Plasma levels of LPS (P < 0.001) and sCD14 (P = 0.024) were elevated in patients with later hypertension compared with patients with normotension. There was a stepwise increase in the number of patients with hypertension across tertiles of LPS (P = 0.001) and click here sCD14 (P = 0.007). Both LPS and sCD14 were independent predictors of elevated blood pressure after adjustment for age and gender. For each 10-unit increase in LPS (range 66–272 pg/ml), the increment in mean blood pressure in the first period of blood pressure recording was 0.86 (95%
confidence interval 0.31–1.41) mmHg (P = 0.003). As LPS and sCD14 were both independently associated with elevated blood pressure, microbial translocation may be linked to the development of hypertension. “
“The aim of the study was to quantify the benefits (life expectancy gains) and risks (efavirenz-related teratogenicity) associated with using efavirenz NVP-BEZ235 mouse in HIV-infected women of childbearing age in the USA. We used data from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study in an HIV disease simulation model to estimate life expectancy in women who receive an
efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral regimen compared with those who delay efavirenz use and receive a boosted protease inhibitor-based initial regimen. To estimate excess risk of teratogenic events with and without efavirenz exposure per 100 000 women, we incorporated literature-based rates of pregnancy, live births, and teratogenic events into a decision analytic model. We assumed a teratogenicity risk of 2.90 events/100 live births in women exposed to efavirenz during pregnancy and 2.68/100 live births in unexposed women. Survival for HIV-infected women who received an efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen was 0.89 years greater than for women receiving non-efavirenz-based initial therapy (28.91 vs. 28.02 years). The rate of teratogenic events was 77.26/100 000 exposed women, compared with 72.46/100 000 unexposed women. Survival estimates were sensitive to variations in treatment
efficacy and AIDS-related mortality. Estimates of excess teratogenic events were most sensitive to pregnancy rates and number of teratogenic events/100 live births in efavirenz-exposed women. Use of non-efavirenz-based initial ART in HIV-infected women of childbearing age may reduce life Dynein expectancy gains from antiretroviral treatment, but may also prevent teratogenic events. Decision-making regarding efavirenz use presents a trade-off between these two risks; this study can inform discussions between patients and health care providers. In March 2005, Bristol-Myers Squibb issued a ‘Dear Health Care Provider’ letter informing physicians that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pregnancy category for efavirenz was changed from category C (Risk of Fetal Harm Cannot Be Ruled Out) to category D (Positive Evidence of Fetal Risk) [1,2].