When targeted to couples with a known or suspected increased risk

When targeted to couples with a known or suspected increased risk of having a child with GSI-IX clinical trial a genetic disorder, genetic preconception care fits within the tradition of individual genetic testing and counseling. It provides counselees with a wider range of reproductive options than they would otherwise have had (Solomon et al. 2008). On the basis of their genetic

risk-profile and in the light of their personal weighing of relevant considerations, they may decide to 1) have a child while accepting the risk, 2) reproduce with the use of donor gametes, 3) refrain from having children genetically related to at least one of the partners, 4) establish a pregnancy and then use prenatal diagnosis (PD) with the possibility of having a selective abortion, or 5) conceive through in vitro fertilization (IVF) and use pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) with the hope of being able to select a non-affected embryo. When however offered to a whole population of reproductive age, genetic preconception care seeks primarily to identify couples or individuals with an increased risk of transmitting a genetic disorder. The basic format is taking an extensive family history as part of general preconception selleckchem consultation (Health Council

of the Netherlands 2007). In most cases, this will not reveal a high risk of transmitting a serious autosomal recessive disease, such as cystic fibrosis (CF) or hemoglobinopathies. Indeed, due to the recessive inheritance pattern, affected children tend to be born to healthy and unsuspecting parents, even if the diseases in question may constitute a serious reproductive health problem

in specific populations or communities where they are more frequent. The systematic and uninvited offer of testing for carrier status of such diseases may therefore become an important instrument of genetic preconception care (Solomon et al. 2008). Experience with this approach also includes X-linked recessive diseases, notably Fragile X syndrome (FXS) (Musci and Moyer 2010). In the two main sections of this paper we review the ethics both of individual preconception genetic counseling and of systematically offering preconception carrier screening (PCS) to couples or individuals of reproductive age, either targeting specific diseases or using expanded (potentially old even genome wide) test-panels. Ethics of individual preconception genetic counseling Ethical issues of preconception counseling of individual couples with a known or suspected increased genetic risk include the objectives of genetic counseling, the ethics of abortion and embryo-selection, and issues arising with regard to the professional–client relationship. Objectives of individual preconception genetic counseling There are two different views of the aim of preconception care for individual couples with increased genetic risk: prevention and autonomy (Buchanan et al. 2000; De Wert 1999).

As a result, any added electron dragging effect due to the increa

As a result, any added electron dragging effect due to the increase in transverse flow was buried in the effect of the overall flow momentum decrease due to the decrease in x-directional flow velocity in Figure 3b. Moreover, the increased vorticity seems to interfere with the out-of-plane phonon mode, minimizing the momentum transfer from the fluid flow in Figure 3c. In summary, the significant decrease in the induced voltage in the presence of herringbone grooves is because of the overall flow momentum decrease due to the decrease in x-directional flow and increased vorticity.

Figure 4 shows the flow-induced voltage generation with time at a fixed flow rate (1,000 μL/min) for all four configurations. It is notable that the signals for the perpendicular alignment (in Figure 4b,d) have

more noise/oscillation than those for the parallel alignment (in Figure 4a,c). This difference seemed to arise from the distinct Ulixertinib supplier voltage generation mechanisms. Sirolimus As the out-of-plane phonon mode is produced by momentum transfer from the flowing fluid to the graphene layer, the induced voltage tends to show greater oscillation than the signal obtained in phonon dragging mode. This signal oscillation is amplified with the herringbone grooves due to the increased vorticity in the fluid flow in Figure 4d. These data also support our previously proposed different mechanisms for flow-induced PRKACG voltage generation according to the electrode-flow alignment. Figure 4 Flow-induced voltage with time. (a) Parallel alignment without herringbone grooves. (b) Perpendicular alignment without herringbone grooves. (c) Parallel alignment with herringbone grooves. (d) Perpendicular alignment with herringbone grooves. Conclusions In conclusion, we investigated flow-induced voltage generation over a graphene monolayer in the presence of staggered herringbone grooves to better understand the origin of the voltage generated. The flow-induced voltage decreased

significantly in the presence of herringbone grooves in both parallel and perpendicular alignments. The numerical simulation study revealed that the presence of herringbone grooves decreased longitudinal flow velocity while increasing transverse flow and vorticity. As a result, the directional charge dragging effect was significantly reduced in the parallel alignment, resulting in decreased voltage generation. In the case of the perpendicular alignment, the momentum transfer from the fluid flow to the graphene (out-of-plane phonon mode) was affected by the decreased flow velocity and increased vorticity, causing the voltage generation to drop. We also found that the voltage signal with the perpendicular alignment showed a bigger oscillation than that of the parallel type and that the signal oscillation was amplified by the herringbone groove.

Blood and tissue assays Blood lactate concentration was assessed

Blood and tissue assays Blood lactate concentration was assessed by an electrochemical technique (Lactate Analyzer – Yellow Springs Instruments 2300 Stat Plus) after stabilization in sodium fluoride (4.7 mM). Glycogen determination followed a previously described protocol [19]. Fifteen animals from the same group of rats from which experimental groups were selected were used for

baseline glycogen determinations. Statistical analysis Results are presented as average ± SD. A Proc Mixed Model (SAS®) was performed for blood lactate concentration and glycogen contents [20]. Whenever a significant F-value was obtained, a post-hoc test with a selleck chemicals Tukey adjustment was performed for multiple comparison purposes. Correlation between variables was assessed by a Pearson’s correlation coefficient Significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results Experiment 1 Number of bouts to exhaustion A significant difference was observed between groups for the number of bouts to exhaustion. Group CR performed a significantly Smad inhibitor higher (p = 0.035) number of intermittent high intensity swimming bouts than Pl group (10.80 ± 1.67 and 8.42 ± 1.83 respectively) (Figure 1). Figure 1 Effects of creatine supplementation on the number of intermittent high intensity swimming bouts completed until fatigue. Pl – placebo group; CR – creatine

group; * indicates p < 0.05 when compared to Pl group Experiment 2 Body weight Body weight was increased in CR (229.14 ± 4.38 g) when compared to Pl group after the supplementation period (221.71 ± 4.25 g). Additionally, only CR group showed increased body weight when compared to pre supplementation period (217.55 ± 3.54 g). Blood lactate Blood lactate analysis did not show any differences between groups at rest, after ten-minute unloaded warm-up and after bout 1 of supra anaerobic threshold swimming exercise. However, significantly lower lactate concentrations were observed for CR group in bouts 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Figure 2 illustrates blood lactate concentration throughout the experimental protocol. Figure 2 Effects of creatine supplementation on blood lactate concentrations throughout the

experimental protocol (Experiment 2). Pl – placebo group; CR – creatine Nitroxoline group; * indicates p < 0.05 between groups at the same bout Glycogen content Pl and CR groups (0.14 ± 0.03 and 0.17 ± 0.01 mg/100 mg wet tissue, respectively) presented decreased soleus glycogen content compared to baseline (0.19 ± 0.03 mg/100 mg wet tissue). No differences were found between groups (Figure 3). Figure 3 Effects of creatine supplementation on soleus glycogen content. Pl – placebo group; CR – creatine group; * indicates p < 0.05 when compared to baseline A significant interaction was found for gastrocnemius glycogen. CR group showed significant higher glycogen content compared to Pl (33.59%; 0.17 ± 0.01 vs. 0.13 ± 0.02 mg/100 mg wet tissue for CR and Pl groups, respectively). Moreover, only Pl group presented a significant decline (39.

, Danbury CT) until microscopic examination confirmed that all th

, Danbury CT) until microscopic examination confirmed that all the cells were completely disrupted. The samples were cleared by centrifugation at 12000 × g for 30 min at 4°C, and the K+ ion concentration of the supernatants was measured by potassium electrode [17] at SRL Co.

(Tokyo Japan). RNA preparation and detection Two ml of whole cell culture were quickly mixed with 150 μl of 5% (v/v) water-saturated phenol in ethanol to prevent RNA degradation [45]. virF and invE mRNAs were purified and analysed using a Titan™ one tube RT-PCR kit (Roche, Indianapolis IN) and Perfect Real-time™ (Takara Bio Co., Shiga Japan), as described previously [11]. For the detection of virF mRNA by real-time PCR, virFc-314F (5′-GGAGACGTTTATTTGTATATTTCGCTCTA-3′, 120 nM) and virFc-398R (5′-GACGGTTAGCTCAGGCAATGAT-3′, 120 nM) NVP-LDE225 in vitro primers and the fluorescent probe virFc-345T (5′-FAM-AAAGCAATTTGCCCTTCATCGAT-TAMRA-3′, 32 nM) were designed by ABI primer design software (Applied Biosystems Inc., Foster CA) and synthesized see more by ABI Japan (Tokyo). Real-time PCR analysis

was performed using an ABI PRISM 2000 Thermal Cycler, as described previously [11]. RNA preparation and real-time PCR analysis were repeated at least 3 times with similar results. Gel-shift assay The labelled RNA probe (20 fmoles), corresponding to 140 nucleotides of the invE gene (starting from the transcription start site at +1) [11], and purified Hfq protein (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 nM Hfq hexamer) were mixed in a volume of 10 μl in one of two RNA binding buffers (40 mM NH4Cl, 10 mM Tris-HCl pH7.5, 5 mM magnesium acetate, 0.1 mM dithiothreitol; or 100 mM NH4Cl, 10 mM Tris-HCl pH7.5, 5 mM magnesium acetate, 0.1 mM dithiothreitol) at 37°C for 10 min. Gel-shift analysis was performed at 37°C as described previously [11]. Surface Plasmon Resonance (Biacore Analysis) Surface plasmon resonance was performed with Biacore 2000 optical sensor device using the same 140 nucleotide invE RNA

probe for the gel-shift assay ZD1839 as described previously [11]. The probe was immobilized onto a sensor tip SA (GE Healthcare Co., Piscataway NJ), causing a change of nearly 150 resonance units. Purified Hfq protein was diluted to a final concentration of 0, 1, 2, 4 or 8 nM (Hfq hexamer) in one of two RNA binding buffers, as described for gel-shift assays, and then injected for 180 seconds through two flow cells (flow cell 1, blank; flow cell 2, invE RNA) at a flow rate of 20 ml/min at 37°C. Non-specific proteins were dissociated from the chip by washing (for 700 seconds). Bound Hfq protein was subsequently removed with 2 M NaCl. The response value of the reference cell (flow cell 1, blank) was subtracted from the response value of flow cell 2 (invE RNA) to correct for nonspecific binding, and the results are expressed as difference units (D.U.).

0 −3 4 CPE2437 CPF_2747 (nrdH) glutaredoxin-like protein, YruB-fa

0 −3.4 CPE2437 CPF_2747 (nrdH) glutaredoxin-like protein, YruB-family 3.8 −2.5 4.8 −11.0 CPE2551 CPF_2875 (glpA) probable glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 0.8 −2.5 1.3 −0.1 Purines, pyrimidines, nucleotides, and nucleosides CPE2276 CPF_2558 (guaB) inosine-5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase 9.2 −3.6 30.3 −1.5 CPE2622 CPF_2958 (purA) adenylosuccinate synthetase 4.3 −1.9 14.8 −0.8 Protein fate CPE0173 CPF_0166 (colA) collagenase 9.9 −4.7 8.5 −2.7 CPE2323 CPF_2632 (pepF) probable oligoendopeptidase F 2.7 -2.0 11.6 4.3 CPE1205 CPF_1002 (abgB)

amidohydrolase family protein 1.9 −4.3 67.4 Silmitasertib price −1.6 Regulatory functions CPE0073 CPF_0069 transcription antiterminator 2.1 −5.0 1.9 −2.6 CPE0759 CPF_0753 putative regulatory protein 1.5 −5.4 3.3 0.6 CPE1533 CPF_1784 (scrR) sucrose operon repressor 1.7 −2.8 132 −1.5 CPE2035 CPF_2292 (hrcA) heat-inducible transcription repressor HrcA 2.3 −2.9 9.5 5.5 CPE2363 CPF_2673 two-component sensor histidine kinase 2.1 −3.0 16.1 2.7 Transport and binding proteins CPE1240 CPF_1450 (mgtE) magnesium transporter 8.6 −1.7 5.2 −2.6 CPE1300 CPF_1507 (gadC) glutamate:γ-aminobutyrate Selleckchem A-769662 antiporter family protein 9.6 −2.7 17.1 −7.3 CPE1505 CPF_1756 (uraA) uracil transporter 3.8 −2.7 3.9 −4.6 CPE0075 CPF_0070 N-acetyl glucosamine-specific 1.4 −14.3 1 .8 ND CPE0707 CPF_0703 ABC transporter, ATP-binding protein 1.5 −3.2 5.2 2.9 CPE0761 CPF_0756 (gltP) proton/sodium-glutamate symporter 1.5 −4.2

4.6 0.9 CPE1371 CPF_1621 sodium:neurotransmitter symporter family protein 1.8 −4.0 15.2 2.7 CPE2084 CPF_2341 (modB) molybdate

ABC transporter, permease protein 1.8 −2.5 10.8 2.0 CPE2343 CPF_2652 (malE) putative maltose/maltodextrin ABC transporter 2.9 1.3 3.8 −2.1 Unknown functions CPE0183 CPF_0176 nitroreductase family protein 1.0 −4.8 2.9 −1.1 CPE1172 CPF_1375 haloacid dehalogenase 2.1 −2.4 20.6 −1.7 CPE1784 CPF_2038 (nifU) NifU family protein 1.3 −2.5 6.4 −1.5 CPE2448 CPF_2758 PSP1 domain-containing protein 1.0 −2.4 5.5 −1.9 All of the data are the means of three different experiments. Table 2 Microarray analysis of the genes that were upregulated in one or both gatifloxacin-resistant mutants, 13124 R and NCTR R Gene ID and name Function/Similarity Microarray (mt/wt)       NCTR ATCC 13124 Amino acid biosynthesis     Bupivacaine   CPE1520 CPF_1772 (ilvE) branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase 1.1 2.6 CPE1905 CPF_2161 (dapA) dihydrodipicolinate synthase 1.0 1.9 Cell envelope CPE0492 CPF_0465 capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis protein 6.5 1.9 CPE0495 CPF_0468 UDP-glucose/GDP-mannose dehydrogenase family 3.5 2.4 CPE2059 CPF_2316 putative membrane protein 7.1 3.2 CPE2079 CPF_2336 putative membrane protein 14.2 2.1 CPE0785 CPF_0787 putative membrane protein 2.3 2.1 Energy metabolism CPE2186 CPF_2451 (atpE) ATP synthase epsilon subunit 3.3 2.9 CPE2187 CPF_2452 (atpB) ATP synthase beta subunit 3.6 2.2 CPE2189 CPF_2454 (atpA) ATP synthase alpha subunit 4.2 2.4 CPE2190 CPF_2455 (atpH) ATP synthase delta subunit 1.9 2.

Individual colonies were replica plated to HMM plates supplemente

Individual colonies were replica plated to HMM plates supplemented Buparlisib with 200 μg/mL hygromycin. The loss of the hph gene was verified by PCR using hph specific primers in clones unable to grow in the presence of

hygromycin. One such clone was selected and cured of the presence of the pSK-Tel-Kan-Blast-Cre plasmid by repeat passage in media in the absence of blasticidin selection. Loss of the plasmid was demonstrated phenotypically by the development of blasticidin S sensitivity and verified by the failure to amplify the bsd gene sequence. This clone was designated H. capsulatum UC 26. ALT8, ALT13, ALT15, ALT16 The ALT strains were generated by Agro bacterium-mediated transformation of T-DNA from the vector pCB301-GFP-HYG into the G217B strain as previously described [21, 23, 24]. The site of integration of each strain was identified by TAIL-PCR as previously described, and verified to each be unique and distinct from that of UC1 [40]. ALT-Cre1, ALT-Cre2 The ALT-Cre strains was generated by excision of the A. nidulans gpd promoter-E. coli hph-A. nidulans trpC terminator sequence fragment from ALT-16 by Cre-mediated recombination as described above. UC1-HMK1-RNAi An Agrobacterium binary vector for RNAi mediated silencing pCB301-Blast-186 was generated by the fusion of the

A. nidulans gpd promoter-bsd gene-A. nidulans trpC terminator cassette described above with an EcoRI- BspDI fragment liberated from pCR186 (obtained from Drs. William Goldman and Chad Rappleye) containing the H. capsulatum PF-01367338 mw H2B promoter sequences driving expression of a chimeric hairpin RNAi construct

containing a Diflunisal portion of the GFP gene and a gene of interest flanked by the H. capsulatum catB terminator sequence. T-DNA from the vector pCB301-Blast-186 was transformed into UC1 as described previously [23, 24]. For the control strain, the hairpin construct contained sequence only for GFP. G217B-Blast1, G217B-Blast4, UH3-Blast The Blast strains were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of T-DNA from the vector pCB301-Blast-186 described above, into G217B or UH3, as described previously [23, 24]. G217B-Mat1* and G217B-Bem1* To facilitate the express of recombinant proteins in H. capsulatum, the H2B promoter was amplified generating a ApaI-H2B-AscI fragment which was ligated to a synthetic oligonucleotide comprising an AscI site, an irrelevant stuffer sequence, a SbfI site and sequence encoding the cMyc epitope and in-frame stop codon. This was ligated to the H. capsulatum catB terminator sequence amplified with a downstream XbaI site. The fused fragment was ligated into the polylinker sequence of pSK-Tel-Kan-Hyg between the ApaI and SpeI sites to generate the overexpression vector pSK-Tel-Kan-Hyg-H2B-cMyc-catBterm.

The additional reduced Fd produced via PFO must then be reoxidize

The additional reduced Fd produced via PFO must then be reoxidized using Fd-dependant or bifurcating H2ases. Accordingly, expression of bifurcating H2ase Cthe_0428-0430 increases >1.5-fold in stationary phase. While both bifurcating H2ases (Cthe_0428-0430 and Cthe_0340-342) contain selleck chemicals various upstream regulatory elements including phosphatases, kinases, and/or PAS/PAC sensors potentially capable of regulating transcription

in response to H2 levels or redox changes via a two-component regulatory system as in Ralstonia eutropha[17, 91, 92], only Cthe_0428-0430 expression changed under the conditions tested. Regulation of a NAD(H)-dependent Fe-only H2ase containing an upstream histidine and serine/threonine protein kinase has selleck kinase inhibitor also been reported in Ta. tencongensis, in which a fourfold decrease in NAD(H)-dependent H2ase activity was accompanied by an increase in AldH and ADH activities in response to high H2 partial pressures [19]. Providing that NADH/NAD+ ratios increase during

transition from exponential to stationary phase as in C. cellulolyticum and Ca. saccharolyticus, the observed increase in select ADHs [AdhE (Cthe_0423), Cthe_0101, glutamyl reductase (Cthe_1863), and groES (Cthe_0388)] during stationary phase may help C. thermocellum reoxidize NADH and concomitantly produce ethanol, GNA12 which explains the observed inversion of acetate-to-ethanol ratio. A similar mechanism of increasing expression of select ADHs

to dispose of reducing equivalents during growth and ethanol accumulation is employed by Thermoanaerobacter species [93]. Surprisingly, we observed a 2.4-fold increase in acetate kinase expression in stationary phase despite having lower acetate to ethanol ratios. This differs from the mRNA expression profiles on cellulose reported by Raman et al.[37]. However, 4-plex 2D-HPLC-MS/MS did not detect the presence of PTA required for production of acetyl-P, and thus changes in expression profiles of PTA in response to growth phase could not be determined. Energy generation and pyrophosphate (PPi) metabolism In addition to substrate level phosphorylation mediated by 1,3-phosphoglycerate kinase, pyruvate phosphate dikinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, acetate kinase, and acetate thiokinase (see above), ATP can also be generated using ATP synthase powered by a proton motive force (PMF). While two types of ATP synthases were detected, including the F-type (Cthe_2602-2609) and the V-type (Cthe_2262-2269), overall expression of the latter was higher ( Additional file 2). Expression of both ATP synthases was generally consistent throughout growth.

The guidelines define the goal of treatment for most patients as

The guidelines define the goal of treatment for most patients as maximizing survival and achieving prompt and complete (or near-complete) elimination of angina with a return to normal activities [6]. Traditional therapies for chronic stable angina include β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and long-acting nitrates [6]. For some patients, use of these agents may be limited by key adverse effects of β-blockers (bradycardia, heart block,

hypotension, bronchospasm) and calcium channel blockers (ankle edema, headache, flushing, hypotension), as well as tolerance associated with long-term use of nitrates [7]. The sodium channel inhibitor ranolazine is indicated to treat chronic stable angina and may be used with β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and nitrates [8]. When FK506 molecular weight taken in combination with standard doses of β-blockers or calcium channel blockers, ranolazine improved exercise duration and time to ischemia, and reduced the frequency of angina attacks and nitroglycerin use in patients with severe chronic angina [9]. In a pilot study comparing ranolazine and placebo for 4 weeks each in a

crossover fashion in 20 women with angina and evidence of myocardial ischemia but no obstructive coronary artery disease, scores were significantly better for ranolazine on the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) subscales assessing physical functioning (91.7 vs. 83.3; p = 0.046), angina stability (75.0 vs. 50.0; click here p = 0.008), and QoL (75.0 vs. 66.7; p = 0.021) [10]. A prospective QoL assessment performed alongside the MERLIN (Metabolic Efficiency with Ranolazine for Less Ischemia in Non–ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes)-TIMI

36 trial showed small but statistically significant effects of ranolazine on disease-specific health status and QoL over 12 months’ follow-up [11]. Little is known regarding the impact of ranolazine on QoL over longer treatment durations. The present patient survey was designed to evaluate the effect of long-term (up to >4 years) ranolazine treatment on self-reported angina severity, frequency, and QoL in patients with chronic angina. 2 Methods A 40-question survey was distributed from 6 PDK4 April to 10 May 2011, via email and telephone, to a panel of patients currently receiving ranolazine treatment. Patients were invited to participate in the panel through website registration (Ranexa.com and SpeakFromTheHeart.com), by opting-in for research, or via savings program participation. Patients answered screening questions (for which they received honoraria) in order to join the panel; the screening criteria included age ≥18 years; being on ranolazine treatment prescribed by a healthcare professional (not including use of only a sample); and no employment of themselves or any immediate family member by a pharmaceutical manufacturer, medical equipment manufacturer, market research or advertising firm, medical office, clinic, or hospital. Panel members were subsequently invited and opted to participate in the survey.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007, 25 (12) : 1423–1427 PubMedCrossRef 6

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Mutat Res 603:107–109

Schwarz C, Kratochvil E, Pilger A,

Mutat Res 603:107–109

Schwarz C, Kratochvil E, Pilger A, Kuster N, Adlkofer F, Rüdiger HW (2008) Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (UMTS, 1,950 MHz) induce genotoxic effects in vitro in human fibroblasts but not in lymphocytes. Int Arch Occup Environ Health Sommer AM, Bitz AK, Streckert J, Hansen MLN0128 molecular weight VW, Lerchl A (2007) Lymphoma development in mice chronically exposed to UMTS-modulated radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Radiat Res 168:72–80PubMedCrossRef Speit G, Schutz P, Hoffmann H (2007) Genotoxic effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in cultured mammalian cells are not independently reproducible. Mutat Res 626:42–47PubMed Tillmann T, Ernst H, Ebert S, Kuster N, Behnke W, Rittinghausen S, Dasenbrock C (2007) Carcinogenicity study of GSM and DCS wireless communication signals in B6C3F1 Dabrafenib research buy mice. Bioelectromagnetics 28:173–187PubMedCrossRef Utteridge TD, Gebski V, Finnie JW, Vernon-Roberts B, Kuchel TR (2002) Long-term exposure of E-mu-Pim1 transgenic mice to 898.4 MHz microwaves does not increase lymphoma incidence.

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“Introduction Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is caused by repeated exposure to loud sounds over an extended period of time, exposure to very loud impulse sound(s), or a combination of both. Individuals of all ages, including children, adolescents, else young adults, and older people, can develop NIHL, while exposed to intense sounds in the workplace, in

recreational settings, or at home. Among the working population who could be affected by NIHL, members of professional symphony orchestras are a specific group for two reasons: they are fully dependent on their hearing for their profession, and they are frequently exposed to loud music. Besides, they have a complicated relation to preventive measures, such as wearing ear muffs or using protective screens, as they may be accompanied by the loss of subtle effects that are necessary to play music and interact with fellow musicians. In a 1-year noise survey during rehearsals and performances of the Dutch Ballet Orchestra, Boasson (2002) found integrated average sound pressure levels that exceed the European guidelines for exposure to sound in a professional environment (a maximum exposure of 80 dB (A) for 8 h per day). Boasson also identified four factors that play an important role in the sound pressure levels in orchestra pits: the physical conditions of the orchestra pit, the orchestra arrangement, the repertoire, and the playing time.