Based on the specificity and sensitivity

values derived f

Based on the specificity and sensitivity

values derived from the ROC analysis of infliximab induction data, patients with serum infliximab concentrations greater than 41 μg/mL have almost twice the likelihood of achieving clinical response at week 8 compared with those who do not achieve this target (positive likelihood ratio, 1.7). For more effective patient management; however, it would be preferable to predict the clinical outcome at week 8 based on earlier measurements. Accordingly, although our results showed that the preinfusion concentration at week 2 did not predict clinical response at week 8, the preinfusion concentration at week 6 may be a predictor of subsequent response. A likely explanation for this finding is that the serum infliximab concentration at week 6 is more reflective of drug clearance than the infliximab concentration at week 2, which reflects the initial phase of drug loading. With respect to maintenance infliximab therapy, the largest amount of data (ACT-1 and ACT-2 combined) was available at week 30, and the threshold at this time point was defined by ROC analysis at 3.7 μg/mL, with a PPV of 82% and an NPV of 51% for the maintenance of clinical response at week 30. These results show MAPK inhibitor that patients with a serum infliximab concentration greater than 3.7 μg/mL at steady-state are more than twice as likely to be in clinical response during maintenance

compared with patients who do not achieve this target (positive likelihood ratio, 2.3). Because the preinfusion serum infliximab concentration at week 30 is most representative of steady-state trough concentration for both ACT studies, more weight should be given to the threshold estimate from the ROC analyses at this time point compared with the week-54 maintenance time point in ACT-1. Nonetheless, our analysis showed that preinfusion serum infliximab concentrations at week 14 also may be predictive

of clinical response during maintenance. Specifically, a serum infliximab concentration of 5.1 μg/mL or higher at week 14 also was associated with clinical response at week 30. The serum infliximab concentration threshold of 5.1 μg/mL at week 14 is consistent with that defined by ROC analysis for week 30 (3.7 μg/mL) when consideration is given to the Phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase fact that the concentration at week 14 theoretically is expected to be slightly higher than the concentration at week 30 because only 8 weeks (1 maintenance dose interval) have elapsed before the week-14 sampling, after the 3 induction doses at weeks 0, 2, and 6. Furthermore, the threshold serum infliximab concentration of 3.7 μg/mL is consistent with that estimated for patients with Crohn’s disease in a Crohn’s disease clinical trial evaluating infliximab in a new long term treatment regimen (ACCENT 1), in which a serum infliximab level of 3.5 μg/mL at week 14 was associated with sustained durable response through week 54.

The recent opinion piece in the journal Nature by Pauly from one

The recent opinion piece in the journal Nature by Pauly from one perspective, by Hilborn and Branch from another [4], captures very well the issues facing fishery scientists as they grapple with the challenge of determining stock status and sustainable management approaches for the world’s

fisheries. However, the particular point at issue is not whether catch data are unimportant; rather it is that on their own, catch data are not a reliable indicator of stock status. To understand why this is so one must first examine under what circumstances catch data are ever likely, on their own, to be a useful indicator of stock status. This is the case where fishing activity is unconstrained by management,

where this activity is unaffected by dynamic fishery economics (the cost of extraction and the value of fish) and particularly SGI-1776 order the world trade in fish, and where fish population dynamics EPZ015666 can be expected to be more or less predictable. Whilst these may have been appropriate simplifying assumptions when FAO scientists developed the approach which they used in 1996 to infer stock status [5], this is no longer so given the further information available now almost 20 years later. The failure of stock status determination methods based solely on catch data has been repeatedly demonstrated ([6], [7], [8] and [9] and figure 2 in Ref. [4]), but still some scientists seek to continue to promulgate their use [4] and [5]. Even when corrected for recent management intervention [10], such methods cannot accurately determine

stock recovery and rarely predict anything other than a continuing decline in world fish stock status that leads to a conveniently simple (see figure 1 in Ref. [4]) but misleading message. The inconvenient about truth is that determining stock status is not simple, and requires the use of multiple data sources in addition to catch data to avoid misinterpretations and confusion within managers, policy makers and the general public. While Hilborn and Branch [4] suggest use of data from surveys conducted from research vessels, age and size distributions of fish, and catch per unit of effort, Pauly [4] argues that this information is not readily available in developing countries nor there is the capacity to build such databases. However, none of the authors proceeds to suggest alternative solutions to this problem. Traditional stock assessment methods are costly and demand large quantities of time and information. However, simple assessment methods that use historical catches and size-composition information could potentially be applied to many data-poor stocks.

Conversely, in defence of the P600-as-P3 hypothesis, Coulson et a

Conversely, in defence of the P600-as-P3 hypothesis, Coulson et al. (1998a) argued that P3 magnitude correlates with item salience and subjective categorisation confidence, and double violations are presumably more salient. Further studies arguing against the P600-as-P3 perspective report that basal ganglia (Frisch, Kotz, Cramon, & Friederici, EGFR inhibitor 2003) or Broca’s area (Wassenaar, Brown, & Hagoort, 2004) lesions eliminate a linguistic P600, yet not an oddball P3 (though several studies also report a P600 after left-hemispheric or basal ganglia lesions; Kielar et al., 2012 and Kotz and Friederici, 2003, indicating that task peculiarities may be responsible rather

than a specific role of the lesioned area in P600 generation). In these studies, linguistic but not oddball task Selleckchem ABT199 performance was drastically impaired in the lesion group compared to controls, thus in fact strengthening the link between the P600 and behaviour, and thereby, the P3. The missing P600 here may simply reflect that participants were not able to reliably realise that an item should be categorised as ungrammatical. A recent account of the P3 side-steps many of these issues (e.g.

co-localisation of P3 and P600 to common cortical or subcortical generators), while at the same time entailing a novel range of predictions under the assumption that it also applies to the P600. In contrast to models explaining ERP generation by the evoked synchronisation of independent cortical generators, Nieuwenhuis et al. (2005) connect the P3 to phasic activity of the brainstem Locus Coeruleus/LC (Aston-Jones and Cohen, 2005 and Bouret and Sara, 2005). They thus associate it with a neuromodulator system

affecting multiple cortical sites with a distinct time course. The LC diffusely releases norepinephrine/NE, which facilitates general cortical state transitions, supporting cognitive reorientation (like response execution or inhibition). The P3 is mostly insensitive to the sensory qualities of the stimulus and reflects contextually evoked subjective significance: surprising or expected, task relevant or intrusive stimuli may all result in a P3, since they all require Progesterone cortical reorientation. Accordingly, the P3 has also been connected to the Ventral Attention Network (Corbetta, Patel, & Shulman, 2008), which governs effective stimulus-driven reorienting. This system is activated by stimuli such as task-critical targets, which, by their subjective importance, capture the subject’s attention. This strict association between the timing of the P3 and that of overt behavioural responses is emphasised in the LC/NE-P3 theory, since this same alignment between overt, behavioural manifestations of reorientation mirrors that of LC neurons, which are known to be better aligned with response than with stimulus timing (Rajkowski, 2004).

, 2008) However, over 30% of patients fail to respond to anti-TN

, 2008). However, over 30% of patients fail to respond to anti-TNF-α therapy, and many who initially respond later require higher or more frequent dosing due to a failure to maintain the initial response, especially in the IBD patient population

(Hanauer et al., 2002, Gisbert and Panes, 2009 and Regueiro et al., 2007). There is now compelling evidence that demonstrates that the loss of response in these patients is a result of a failure to achieve and maintain adequate therapeutic drug levels in blood and/or from the formation of anti-drug antibodies (Miheller et al., 2012). Anti-drug antibodies could cause adverse events such as serum sickness and hypersensitivity reactions (Brennan et al., 2010 and Emi et al., 2010), and it is hypothesized that their formation LBH589 molecular weight may also increase drug clearance and/or neutralize the drug effect, thereby potentially contributing to the loss of response. Moreover, recent data suggest that the standard dosing regimen for TNF-α-blocking drugs may be suboptimal in some IBD patients,

and an individualized dosing regimen to achieve therapeutic drug levels may be important to maximize the initial find protocol drug response and to maintain remission (Colombel et al., 2012). Therefore, accurate monitoring of serum drug and anti-drug antibody levels should be an important part of therapy for patients being treated with protein-based drugs. While monitoring for serum drug levels and for the formation of anti-drug antibodies are routine components of early drug development and are mandatory during clinical trials (Shankar et

al., 2006), these activities have generally not been adopted in clinical practice. This deficiency may be partially explained by technical issues of the available monitoring assays, which limit their utility as part of routine clinical practice. Current methods for the assessment of anti-drug diglyceride antibodies and drug levels in serum mainly utilize the bridging ELISA method (Baert et al., 2003) and, occasionally, the radioimmunoassay (RIA) method (Aarden et al., 2008). However, a major limitation of the bridging ELISA methods in measuring anti-drug antibody levels is the inability to accurately detect the antibodies in the presence of the drug in circulation due to cross-interference. Specifically, the circulating drug interferes with the capture of anti-drug antibodies by the same drug initially coated on the ELISA plate, thus limiting the ELISA’s ability to detect anti-drug antibodies, resulting in a lower sensitivity for detection in the presence of IFX. Therefore, ELISA methods can only measure anti-drug antibodies accurately when there is no drug in circulation, which significantly limits its clinical utility.

32 kPa = 760 Torr) All gas exchange referred to as respiration i

32 kPa = 760 Torr). All gas exchange referred to as respiration in the following chapters is strictly speaking

CO2 emission, as O2 uptake was not measured in this setup. To evaluate the wasps’ behavior and to determine the periods when the tested individuals were at rest we applied state of the art infrared thermography techniques that particularly enabled us to distinguish between rest and activity without disturbing the wasps in their natural behavior (Käfer et al., 2012, Kovac et al., 2007 and Stabentheiner et al., 2012). The top of the measurement chamber was transparent to infrared (IR) radiation (covered with plastic film permeable in the range of 3–13 μm). It enabled us to record both the wasps’ body surface temperature and activity with an infrared thermography camera (ThermaCam SC2000 NTS, 17-AAG order FLIR Systems Inc., Wilsonville, USA; for details see Kovac et al., 2007, Schmaranzer and Stabentheiner, 1988, Stabentheiner and Schmaranzer, 1987 and Stabentheiner et al., 2012). Not only visual clues (e.g. body movements), but also the thermal state of the individual (ectothermic or endothermic) could be evaluated. This this website thermal state was determined by the difference in thoracic and abdominal surface temperature (Tth − Tab). An individual

was assessed as resting when it was ectothermic (Tth ≈ Tab) and showed no or only scarce body movements for a minimum timespan of 10 min (see classification according to Crailsheim et al., 1999, Stabentheiner and Crailsheim, 1999 and Stabentheiner et al., 2003); single flips of legs or antennae were allowed (compare Kaiser, 1988). At higher Ta

(>27.6 °C) the duration was reduced to 5 min if no 10 min sections were available. In the course of evaluation we had to redefine “rest” in such a way that individuals not moving for a longer period of time were allowed to show weak endothermy (Tth − Tab < 2 °C, usually <1 °C) over a few periods in the experiment (see Käfer et al., 2012 and Kovac et al., 2007). IR sequences were recorded on hard disk at 3, 5 or 10 Hz. triclocarban Analysis of the yellow jackets body surface temperatures was conducted with AGEMA Research software (FLIR Systems Inc., Wilsonville, USA) controlled by a proprietary Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, USA) VBA macro. A respiration cycle was determined from one minimum in CO2 emission just before the open phase to the next one. For discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) this included a closed and a flutter phase. In cyclic respiration at higher temperatures the same scheme applied. From minimum emission to minimum emission, every CO2 peak was assumed to be a respiration cycle. Abdominal ventilation movement (pumping, etc.) was assessed from IR video sequences recorded at a frequency of 10 Hz. A minimum of 10 respiration cycles were assessed in the evaluation of respiration movements, resulting in time spans of 13 min at the highest Ta (36.3 °C) and 287 min at the lowest Ta (5.9 °C) tested.

Another feeding approach that can be used is based on the direct

Another feeding approach that can be used is based on the direct or indirect feedback control systems for the controlled addition of nutrients. Indirect control is based on online monitoring of parameters such as pH, dissolved oxygen, CO2 evolution rate and cell concentration. Direct feedback is based on monitoring the concentration of the major carbon substrate [14] and [22].

In this work, a fed-batch bioprocess was developed, via an up-scaling of hSCOMT production. Initially, several batch fermentations were carried out, in order to establish the ideal culture conditions, Sunitinib for instance batch phase and bioreactor operation for the fed-batch fermentations. After this stage, several fed-batch fermentations with different feeding profiles were tested in order to maximize biomass production and to improve protein activity levels, without compromising cell viability. Ultrapure reagent-grade water was obtained from a Mili-Q system (Millipore/Waters). Carbenicillin disodium

salt, calcium chloride dihydrate, magnesium sulfate heptahydrate, lysozyme, cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate, dithiothreitol (DTT), SAM chloride salt, DNase, epinephrine (bitartrate salt), disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic this website acid (EDTA), sodium octyl sulfate (OSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA), LB-Agar, IPTG, tryptone, glycerol and propidium iodide (PI) were obtained from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO, USA). Potassium chloride, sodium chloride, boric acid were supplied by Fluka (Buchs, Switzerland). Sodium phosphate dibasic and potassium dihydrogen phosphate monobasic were obtained from Panreac (Barcelona, Spain). Bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)trimethine oxonol (BOX) was obtained from Molecular Probes®, Invitrogen, part of Life Technologies (Carlsbad, CA, USA). All other chemicals were of analytical grade and used without further purification. The Champion pET101 Directional TOPO expression kit

(Invitrogen Corporation, Carlsbad, CA, USA) was used for the expression of hSCOMT on E. coli BL21(DE3) strain kindly provided by Bial (Departamento de Investigação e Desenvolvimento, São Celastrol Mamede do Coronado, Portugal). In this study, except for tryptone and glycerol concentrations, all media components for the semi-defined medium were kept constant (5.5 g/L Na2HPO4, 0.5 g/L NaCl, 1.64 g/L citric acid monohydrate, 2 g/L potassium citrate, 1.21 g/L MgSO2·7H2O, 50 μg/mL carbenicillin and 1.5 mL/L trace elements solution) for the pre-cultivations, batch, and batch phase of fed-batch experiments. The trace elements solution consisted of 27 g/L FeCl3·6H2O, 2 g/L ZnCl2, 2 g/L CoCl2·6H2O, 2 g/L Na2MoO4·2H2O, 1 g/L CaCl2·2H2O, 1.2 g/L CuSO4 and 0.5 g/L H3BO4, prepared in 1.2 M HCl. LB agar plates supplemented with 50 μg/mL carbenicillin were inoculated from a cell bank aliquot and grown overnight at 37 °C.

The values of ΔT0ΔT0 result in the density contrast at the nozzle

The values of ΔT0ΔT0 result in the density contrast at the nozzle ((ρa-ρ0)/ρa(ρa-ρ0)/ρa) of 0.0006, 0.0015, 0.0040 Ganetespib supplier and 0.0075 kg/m3 for Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW) ( Tanaka et al., 2001). The system of equations in (7) is solved using the Euler method in Matlab R2013b for b0=0.05m, the results are plotted in Fig. 3 and discussed in the following section. For large initial jet velocities (i.e.   u0≫gb0(ρa-ρ0)/ρa,U∞) the influence of buoyancy and ambient flow is negligible in the near field. The benefit of a high discharge velocity is that it also results in a more coherent jet within 4 m from the nozzle.

In this limit, from (7), the following linear relationships can be established equation(9a,b) bb0=1+Djet,Djet=2αyb0.Jet

dilution and volume flux increase ( Morton et al., 1956) along the centre line are related to each other through the following relationship equation(10) QQ0=1+Djet.The comparison with the full model in Section 2.2 and the estimates in (9a,b) are Selleck Roxadustat plotted in Fig. 3a and b. The jet forms a conical shape with an angle tan-1(4α)=17.74°tan-1(4α)=17.74°. Over a distance of y   = 4 m, the jet fluid has been diluted by a factor of equation(11) Djet=0.64b0.The decay in u   and ΔTΔT of the jet with distance y due to entrainment of ambient fluid (dilution) can be estimated as equation(12a,b) uu0=11+2αyb0,ΔTΔT0=11+D.By inserting the terms in (9a) and (12a) into (5) it can be shown that the local Reynolds number within a momentum dominated jet cone will stay constant, so if the jet is initially turbulent at the outlet it will be turbulent along its path. When measuring the location of the jet centre line at 4 m it is important to make a correction due to the effect of U∞U∞ and ΔTΔT. The influence of ΔTΔT causes the jet to rise above the point of discharge. This rise can be estimated from equation(13) M0d2zdy2≃πb2gρa-ρ0ρa.Since the buoyancy flux is conserved, we can integrate (13) to obtain equation(14) z≃gy2u0212+αy3b0ρa-ρ0ρa,where

Lenvatinib research buy the distance z   is the amount the jet has risen. Similarly the jet trajectory deflection due to a weak cross flow is estimated from equation(15) M0d2xdy2≃2πuEU∞b0≃2παu0U∞b0,where entrainment (uEuE) is simplified to αu0αu0. Integrating (15) results in an approximation for the jet deflection downstream equation(16) x≃αU∞y2u0b0.A comparison between the full numerical model in Section 2.2, (14) and (16) is shown in Fig. 3c and d respectively. The agreement is good for |ΔT0|<20°C and U∞/u0<0.01U∞/u0<0.01. The previous discussion gives practical estimates of the centre line dilution. Additional information is required to understand how average dilution varies across the jet width. To examine this effect we analysed the dilution of a jet containing passive dye as it is gradually diluted.

Die auf der Grundlage prospektiver Daten aus Deutschland geschätz

Die auf der Grundlage prospektiver Daten aus Deutschland geschätzte Inzidenz der ICT beträgt 1:500.000 bis 1:1.000.000 [13]. Hinsichtlich der Prävalenz der ICC-Fälle in Indien liegen keine Daten vor, jedoch ging die Krankheit dramatisch zurück, nachdem der Bevölkerung geraten worden war, keine Kupfergefäße mehr zum Aufbewahren und Erhitzen von Milch

zu verwenden. Aktuellen Beobachtungen zufolge, die auf Krankenhauseinweisungen im Distrikt Pune beruhen, sind seit 1974 keine neuen Fälle mehr diagnostiziert worden [103]. Androgen Receptor Antagonist In ländlichen Regionen Tirols in Österreich, wo ebenfalls Kupfergefäße zur Zubereitung von Säuglingsnahrung verwendet wurden, starben 138 Säuglinge und Kleinkinder zwischen 1900 und 1974 an Leberzirrhose, die einer chronisch hohen Exposition

gegenüber Kupfer zugeschrieben wurde [104]. Die Krankheit folgte dem typischen Muster eines rezessiven Mendelschen Erbgangs. Nachdem die Gemeinden die Verwendung von Kupfergegenständen aufgegeben hatten, wurden keine weiteren Fälle mehr beobachtet. Sporadische Fälle frühkindlicher Zirrhose wurden auch aus anderen Ländern berichtet, und in einigen dieser Fälle wurden im Nachhinein hohe Kupferkonzentrationen im Trinkwasser festgestellt [105]. Da jedoch manche dieser Fälle in konsanguinen PLX4032 Ehen auftraten, die Krankheit unter Jungen häufiger war und einige der Patienten keine erhöhten Kupfermengen mit der Nahrung (einschließlich

des Trinkwassers) aufgenommen hatten, ist zu vermuten, dass hier eine besondere genetische Suszeptibilität vorgelegen haben könnte [100], [106] and [107]. Diese Annahme wird weiter gestützt durch die Tatsache, dass alle anderen Kleinkinder, die in derselben geographischen Region lebten, denselben Kupfermengen ausgesetzt waren, jedoch keine Leberschäden entwickelten. Um die Ätiologie der ICC und der ICT sowie deren Zusammenhang mit der Kupferaufnahme aufzuklären, ist ein tieferes Verständnis der Kupferresorption und -exkretion im frühen Kindesalter und deren Anpassung an eine hohe Kupferzufuhr von entscheidender Bedeutung. Darüber hinaus sollten bei diesen Methocarbamol Krankheiten eventuelle epigenetische Veränderungen untersucht werden. Zusammenfassend lässt sich sagen, dass die Ätiologie der ICC und der ICT immer noch unbekannt ist. Die wahrscheinlichste Erklärung für diese Krankheiten scheint jedoch die Kombination eines genetischen Defekts des Kupfermetabolismus mit einer hohen Kupferzufuhr zu sein. Der relative Beitrag der beiden Faktoren ist nicht bekannt. Die diskutierten Daten zeigen, dass trotz der in den letzten Jahrzehnten gewonnenen, umfangreichen Kenntnisse immer noch Bedarf besteht, unser Verständnis der frühen Effekte sowohl einer ungenügenden Kupferzufuhr als auch einer übermäßigen Exposition gegenüber Kupfer weiter zu verbessern.

, 2011) and pelagic species of conservation value such as basking

, 2011) and pelagic species of conservation value such as basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus, Musick et al., 2004). CH5424802 ic50 Globally, fishing fleets harvest benthic target species using towed demersal gear, often digging into sediments and so removing slow growing, long lived, structure forming fauna (Thrush and Dayton, 2002). Recovery of some impacted species from just one passage of fishing gear can take decades (Babcock et al., 1999, Foden et al., 2010 and Watling and Norse, 1998). Marine managers’ best tool to protect discrete patches of

the seabed from fishing, therefore allowing benthic species to contribute to ecosystem function, is the application of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) (Agardy, 1994, Auster and Shackell, 2000, Babcock et al., 1999, Gell and Roberts, 2003, Halpern, 2003, Murawski et al., 2000 and Roberts et al., 2005). MPAs come in a variety of sizes, shapes and forms (Agardy et al., 2003, Agardy, 1994 and Rabaut et al., 2009) depending on the ‘features’

that they are designated to protect, a feature being a species or specific habitat that has received formal protection from a type of human activity. The size and level of protection from human activity in MPAs ranges from 1 to 1000s km2; and from ‘No-take’ to seasonal fishing closures (Lester and Halpern, 2008). Protection of the features can be limited to the features’ periphery such as Special Areas of Conservation in Europe (European Commission, 2000) or protection Enzalutamide can surround features and therefore protect the whole ‘site’ such as Tortugas Ecological Reserve, Buck Island National Reef Monument and Chagos (Jeffrey et al., 2012, Kendall et al., 2004 and Koldewey et al., 2010). The former relies on human ability to adequately draw

lines around the features’ functional extent, which is generally considered to be the visible, physical extent Idelalisib datasheet of the feature (e.g. reef) used as an analogue of the associated species that require protection. Some European and international MPAs, such as La Restinga Marine Reserve (Spain) and the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (Australia) (Claudet et al., 2008 and Day, 2002), have surrounding areas called Buffer Zones to prevent direct and indirect physical interaction and disturbance of fishing gear on the feature(s) of interest. In 2008, a statutory MPA in south west UK was designated to protect rocky reef habitat (Fig. 1). The management regime involved protecting all of the seabed at the ‘site’ level. This equated to a 206 km2 exclusion zone from towed demersal fishing gear across a MPA that contained a mosaic of rocky reef (bedrock, boulders and cobbles), pebbly sand and soft muddy sediments. To assess the success of the MPA, an annual monitoring program commenced soon after this MPA was instigated. The aim was to determine if and when recovery occurred for epibenthic assemblages on rocky reefs. A flying array with mounted High Definition video (Fig.

During the upwelling along the southern coast, the volume of wate

During the upwelling along the southern coast, the volume of water transported to the upper layer was larger than that off the northern coast, and the water mass was brought up from depths greater than 60 m (see Figures 7a, 7b and Figure 8). During the upwelling event along the northern coast, water was transported to the surface mainly from the depth range of selleck 21–41 m. There was a remarkable decrease from 3.7 × 108 m2 to 1.08 × 107 m2 in the amount of water transported to the surface from the 41–55 m depth range; hence, the maximum depth

influenced by the upwelling along the northern coast was about 55 m. In the case of the upwelling along the southern coast, such a depth interval with a rapid decrease of upwelled water volume was not detected; the volume of upwelled water decreased more or less uniformly with depth. The Antidiabetic Compound Library contribution from deeper layers during the upwelling with reduced wind stress (τ = 0.5 τ0) was lower for the upwelling events along both the northern and the southern coasts (see Figures 7b, 7d and Figure 8). The maximum depth influenced by the upwelling also fell to 45 m for the northern and 65 m for the

southern coast. In Figure 8 the shapes of the curves of transported water volume have been transformed into straight lines for both upwelling cases. Comparison of the changes in transported volumes during the upwelling along the northern coast with reduced wind stress from depths of 15–45 m with the results for the upwelling along the southern coast with reduced wind stress shows that transport from intermediate layers was reduced remarkably: the volume of water transported from 21 m depth was more than 50% smaller, but for the deepest layers, the decrease was 10 times larger. According to Lentz & Chapman (2004), the vertical position of the onshore

return flow that balances the offshore Ekman transport in an idealized case of stationary 2D upwelling is controlled by the Burger number S = αN/f, where α is the bottom slope, N is the buoyancy frequency and f is the Coriolis parameter. For ≪ 1 (weak stratification), bottom stress balances wind stress, and the onshore return flow is primarily in the bottom boundary layer. DOK2 For S ≈ 1 or more (strong stratification), the cross-shelf momentum flux divergence balances wind stress and the onshore return flow is in the interior. Despite the fact that real upwelling events in the Gulf of Finland are neither stationary nor two-dimensional, the finding by Lentz & Chapman (2004) may be used for the qualitative interpretation of the results obtained in this study. The estimates of the Burger number retrieved from the simulations were found to vary within the respective ranges of S = 0.3–1.2 and S = 0.2–0.9 for the upwellings along the southern and the northern coasts.