Phosphoproteomic change resulting from nocodazole treatment varie

Phosphoproteomic change resulting from nocodazole treatment varied among cell lines in terms of the numbers of total phosphopeptides identified, motif groups, and functional annotation groups; however,

the cell lines were equally sensitive to nocodazole. The identified phosphoproteome subset contained major signaling proteins and proteins known to be involved in mitosis, but did not always exhibit the same changes in the tumor cells from nocodazole treatment. In spite of the complex changes observed in the phosphorylation of many of the proteins, possible common features induced by nocodazole were found, including click here phosphorylation of nucleophosmin (NPM) S254 and coatomer protein complex, subunit alpha (COPA) S173, suggesting that

the events are not cell-type specific but events generally occurring in mitosis or induced by a microtubule-interfering agent. Further, temporal analysis of phosphoproteome change revealed that phosphorylation of NPM S254 and COPA S173 was observed from the early (6 h) and late (24 h) time point after nocodazole treatment, respectively, suggesting that NPM S254 may be involved in the induction of M-phase arrest by nocodazole, whereas COPA S173 may be caused as a result of M-phase arrest.”
“In the age of genomic medicine we can often now do the genetic testing that will permit more accurate personal tailoring of medications to obtain the best therapeutic results. This is certainly a medically and morally desirable result. However, in other areas of medicine pharmacogenomics is generating

Necrostatin-1 consequences that are much less ethically benign and much less amenable to a satisfactory ethical resolution. More specifically, we will often find ourselves left with ‘wicked problems,’ ‘ragged edges,’ and well-disguised Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) ethical precipices. This will be especially true with regard to these extraordinarily expensive cancer drugs that generally yield only extra weeks or extra months of life. Our key ethical question is this: Does every individual faced with cancer have a just claim to receive treatment with one of more of these targeted cancer therapies at social expense? If any of these drugs literally made the difference between an unlimited life expectancy (a cure) and a premature death, that would be a powerful moral consideration in favor of saying that such individuals had a strong just claim to that drug. However, what we are beginning to discover is that different individuals with different genotypes respond more or less positively to these targeted drugs with some in a cohort gaining a couple extra years of life while others gain only extra weeks or months. Should only the strongest responders have a just claim to these drugs at social expense when there is no bright line that separates strong responders from modest responders from marginal responders? This is the key ethical issue we address.

Additional exploratory analyses revealed a positive association b

Additional exploratory analyses revealed a positive association between levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the right temporal N170 amplitude in response to covert expressions of fear. The arachidonic JNJ-64619178 in vitro (AA)/DHA ratio was negatively associated with the right temporal N170 amplitude also to covert expressions of fear. These findings indicate that EPA and DHA may be involved in distinct aspects of affect processing in ADHD and have implications for understanding currently inconsistent findings in the literature on EFA supplementation

in ADHD and depression. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Thalamocortical (TC) neurons provide the major sensory input to the mammalian somatosensory cortex. Decreased activity of these cells may be pivotal in the ability of general anesthetics to induce loss of consciousness and promote sleep (hypnosis).

T-type voltage-gated calcium currents (T-currents) have a key function regulating the cellular excitability of TC neurons and previous studies have indicated that volatile general anesthetics may alter the excitability of these neurons.

Using a patch-clamp technique, we investigated the mechanisms whereby isoflurane, a common volatile anesthetic, modulates isolated T-currents and T-current-dependent excitability of native TC

neurons in acute brain slices of the rat.

In voltage-clamp experiments, we found that isoflurane strongly inhibited peak amplitude of T-current, Dorsomorphin chemical structure yielding an IC50 of 1.1 vol-% at physiological membrane potentials. Ensuing biophysical studies demonstrated that inhibition was more prominent at depolarized membrane potentials as evidenced by hyperpolarizing shifts in channel availability curves. In current-clamp experiments we found that isoflurane decreased the rate of depolarization of low-threshold-calcium spikes (LTCSs) and consequently increased the latency of rebound spike firing at the same concentrations that inhibited isolated T-currents. This effect

was mimicked by a novel selective T-channel blocker 3,5-dichloro-N-[1-(2,2-dmethyl-tetrahydro-pyran-4-ylmethyl)-4-fluoro-piperidin-4-ylmethyl]-benzamid e (TTA-P2). In contrast, isoflurane and TTA-P2 had minimal effect on resting membrane potential and cell input resistance. We propose that the clinical properties of isoflurane Selleck Tenofovir may at least partly be provided by depression of thalamic T-currents. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Analyses of brain phospholipid fatty acid profiles reveal a selective deficiency and enrichment in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), respectively. In order to account for this difference in brain fatty acid levels, we hypothesized that EPA is more rapidly beta-oxidized upon its entry into the brain. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice were perfused with either (14)C-EPA or (14)C-DHA via in situ cerebral perfusion for 40 s, followed by a bicarbonate buffer to wash out the residual radiolabeled polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the capillaries.

The expression of IL-6, TSP-1 and transforming growth factor-beta

The expression of IL-6, TSP-1 and transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) were determined through Western blot analysis in HK-2 cells. Results: In HK-2 cells, purified CRP significantly induced protein release and mRNA expression of IL-6 and TSP-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. TGF-beta(1) protein was overexpressed in HK-2 cells induced by CRP, which cannot be inhibited by IL-6 or TSP-1 antibodies. CRP triggered phosphorylation of p38MAPK

and activation of NF-kappa B-mediated signal transduction. SB203580 (5 mu m) and PDTC (50 mu m) efficiently suppressed those effects of CRP in HK-2 cells. Conclusions: CRP induces IL-6 and TSP-1 protein release and mRNA expression selleck compound from HK-2 cells via activation of the p38MAPK and NF-kappa B signaling pathways and TGE-beta(1) was highly expressed in GSK461364 datasheet HK-2 cells, suggesting that CRP plays an important role in the propagation and prolongation of inflammation in renal fibrosis. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Viruses infecting hyperthermophilic archaea have intriguing morphologies and genomic properties. The vast majority of their genes do not have homologs other than in other hyperthermophilic viruses, and the biology of these viruses is poorly understood. As part of a structural genomics project on the proteins of these

viruses, we present here the structure of a 102 amino acid protein from acidianus filamentous virus 1 (AFV1-102). The structure shows that it is made of two identical motifs that have poor sequence similarity. Although no function can be proposed from structural analysis, tight binding the of the gateway tag peptide in a groove between the two motifs suggests AFV1-102 is involved in protein protein interactions.”
“Photolysis is widely used in experimental neuroscience to isolate post-synaptic receptor activation from presynaptic processes, to determine receptor mechanisms in situ, for pharmacological dissection of signaling pathways, or for photostimulation/inhibition

in neural networks. We have evaluated new caged neuroactive amino acids that use 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl- (MNI) or 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethoxycarbonyl (NPEC) photoprotecting groups to make caged ligands specific for glutamate receptor subtypes. Each was tested for interference with synaptic transmission and excitability and for receptor-specific actions in slice preparations. No adverse effects were found at glutamate receptors. At high concentration, MNI-caged, but not NPEC-caged ligands, interfered with GABA-ergic transmission.

MNI-caged amino acids have sub-microsecond release times suitable for investigating mechanisms at fast synaptic receptors in situ. MNI-NMDA and MNI-kainate were synthesized and tested. MNI-NMDA showed stoichiometric release of chirally pure NMDA. Wide-field photolysis in cerebellar interneurons produced a fast-rising sustained activation of NMDA receptors, and localized laser photolysis gave a fast, transient response.

In Experiment 2, moderately pleasant pictures elicited less activ

In Experiment 2, moderately pleasant pictures elicited less activity over corrugator supercilii when they were embedded among mildly valent (i.e., pleasant and unpleasant), as opposed to extremely valent, pictures; moderately unpleasant pictures elicited comparable EMG activity regardless of context. this website Results indicate that context can influence affective reactions underlying affective judgments of moderately pleasant stimuli.”
“To directly address whether regulating mRNA localization can influence animal behavior, we created transgenic mice that conditionally

express Zipcode Binding Protein 1 (ZBP1) in a subset of neurons in the brain. ZBP1 is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the localization, as well as translation and stability of target mRNAs in the cytoplasm. We took advantage of the absence of ZBP1 expression in the mature brain to examine the effect of expressing ZBP1 on animal behavior.

We constructed a transgene conditionally expressing a GFP-ZBP1 fusion protein in a subset of forebrain neurons and compared cocaine-cued place conditioning in these mice versus noninduced littermates. Transgenic ZBP1 expression resulted in impaired place conditioning relative to nonexpressing littermates, and acutely repressing selleck inhibitor expression of the transgene restored normal cocaine conditioning. To gain insight into the molecular changes that accounted for this change in behavior, we identified mRNAs that specifically immunoprecipitated with transgenic ZBP1 protein from the brains of these mice. These data suggest that RNA-binding proteins can be used as a tool to identify the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in the establishment Forskolin research buy and function of neural circuits involved in addiction behaviors.”

In current international guidelines, intraaortic balloon counterpulsation is considered to be a class I treatment for cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial

infarction. However, evidence is based mainly on registry data, and there is a paucity of randomized clinical trials.


In this randomized, prospective, open-label, multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 600 patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction to intraaortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP group, 301 patients) or no intraaortic balloon counterpulsation (control group, 299 patients). All patients were expected to undergo early revascularization (by means of percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery) and to receive the best available medical therapy. The primary efficacy end point was 30-day all-cause mortality. Safety assessments included major bleeding, peripheral ischemic complications, sepsis, and stroke.


A total of 300 patients in the IABP group and 298 in the control group were included in the analysis of the primary end point.

Multiple sampling sites within the tumor mass were


Multiple sampling sites within the tumor mass were

defined for a patient with a recurrent left frontal oligodendroglioma, World Health Organization grade II with chromosome 1p/19q codeletion, and mass spectrometry data indicated a correlation between lipid constitution and tumor cell prevalence.

CONCLUSION: The mass spectrometry measurements reflect a complex molecular structure and are integrated with frameless stereotaxy and imaging, providing 3-dimensional molecular imaging without systemic Microtubule Associated inhibitor injection of any agents, which can be implemented for surgical margins delineation of any organ and with a rapidity that allows real-time analysis.”
“Various factors could conceivably promote the accuracy of guesses during a recognition test. Two that we identified in previous studies

are forced-choice testing format and high perceptual similarity between the repeat target and novel foil. In restricted circumstances, the relative perceptual fluency of the target can be compared with that of the foil and used as a reliable cue to guide accurate responses that occur without explicit retrieval-a phenomenon we referred to as “”implicit recognition.”" In this issue, Jeneson and colleagues report a failure to replicate accurate guesses and also a tendency on the part of subjects to hazard guesses infrequently, even though testing circumstances were very similar to those that we used. To resolve this discrepancy, we developed a simple manipulation to encourage either guessing or confident responding. Ketanserin Encouraging guessing increased

both LDC000067 purchase the prevalence of guesses and the accuracy of guesses in a recognition test, relative to when confident responding was encouraged. When guessing was encouraged, guesses were highly accurate (as in our previous demonstrations of implicit recognition), whereas when confident responding was encouraged, guesses were at chance levels (as in Jeneson and colleagues’ data). In light of a substantial literature showing high accuracy despite low confidence in certain circumstances, we infer that both the prevalence and accuracy of guessing can be influenced by whether subjects adopt guessing-friendly strategies. Our findings thus help to further characterize conditions likely to promote implicit recognition based on perceptual fluency.”
“BACKGROUND: Chiari I malformation occurs because of an underdeveloped posterior fossa with reduced volume that cannot accommodate the normally developed hindbrain.

OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical presentation and surgical outcome of pediatric Chiari I malformation and to correlate outcome with demographic and clinical factors and radiological changes in the syrinx, spinal cord, and preoperative intracranial, posterior fossa, and foramen magnum dimensions.

To evaluate the site of action cerebral infarcted rats underwent

To evaluate the site of action cerebral infarcted rats underwent single intracerebroventricular or intrathecal administration of FYO-750. OTX015 To evaluate the mechanism of action FYO-750 was intravenously administered in diuretic rats or cerebral infarcted rats pretreated

with resiniferatoxin.

Results: For cumulative administration SC-560 (0.3 mg/kg), rofecoxib (0.3 mg/kg) and FYO-750 (0.1 to 1 mg/kg) significantly increased bladder capacity. For single administration neither SC-560 (0.03 mg/kg) nor rofecoxib (0.03 mg/kg) affected bladder capacity but SC-560 plus rofecoxib significantly increased bladder capacity vs vehicle. Intracerebroventricular and intrathecal administration of FYO-750 did not affect bladder capacity. FYO-750 did not affect urinary production in diuretic rats and the effects of FYO-750 were blocked by resiniferatoxin except at the highest drug dose.

Conclusions: Results indicate that cyclooxygenase inhibitors improve detrusor overactivity caused by cerebral

infarction by suppressing peripheral C fiber’s without affecting urinary production. The nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor showed more potent efficiency than the selective cyclooxygenase-1 or the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor alone.”
“BACKGROUND: The reported cumulative risk of post-angiographic obliteration (post-AO) Amine dehydrogenase hemorrhage from Ro 61-8048 purchase arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) following gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) over 10 years is 2.2%.

OBJECTIVE: To identify the warning signs of post-AO hemorrhage by analyzing the characteristics of enhancement on contrast-enhanced MRI

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of AVMs with post-AO hemorrhage.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 121 patients whose AVMs were angiographically obliterated within 5 years of GKRS without hemorrhage and who received at least 1 contrast-enhanced MRI after GKRS (group 1), and 7 patients who experienced post-AO hemorrhage (group 2). We analyzed the enhancement persistence ratio (the percentage of AVMs with persisting enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted image after obliteration) and the change in size of the enhanced region over time in each patient.

RESULTS: The enhancement persistence ratio showed no significant difference between the 2 groups (89.4% vs 100% for groups 1 and 2, respectively; P = .401). While most cases in group 1 showed a tendency to decrease in size and gradually stabilize following GKRS, there were significantly more cases in group 2 with obvious increment of the enhanced regions within 1 year of angiographic obliteration compared with the previous measurement (4.96% vs 71.

(C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“The fact that

(C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The fact that pictures are better remembered than words has been reported in the literature for over 30 years. While this picture superiority effect has been consistently found in healthy young and older adults, no study has directly evaluated the presence of the effect in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Clinical observations have indicated that pictures enhance memory in these

patients, suggesting that the picture superiority effect may be intact. However, several studies have reported visual processing impairments in AD and MCI patients which might diminish the picture superiority effect. Using a recognition memory paradigm, we tested AZD9291 price memory for pictures versus words in these patients. The results showed that the picture superiority effect is intact,

and that these patients showed a similar benefit to healthy controls from studying pictures compared to words. The findings are discussed in terms of visual processing and possible clinical importance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Extraversion and neuroticism influence behaviour and mood. Extreme expressions of these personality traits may predispose individuals to developing chronic functional pains and mood disorders that predominantly affect women. We acquired anatomical MRI scans and personality scores from healthy male and female adolescents and measured gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness to test the hypothesis that neuroticism and extraversion contribute to sex differences in fronto-limbic cortical development during a crucial period of social and biological maturation. In females, extraversion correlated negatively with medial frontal gyrus GMV and neuroticism correlated positively

with subgenual anterior cingulate cortex GMV and cortical thickness. Interestingly, correlations between GMV and personality in males showed an opposite effect. Given the association of these cortical areas with social cognition and emotional processing, we suggest that a neuro-maturational divergence during adolescence OSBPL9 accounts for the higher prevalence of specific chronic pains and mood disorders in females. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“While there is consistent evidence from neuropsychological and brain imaging studies for an association between the left angular gyrus and mental arithmetic, its specific role in calculation has remained poorly understood. It has been speculated that the angular gyrus mediates the retrieval of arithmetic facts during problem solving, but this hypothesis has not been directly tested. In the present functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study comprising 28 adults, we used trial-by-trial strategy self-reports to identify brain regions underpinning different strategies in arithmetic problem solving.

According to this model, there should be a link between alteratio

According to this model, there should be a link between alterations in processing emotions in substance abusers, and their impairments in decision-making. see more Growing evidence from neuroscientific studies indicate that core aspects of addiction may be explained in terms of abnormal emotional/homeostatic guidance of decision-making.

Behavioral studies have revealed emotional processing and decision-making deficits in substance abusers. Neuroimaging studies have shown that altered decision-making in addiction is associated with abnormal functioning of a distributed neural network critical for the processing of emotional information, and the experience of “”craving”", including the VMPC, the amygdala, the striatum, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the insular/somato-sensory cortices, as well as non-specific neurotransmitter systems that modulate activities of neural processes involved in decision-making. The aim of this paper is to review this growing evidence, and to examine the extent to which these studies Support a somatic marker theory of addiction. We conclude that there are at least two underlying types of dysfunction where emotional signals (somatic markers) turn in favor of immediate

outcomes in addiction: (1) a hyperactivity Batimastat in the amygdala or impulsive system, which exaggerates the rewarding impact of available incentives, and (2) hypoactivity in the prefrontal cortex or reflective system, which forecasts the long-term consequences of a given action. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Rotavirus infection modifies Ca(2+) homeostasis, provoking an increase in Ca(2+) permeation, the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](cyto)), and total Ca(2+) pools click here and a decrease in Ca(2+) response to agonists. A glycosylated viral protein(s), NSP4 and/or VP7, may be responsible

for these effects. HT29 or Cos-7 cells were infected by the SA11 clone 28 strain, in which VP7 is not glycosylated, or transiently transfected with plasmids coding for NSP4-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or NSP4. The permeability of the plasma membrane to Ca(2+) and the amount of Ca(2+) sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum released by carbachol or ATP were measured in fura-2-loaded cells at the single-cell level under a fluorescence microscope or in cell suspensions in a fluorimeter. Total cell Ca(2+) pools were evaluated as (45)Ca(2+) uptake. Infection with SA11 clone 28 induced an increase in Ca(2+) permeability and (45)Ca(2+) uptake similar to that found with the normally glycosylated SA11 strain. These effects were inhibited by tunicamycin, indicating that inhibition of glycosylation of a viral protein other than VP7 affects the changes of Ca(2+) homeostasis induced by infection.

Chemical cross-linking, dynamic light scattering, sedimentation v

Chemical cross-linking, dynamic light scattering, sedimentation velocity, and electron microscopy analyses led to the conclusion that M2-1 forms a 5.4S tetramer of 89 kDa and similar to 7.6 nm in diameter at micromolar concentrations. By using a series of deletion mutants, the oligomerization domain of M2-1 was mapped

to a putative alpha-helix consisting of amino acid residues 32 to 63. When tested in an RSV minigenome replicon system using a luciferase gene as a reporter, an M2-1 deletion mutant lacking this region showed a significant reduction in RNA transcription compared to wild-type M2-1, indicating that M2-1 oligomerization Evofosfamide chemical structure is essential for the activity of the protein. We also show that the region encompassing amino acid residues 59 to 178 binds to PLX4032 cost P and RNA in a competitive manner that is independent of the phosphorylation status of M2-1.”

E (ApoE) 4 is a potent risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying ApoE4 function in the pathology of AD is not well understood. We report here that, in comparison with ApoE2 and ApoE3, ApoE4 significantly reduces levels of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), which is responsible for the cellular clearance of A beta in neurons. This differential regulation of IDE by various ApoE isoforms was blocked by coincubation with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor inhibitors and receptor-associated protein (RAP), which blocked the interaction between ApoE and members of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family. Moreover, inhibition of the NMDA receptor increased IDE levels in neurons, while activation of the NMDA receptor-reduced IDE expression. Further studies demonstrate that, as a pathway downstream of the NMDA receptor, CAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) contributes to the NMDA receptor-reduced IDE expression. These results suggest that ApoE4 down-regulates IDE expression in neurons by binding to its receptor and stimulating the NMDA receptor pathway, which may account for its role in AD pathogenesis. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

rights reserved.”
“Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E, a major form of viral hepatitis in developing countries. The open reading frame 3 (ORF3) of HEV encodes a phosphoprotein with a molecular mass of approximately 13 kDa Sulfite dehydrogenase (hereinafter called vp13). vp13 is essential for establishing HEV infections in animals, yet its exact functions are still obscure. Our current study found evidence showing interaction between vp13 and microtubules. Live-cell confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed both filamentous and punctate distribution patterns of vp13 in cells transfected with recombinant ORF3 reporter plasmids. The filamentous pattern of vp13 was altered by a microtubule-destabilizing drug. The vp13 expression led to elevation of acetylated alpha-tubulin, indicating increased microtubule stability.

We report that HCV-infected patients display increased circulatin

We report that HCV-infected patients display increased circulating FoxP3(+) Tregs that are phenotypically and functionally indistinguishable from FoxP3(+) Tregs in uninfected subjects. Furthermore, HCV-specific FoxP3(+) Tregs were detected in

HCV-seropositive C188-9 persons with antigen-specific expansion, major histocompatibillity complex class II/peptide tetramer binding affinity, and preferential suppression of HCV-specific CD8 T cells. Transforming growth factor 0 contributed to antigen-specific Treg expansion in vitro, suggesting that it may contribute to antigen-specific Treg expansion in vivo. Interestingly, FoxP3 expression was also detected in influenza

virus-specific CD4 T cells. In conclusion, functionally active and virus-specific FoxP3(+) Tregs are induced in HCV infection, thus providing targeted immune regulation in vivo. Detection of FoxP3 expression in non-HCV-specific CD4 T cells suggests that immune regulation through antigen-specific Treg induction ABT737 extends beyond HCV.”
“High-frequency stimulation (HFS) induces long-term potentiation (LTP) at inhibitory synapses of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in developing rat visual cortex. This LTP requires postsynaptic Ca2+ rise for induction, while the maintenance mechanism is present at the presynaptic site, suggesting presynaptic LTP expression and the necessity of retrograde signaling. We investigated whether the supposed signal is mediated

by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is expressed in pyramidal neurons but not inhibitory interneurons. LTP did not occur when HFS was applied in the presence of the Trk receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a in the perfusion medium. HFS produced UP when bath application of K252a was started after HFS or when K252a was loaded Orotic acid into postsynaptic cells. LTP did not occur in the presence of TrkB-IgG scavenging BDNF or function-blocking anti-BDNF antibody in the medium. In cells loaded with the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA, the addition of BDNF to the medium enabled HFS to induce UP without affecting baseline synaptic transmission. These results suggest that BDNF released from postsynaptic cells activates presynaptic TrkB, leading to LTP. Because BDNF, expressed activity dependently, regulates the maturation of cortical inhibition, inhibitory UP may contribute to this developmental process, and hence experience-dependent functional maturation of visual cortex. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Cells infected with human cytomegalovirus in the absence of UL97 kinase activity produce large nuclear aggregates that sequester considerable quantities of viral proteins.