Corynebacterium glutamicum cells were cultured at 30 °C in MB (Follettie et al., 1993) or MCGC (Von der Osten AZD1208 et al., 1989). The following antibiotics were added: ampicillin (50 μg mL−1), chloramphenicol (20 μg mL−1) and kanamycin (25 μg mL−1). Routine DNA investigation, including transformation and reverse transcriptase (RT)
PCR, were performed as described previously (Choi et al., 2009). The C. glutamicum ΔwhcB mutant strain was constructed according to the method described by Schäfer et al. (1994), as follows. A DNA fragment was prepared from the C. glutamicum genome by crossover PCR utilizing primers F1 (5′-CGGGATCCCCGGTGGTATTGCTGTCA-3′), R1 (5′-GA AGATCTGAGCCTTATGGAGTATGGGG-3′), F2 (5′-GAAGATCTGTGATAGAACACGTCGGAGGT-3′) and R2 (5′-CGGGATCCGTTCCTAATGGAGGTGGCTA-3′). The primary PCR product was digested with BglII, ligated and utilized for secondary PCR. The amplified fragment was then digested with BamHI and introduced into BamHI-digested pK19mobsacB
(Schäfer et al., 1994). Subsequent steps were conducted as previously described (Schäfer et al., 1994; Hwang et al., 2002), and the chromosomal deletion of whcB in C. glutamicum HL1312 was confirmed via PCR. The pSL469 plasmid (i.e. P180-whcB) was constructed via amplification AZD1152-HQPA datasheet of the whcB gene using primers 5′-AACTGCAGGACAATAGGGAGTATTT GAA-3′ and 5′-AACTGCAGTTAAACTGCTACTGGTTG CT-3′, followed by ligation of the amplified DNA into the PstI site of pSL360 (Park et al., 2004) which
generates overexpression of the cloned gene. Overexpression of the whcB gene was confirmed by monitoring chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity as proposed by Park et al. (2004). RNA preparation and first-strand cDNA GNA12 synthesis were performed as described (Park et al., 2008). 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was carried out with a 5′/3′ RACE, 2nd Generation kit (Roche Diagnostics). Quantitative RT-PCR was performed as described (Park et al., 2008). A CFX96 Real-Time PCR Detection System (Bio-Rad) was used for gene expression analysis. Normalized expression and standard error values were calculated with CFX Manager software ver. 1.5 (Bio-Rad), which employs the ΔΔCt method. Normalization was performed with the 16S rRNA gene. Verification of quantitative RT-PCR products was performed by melting curve and peak analysis. Primers used for the detection of whcB, whcE and trxB were as follows: whcB, 5′-ATTGCCTCACCAGCTTCCCG-3′ and 5′-TCGCCGTCCGGGTGATAGAA-3′; whcE, 5′-ACGAAGCAATCTGCCGTGAA-3′ and 5′-AG CGGTTGCAGACCATCTTT-3′; trxB, 5′-CCGTAGCACCAAAGATTCATG-3′ and 5′-GATCCACCGTATTCATAGCCC-3′. The sensitivity of C. glutamicum cells to diamide or menadione was assessed on MB plates. Corynebacterium glutamicum lawn cells (100 μL) were mixed with 0.7% (v/v) top agar, then poured onto the MB plates. A total of 3.