Host protein citrullination by P  gingivalis peptidylarginine dei

Host protein citrullination by P. gingivalis peptidylarginine deiminase could be analyzed using anticitrulline antibodies to study the link between rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune disease, and periodontal disease Erlotinib research buy (Detert et al., 2010; Wegner et al., 2010). We thank

the staff of the ‘H2P2 platform of Histo-pathologie’ of the University of Rennes 1 for invaluable assistance with biopsy conservation, cryostat use, and laser capture microdissection. We also acknowledge all of the dental surgeons who kindly provided us with biopsies. This study was supported by ‘sourire quand même’, by the Langlois Foundation, and by the Brittany Council. “
“Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is a clinically effective therapy for immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated allergic diseases. To reduce the risk of IgE-mediated side effects, chemically modified allergoids have been introduced. Furthermore, adsorbance of allergens to aluminium hydroxide (alum) is widely used to enhance the immune response. The mechanisms behind the adjuvant effect of alum are still not completely understood. In the present study we analysed the effects of alum-adsorbed allergens and allergoids on their immunogenicity in vitro and in vivo and their ability to activate basophils of allergic donors. Human monocyte derived dendritic

cells (DC) were incubated with native Phleum pratense or Betula verrucosa allergen extract or formaldehyde- or glutaraldehyde-modified allergoids, adsorbed or unadsorbed to alum. After maturation, DC were co-cultivated with autologous CD4+ T cells. Allergenicity was tested by leukotriene and histamine release of human basophils.

Finally, in-vivo immunogenicity was analysed by IgG production of immunized mice. T cell proliferation for as well as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, IL-10 and interferon (IFN)-γ production were strongly decreased using glutaraldehyde-modified allergoids, but did not differ between alum-adsorbed allergens or allergoids and the corresponding unadsorbed preparations. Glutaraldehyde modification also led to a decreased leukotriene and histamine release compared to native allergens, being further decreased by adsorption to alum. In vivo, immunogenicity was reduced for allergoids which could be partly restored by adsorption to alum. Our results suggest that adsorption of native allergens or modified allergoids to alum had no consistent adjuvant effect but led to a reduced allergenicity in vitro, while we observed an adjuvant effect regarding IgG production in vivo. “
“Because the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is still high in developing countries, an inexpensive and rapid diagnostic test for this infection is needed. To develop a screening test for TB, MPB64 antigen was produced by recombinant technology and purified with a polyhistidine tag.

One of the most comprehensive studies of this phenomenon to date

One of the most comprehensive studies of this phenomenon to date was conducted using the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi, for which it was shown that the major genetic determinant of the strain-specificity of the immunity achieved via immunization with blood-stage parasites is the merozoite surface protein

1 gene (msp1) (3). Natural malaria infections of both rodents and humans are initiated by the bite of malaria parasite-infected Anopheles selleck compound mosquitoes, which inoculate sporozoites into the skin during blood feeding. Very effective protective immunity against malaria can be achieved by immunization with sporozoites that have been attenuated by irradiation (4). More recently, other methods of sporozoite attenuation such as genetic modification (5) and chemical attenuation (6) have also been shown to confer protective immunity against re-infection. A similar approach in which live sporozoites are inoculated contemporaneously with anti-erythrocytic stage drugs such as chloroquine (CQ) has recently been shown to confer sterile protective immunity against Plasmodium falciparum in human volunteers (7).

The protective efficacies of these vaccine strategies have, most commonly, been assessed using parasites homologous to the vaccinating strain. Those few studies which have assessed the level of protection against heterologous challenge have almost exclusively assessed the degree of cross-protection between malaria parasite species (8–15) and are generally inconsistent

Vitamin B12 in their conclusions. Should it occur, parasite strain-specificity to the induction of immunity by live sporozoites of P. falciparum will need to be understood if such vaccination is to be used effectively. Here, we present the results of experiments to test for and determine the degree of cross protection between strains of Plasmodium chabaudi immunized by inoculation of live sporozoites in conjunction with mefloquine (MF) treatment. All experiments were carried out in compliance with the British Home Office Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. For sporozoite immunizations, two groups of 20 inbred female CBA/Ca mice (6 weeks old at the time of first immunization) were inoculated via intraperitoneal (IP) injection with known numbers of sporozoites of P. c. chabaudi clones AJ or CB diluted in a 50 : 50 mixture of Foetal Calf Serum (FCS) and Ringer’s solution contemporaneously with oral MF treatment (20 mg/kg/day for 5 days). Immunizations were performed twice with an interval of 3 weeks between inoculations. Each mouse received an inoculation of ∼400 sporozoites of each strain in the first immunization, and ∼2000 in the second. Twenty control mice were inoculated with 50 : 50 FCS: Ringer’s solution only, and also drug treated. Five weeks following the second immunization, mice were each challenged IP with 2400 sporozoites of either strain, or with 1 × 106 parasite-infected red blood cells (iRBCs).

It was already known that caspase was necessary for the activatio

It was already known that caspase was necessary for the activation of T cells after recognition of Borrelia spp. by PRR 26, which is in line with our results. The induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-17 by Borrelia was

caspase-1 dependent, and both cytokines have been shown already to play a role in the pathogenesis caused by Borrelia 27–29. In line with this, we have demonstrated that stimulation of macrophages and spleen cells by Borrelia resulted in production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and IFN-γ (Fig. 1). In addition, after intra-articular (i.a.) injection with Borrelia we observed less cell influx and cytokine production in caspase-1-deficient animals as compared to the WT animals (Fig. 3). We observed differences in IL-6 production after Borrelia stimulation between caspase-1-deficient peritoneal macrophages and PMN isolated from the knee of caspase-1 knockout animals. This difference can be explained ABT-888 nmr by the fact that different types of cells are involved and different time points were used in these assays. In the patella washouts assays, the main cell types that could selleck produce IL-6 are granulocytes (PMN) and synovial fibroblasts. These cells may respond differently after exposure to Borrelia when compared

to peritoneal macrophages. The other explanation could be that the synovial cells were only 4 h exposed to Borrelia whereas the peritoneal macrophages were treated for 24 h with Borrelia. We also describe that Borrelia-induced IL-1β is the Fossariinae main inducer of IL-17 production after stimulation

with Borrelia (Fig. 4). Furthermore, caspase-1-cleaved IL-18 is responsible for induction of IFN-γ by Borrelia spp. (Fig. 5A). Caspase-1 is crucial for Borrelia-induced IFN-γ production, as caspase-1-deficient mice produced almost no IFN-γ. The exact role of IFN-γ in the host defense against Borrelia has not yet been elucidated. On the one hand, the induction of Borrelia-induced arthritis does not seem to be dependent on IFN-γ 30–32, and it has been reported that mice with a disrupted IFN-γ gene are more susceptible to autoimmune disorders such as EAE and collagen-induced arthritis 33, 34. On the other hand, several groups have proposed a role for IFN-γ-producing T cells in Lyme arthritis 34, 35. In patients infected with Borrelia, high levels of IFN-γ were measured 36. In line with this, we found that IFN-γ is produced in large amounts by spleen cells after stimulation with Borrelia spirochetes. Dame et al. 37 described that IFN-γ in combination with B. burgdorferi cooperatively induced upregulation of endothelial cell genes, causing more T-cell infiltration. It has been known that IFN-γ modulates other T-cell cytokines. It has been described before that IFN-γ controls or modulates Th17 responses 38, 39, but until now this has not been demonstrated for Borrelia-induced Th17 responses.

We thank Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia and FECYT (Spain) for

We thank Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia and FECYT (Spain) for a postdoctoral fellowship to O. Palomares. Conflict of interest: The authors declare no financial or commercial conflict of interest. “
“Citation Rosenberg VA, Buhimschi IA, Dulay AT, Abdel-Razeq SS, Oliver EA, Duzyj CM, Lipkind H, Pettker CM, Buhimschi CS. Modulation of amniotic fluid activin-A and inhibin-A in women with preterm premature rupture of the membranes and infection-induced preterm birth. Am J Reprod Immunol 2012; 67: 122–131 Problem  Activins and inhibins are important modulators of inflammatory processes. We explored activation of amniotic fluid (AF) activin-A and inhibin-A system in women with intra-amniotic

infection and preterm

premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM). Method of study  We analyzed 78 AF samples: ‘2nd trimester-control’ (n = 12), ‘3rd trimester-control’ KU-57788 clinical trial (n = 14), preterm labor with intact membranes [positive-AF-cultures (n = 13), negative-AF-cultures (n = 13)], and PPROM [positive-AF-cultures (n = 13), negative-AF-cultures (n = 13)]. Activin-A levels were evaluated ex-vivo following incubation of amniochorion and placental villous explants with Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Gram-positive (Pam3Cys) bacterial mimics. Ability of recombinant activin-A and inhibin-A to modulate inflammatory reactions in fetal membranes was explored through explants’ IL-8 release. selleck chemicals Results  Activin-A and inhibin-A were present in human AF and were gestational age-regulated. Activin-A

was significantly upregulated by infection. Lower inhibin-A levels were seen in PPROM. LPS elicited release of activin-A from amniochorion, but not from villous explants. Recombinant activin-A stimulated IL-8 release from amniochorion, an effect that was not reversed by inhibin-A. Conclusion  Human AF activin-A and inhibin-A are involved in biological processes linked to intra-amniotic infection/inflammation-induced Abiraterone preterm birth. “
“National Institute for Medical Research, London, UK Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, London, UK The early growth response (Egr) transcription factor family regulates multiple steps during T-cell development. We examine here the role played by Egr2 in positive selection. In double-positive cells, Egr2 is upregulated immediately following TCR ligation, and its expression requires both the MAPK and calcineurin signaling pathways. Inducible transgenic and knockout mice were generated to cause gain- or loss-of-function of Egr2 in double-positive cells, and had reciprocal effects; more mature single-positive cells were made when Egr2 was overexpressed, and fewer when Egr2 was absent. These defects were associated with changes in the survival of positively selected cells rather than perturbation of positive selection or immediate post-selection signaling.

However, such

mutant cells are unable to display activati

However, such

mutant cells are unable to display activation-dependent TCR clustering, IS formation, expression of CD25/CD69 activation markers, or produce/secrete cytokine, effects also seen in the corresponding APCs. We are the first to show a direct TCR-actin linkage, providing AG-014699 manufacturer the missing gap linking between TCR-mediated Ag recognition, specific cytoskeleton orientation toward the T-cell–APC interacting pole and long-lived IS maintenance. Upon TCR-mediated Ag-MHC recognition, polarized reorganization of TCRs together with additional cell surface receptors and intracellular signaling molecules is initiated toward the T-cell–antigen-presenting cell (APC) interface, segregating into receptor

microclusters and eventually to a defined immune synapse (IS) [1-3]. The exact mechanism that controls the dynamics TCR rearrangement in the IS is as yet unknown. However, it is well established that TCR-mediated signaling controls synapse formation, since disruption of TCR signaling molecules such as LCK and VAV prevents this process [4, 5]. In addition, many studies have indicated that polymerization and remodeling of the actin-based cytoskeleton creates a scaffold critical to IS formation and stabilization [6]. Actin reorganization at the IS also plays a role in advanced stages of activation, enabling directed secretion of cytokines and execution of Methane monooxygenase T-cell effector functions HDAC inhibitor [7]. Disruption of the actin-based cytoskeleton or deficiency in key actin-regulatory proteins causes severe alterations of TCR-mediated activation progression [7]. Various studies including ours demonstrated that ∼30% of the total TCRs are found in the detergent-insoluble cell fraction (dicf)-TCRs and were suggested as being linked

to actin-based cytoskeleton via ζ. dicf-TCRs were shown to be expressed on the cell surface of both nonactivated and activated T cells [8, 9]. Although the unique features of dicf-TCRs, such as conformation and phosphorylation pattern [10] suggest a distinct role in T-cell function compared with that of detergent-soluble cell fraction (dscf)-TCRs, the mode of association with the cytoskeleton and their functional significance remain unclear. It was previously published that upon TCR-mediated activation, although the majority of the receptors are internalized and degraded within 1–4 h, T-cell–APC interactions and TCR-mediated signaling are still evident for up to 10 h, and cytokine secretion persists for even longer (10–24 h) [11].

Nuclear extracts from Jurkat cells were used as negative control,

Nuclear extracts from Jurkat cells were used as negative control, and nuclear extracts from

Raji cells included in the kit and from MoT cells served as positive controls in the assay. In order to address the potential cytotoxic effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on mononuclear cells, experiments were performed treating PBMCs with PDTC for 1 h at three different concentrations (1 μM, 10 μM, 30 μM) or left them untreated, then washed three times with RPMIc. After 3 h in culture, cell viability was measured by the trypan blue exclusion method. PDTC-treated cells were also subjected to apoptosis determination by fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) using the annexin-V/7-aminoactinomycin D (7AAD) kit (BD Bioscience Pharmingen). More than 95% viable cells were determined in trypan blue exclusion assay for PBMCs treated with PDTC under these concentrations. In addition, the PDTC agent did not affect the viability of the cells as assessed by annexin-V and 7AAD staining (data not shown), and therefore pretreatment of PBMCs was performed with 30 μM of PDTC. To examine the role of NF-κB in Tax-mediated CC-chemokine secretion, PBMCs were pretreated with 30 μM of PDTC, a potent inhibitor of NF-κB, for 1 h then washed three times with RPMIc, followed by

treatment with Tax proteins (100 pM) for 3 h, shown to be the optimal time-point to assess levels of CC-chemokines in Tax-treated PBMCs (Fig. 1). In other experiments, Pirfenidone manufacturer PBMCs were transduced with the NF-κB super-repressor (NF-κB/SR) at an MOI of 25 using lipofectamine plus reagent (Invitrogen) for 20 h prior to Tax protein treatment (3 h). PBMCs were also co-transduced with NF-κB/SR and Ad-Tax2 or Ad-GFP. Cell-free supernatants were harvested after 24 h of incubation and assayed for MIP-1α, MIP-1β and RANTES expression, as described above. All statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism version 6·00 for Windows (GraphPad

Nitroxoline Software and the data expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. One-way analysis of variance (anova) with Bonferroni’s multiple post-test comparison were used to evaluate three or more groups. Statistical comparisons for two groups were assessed by two samples assuming equal variances Student’s t-test. P-values <0·05 were considered statistically significant. We have reported recently that extracellular Tax2 and Tax1 proteins induced high levels of CC-chemokines in mononuclear cells [24, 25]. The optimal dose of protein required to detect CC-chemokine secretion was determined previously by exposing PBMCs to increased concentrations of Tax proteins [24]; the concentration of 100 pM was optimal, and therefore used in all subsequent experiments. In order to determine the time of MIP-1α, MIP-1β and RANTES release, PBMCs were treated once with Tax2A (subtype A), Tax1 or mock-treated control and then cell-free supernatants were harvested after 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 or 24 h of incubation.

86, 95% CI: 1 04–3 31) and log-additive (OR: 1 35, 95% CI: 1 02–1

86, 95% CI: 1.04–3.31) and log-additive (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.02–1.80) inheritance models. Akaike’s information criterion (AIC) is a measure of the goodness of fit of an estimated statistical model, and it can judge a model by how close its fitted values tend to be to the true values, in terms of a certain expected value. Because of the smaller AIC value (565.6), the log-additive model was accepted as the best fit for these data [30]. The result of association analysis for the haplotype of SNP4/SNP5/SNP6/SNP7 was consistent

with individual SNP analysis in our study (P = 0.00079). This suggests that at least one susceptibility locus for tuberculosis lies within or very close to the region that spans SNP4/SNP5/SNP6/SNP7 Selleck PD0332991 Mitomycin C manufacturer in ifngr1 in the Chinese Han population, because haplotype has more accuracy and statistical power than individual SNP in LD-based association studies. In addition, the haplotype of SNP4/SNP5/SNP6/SNP7 contained two alleles that are hypothesized to have lower promoter activity, SNP5 (rs1327474, G>A) and SNP4 (rs2234711, T>C), which further explained the reason for the haplotype to be associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis. It is known that patients with complete loss-of-function or TT-deletion alleles of ifngr1 primarily present Teicoplanin with a clinical picture

of infection with mildly virulent mycobacteria or Bacille Calmette-Guérin, which occurs usually during early childhood or after vaccination [29, 31]. The sequence around −470delTT

(SNP7) of the ifngr1 gene is reminiscent of a signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) binding site (TTCCtcaAA), and the ifngr1−470delTT allele abolishes the crucial first two positions of this binding motif. In our selected population, no such mutation was found for TTdel of −470delTT. Our results in the Korea population were similar to those in Caucasians. There was also a low frequency of −470delTT in African-Americans [29, 31]. These data showed that −470delTT (SNP7) was a rare mutation and was not distributed widely in the Chinese populations. In addition, the result implied that differences in genotype frequency existed among the populations. In conclusion, we found that SNP6 (A/G) in ifngr1 or nearby genes might be implicated in predisposition to tuberculosis. In addition, the C-A-A-TT haplotype, which included the two alleles that are hypothesized to have lower promoter activity, was associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings. Investigation of these polymorphisms will be of benefit to our understanding of host and pathogen interactions.

The advances in understanding of DC biology and function led to t

The advances in understanding of DC biology and function led to the development of anticancer DC vaccine concepts [3]. For this purpose, the DC are most commonly generated ex vivo from patient’s monocytes [4], matured and loaded with tumour-specific antigens before injecting them back into the patient’s body. The basic idea of this approach is that the DC will migrate to secondary lymphoid organs and induce an immune response towards the tumour. Even though some promising check details results have been obtained in multiple clinical trials with different cancer types [5], this approach still needs improvement.

Renal transplant recipients (RTR) have a high risk of tumour development, especially cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), due to long-term immunosuppressive therapy [6, 7].

The problem of SCC in RTR is the selleck chemical high risk of developing multiple lesions. These lesions often develop at anatomical sites where surgical excision with primary closure is not straightforward. In a subgroup of these patients, this gives rise to an increased morbidity and mortality due to more aggressive SCC with a higher risk of local recurrence and metastasis [8-12]. Thus, management of patients with a high tumour burden is challenging and often requires a multidisciplinary approach [13]. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches such as immunotherapy are required. One possible from explanation for the increased risk of SCC might be impaired immune surveillance in RTR due to a reduction in DC subsets in blood [14-17] and in skin [18]. The immunosuppressive drugs affect not only T lymphocytes, but have also an effect on differentiation and maturation of DC, indicated by lower numbers and functional deficits of various circulating DC populations in immunosuppressed patients [17, 19-22]. It is less clear, however, if it is possible to generate fully functional monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) from these patients

as there exist inconsistent reports on this issue [20, 23]. To evaluate the possible use of a moDC-based vaccination strategy for the treatment of SCC in immunosuppressed patients, we here analysed the phenotype and cytokine profile of moDC from long-term immunosuppressed patients. The Norwegian Renal Registry was used to identify RTR living in Hordaland County in western Norway as described elsewhere [17]. The baseline characteristics of the patients and controls are summarized in Table 1. The study was performed according to the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Regional Committee for Research Ethics (176.08) and the Data Inspectorate.

Units in Australia and New Zealand should consider maintaining re

Units in Australia and New Zealand should consider maintaining registers of ‘at risk’ patients to allow greater input into symptom management and

EOL support. CARI, KDIGO, the Renal Association and other groups around the world produce guidelines for nephrologists to follow when caring for their patients. These include areas such as biochemical targets, access guidelines and dialysis monitoring guidelines. Many of these may be inappropriate for those choosing the non-dialysis pathway where quality of life (QOL) is often the dominant issue in management. In this article, the availability of guidelines for renal supportive care (RSC) patients was examined and the level of evidence for any recommendations made in available literature. Alisertib datasheet The search strategy was to look at easily available, web-based guidelines Ulixertinib from nationally accepted groups where English is the dominant language. What is available? Web-based guidelines fall into two categories – those dealing with specific clinical management issues such as pain, nausea, etc. those dealing with service needs and provision. Few web-based protocols for management of symptoms are available, though individual hospitals may have intraweb-based protocols. This may be

at least partially due to different prescriber limitations and formulary availability of medications in different centres leading to each group developing their own protocols and guidelines. 1. Targets No specific guidelines exist for the management of areas such as calcium/phosphate balance, almost hyperparathyroidism, blood pressure control and anaemia in patients choosing not to dialyse and most doctors aim to meet the same targets as for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) still planning on dialysis (CARI, KDIGO guidelines). In the conservative pathway, these need to be balanced against QOL and it may

therefore be appropriate to have different targets which will alter as disease advances. This is a potential area for collaborative research to produce guidelines for management. 2. Trials of dialysis It is of note that most available guidelines, apart from a patient information section from Edinburgh Royal Infirmary (ERI),[1] suggest that a trial of dialysis may be appropriate for some patients. The ERI site states the reasons why it is not thought to be appropriate.[1] Neither position, either for or against trials of dialysis, is based on high level evidence and does potentially suggest an area requiring research, that is loss of residual function following initiation of dialysis. This also highlights potential areas of conflict in discussing palliative care in renal failure without higher level evidence to back up those discussions. 3. Medication The Liverpool Care Pathway (LCP)[2] is perhaps the most widely known set of guidelines available. These guidelines are not aimed at chronic management of RSC patients but are specifically targeted at EOL. They are available via The Renal Association website.

Occupational allergies, drug allergies and allergies to stings (o

Occupational allergies, drug allergies and allergies to stings (occasionally fatal) add further complexity and concerns. Finally, new types of allergic diseases and allergies against previously non-allergenic substances are increasingly this website being reported; however, the fact that more patients are affected

and that allergic conditions are nowadays more severe and complicated are not the only issues which make these diseases a matter of concern – the actual burden for patients and for society as a whole is very high. The quality of life is severely affected in allergic patients. Although some allergic conditions are considered non-severe, others such as asthma or anaphylaxis can be life threatening. Allergic patients have increased disadvantages affecting their personal development, career progression and lifestyle choices. Allergic children demonstrate difficulty in coping at school and they develop associated learning difficulties and sleeping problems. As a result, it has been observed that sleepiness and mood swings frequently lead children to be isolated and even bullied by their peers. Allergic rhinitis in students increases by 40%, the chance of dropping a grade in summer examinations,

Cabozantinib supplier while taking a sedating drug may further increase this to 70% 5. Young adult patients also face a significantly higher amount of problems in their work place due to increased numbers of sick days and a reduction in productivity. Many allergic patients report problems in their personal

relationships. Finally, several studies have shown that allergic individuals have a higher risk of developing depression 6. The impact of allergies on the quality of life can be as high, or higher, than diseases that are considered more ‘serious’ (i.e. diabetes). The impact of allergy on health economics and macroeconomics is equally high. The associated reduction in productivity and the rising number of sick days taken by patients represent some of the biggest negative outputs recorded impacting national, business and health economies in Europe. Allergy incidents and their increase have an adverse effect on the European economy due to both direct costs (e.g. for asthma alone, the pharmaceutical cost stands at € 3.6 billion per year and the cost Ergoloid of health care services at € 4.3 billion per year) 7 and, perhaps to an even greater degree, indirect costs. In total, 15% of the population receiving long-term treatment in Europe is due to allergies and asthma, making them the most common reasons for treatment among the young age group 8. Among the direct medical costs, diagnostic tests, consultations and medication represent the primary components, while a major cost item is hospitalisation, usually associated with severe exacerbations of asthma or severe anaphylactic reactions. Moreover, performance deficits, loss of productivity and absenteeism are closely linked to allergy suffering and have a major effect on macro-economics.