) was used routinely
for laboratory diagnosis during the 2006/2007 bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 8 epidemic. In the present study the impact of pooling and multiplexing strategies on RT-qPCR are assessed. To avoid any bias in the pooling experiments, 121 BTV-8 positive blood samples with a low to high viral load were selected and pooled individually with nine negative blood samples. Analyses of the individually and pooled samples indicated an overall mean difference of 4.32 Ct-values. The most pronounced differences were observed in samples with the lowest viral load of which 70% could no longer be detected after pooling. The pooling strategy is therefore not suitable for BTV detection at the individual level since animals infected recently may be missed.
Nestin, a class VI intermediate filament protein, is expressed both in neuronal and glial progenitors as
well as in their common precursors; and nestin-positive cells appear in the brain and spinal cord following various forms of damage to these regions. To clarify the responses of neural progenitor cells to nerve injury, we applied L5 spinal nerve transection IDO inhibitor (L5-SNT) to nestin-promoter GFP (pNestin-GFP) transgenic mice to narrow the target to them. While pNestin-GFP expression was strongly retained in the ependyma lining the central canal of the transgenic spinal cord even in adulthood, it was markedly reduced in the dorsal horn during postnatal development by day 7. Increases in pNestin-GFP expression and labeling by the proliferation marker 5-bromodeoxyuridine were broadly found in the dorsal horn of adult mice on day 3 after L5-SNT. On the other hand, the activation and increase in number of microglia and astrocytes are restricted to the superficial layer of the dorsal horn, the central terminal of injured primary afferent fibers. Purinergic Nirogacestat cell line P2X agonist alpha, beta-MeATP increased [Ca(2+)]i
in nestin-positive cells in the superficial layer ipsilateral to nerve injury and P2 receptor antagonists suramin and pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2,4-disulphonic acid (PPADS) blocked the expression and elongation of pNestin-GFP fibers in the slice culture of the spinal cord. These results with pNestin-GFP transgenic mice demonstrate see more that nestin-positive cells proliferate in the dorsal horn
in response to peripheral nerve injury and suggest that ATP may contribute to the expression of nestin and activation of neural progenitor cells after nerve injury. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: We assessed the probability of achieving continence and potency after robotic radical prostatectomy in elderly patients.
Materials and Methods: The cohort included 1,436 robotic radical prostatectomy cases performed at our institution between 2003 and 2008. Continence (pad-free) and potency (erection sufficient for intercourse) at baseline and 1 year after surgery were evaluated by the UCLA-PCI questionnaire. Point estimates of the predicted probabilities of continence and potency for age 65, 70 and 75 years were calculated from multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for age, nerve sparing status, baseline International Prostate Symptom Score and baseline Sexual Health Inventory for Men score. Patients who were impotent before surgery or those who received hormones or radiation within 1 year after surgery were censored.
Results: Mean patient age was 60 years (range 38 to 85) with 25% older than 65 years and 77 (5%) 70 years old or older. Age (OR 0.