Corynebacterium glutamicum cells were cultured at 30 °C in MB (Fo

Corynebacterium glutamicum cells were cultured at 30 °C in MB (Follettie et al., 1993) or MCGC (Von der Osten AZD1208 et al., 1989). The following antibiotics were added: ampicillin (50 μg mL−1), chloramphenicol (20 μg mL−1) and kanamycin (25 μg mL−1). Routine DNA investigation, including transformation and reverse transcriptase (RT)

PCR, were performed as described previously (Choi et al., 2009). The C. glutamicum ΔwhcB mutant strain was constructed according to the method described by Schäfer et al. (1994), as follows. A DNA fragment was prepared from the C. glutamicum genome by crossover PCR utilizing primers F1 (5′-CGGGATCCCCGGTGGTATTGCTGTCA-3′), R1 (5′-GA AGATCTGAGCCTTATGGAGTATGGGG-3′), F2 (5′-GAAGATCTGTGATAGAACACGTCGGAGGT-3′) and R2 (5′-CGGGATCCGTTCCTAATGGAGGTGGCTA-3′). The primary PCR product was digested with BglII, ligated and utilized for secondary PCR. The amplified fragment was then digested with BamHI and introduced into BamHI-digested pK19mobsacB

(Schäfer et al., 1994). Subsequent steps were conducted as previously described (Schäfer et al., 1994; Hwang et al., 2002), and the chromosomal deletion of whcB in C. glutamicum HL1312 was confirmed via PCR. The pSL469 plasmid (i.e. P180-whcB) was constructed via amplification AZD1152-HQPA datasheet of the whcB gene using primers 5′-AACTGCAGGACAATAGGGAGTATTT GAA-3′ and 5′-AACTGCAGTTAAACTGCTACTGGTTG CT-3′, followed by ligation of the amplified DNA into the PstI site of pSL360 (Park et al., 2004) which

generates overexpression of the cloned gene. Overexpression of the whcB gene was confirmed by monitoring chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity as proposed by Park et al. (2004). RNA preparation and first-strand cDNA GNA12 synthesis were performed as described (Park et al., 2008). 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was carried out with a 5′/3′ RACE, 2nd Generation kit (Roche Diagnostics). Quantitative RT-PCR was performed as described (Park et al., 2008). A CFX96 Real-Time PCR Detection System (Bio-Rad) was used for gene expression analysis. Normalized expression and standard error values were calculated with CFX Manager software ver. 1.5 (Bio-Rad), which employs the ΔΔCt method. Normalization was performed with the 16S rRNA gene. Verification of quantitative RT-PCR products was performed by melting curve and peak analysis. Primers used for the detection of whcB, whcE and trxB were as follows: whcB, 5′-ATTGCCTCACCAGCTTCCCG-3′ and 5′-TCGCCGTCCGGGTGATAGAA-3′; whcE, 5′-ACGAAGCAATCTGCCGTGAA-3′ and 5′-AG CGGTTGCAGACCATCTTT-3′; trxB, 5′-CCGTAGCACCAAAGATTCATG-3′ and 5′-GATCCACCGTATTCATAGCCC-3′. The sensitivity of C. glutamicum cells to diamide or menadione was assessed on MB plates. Corynebacterium glutamicum lawn cells (100 μL) were mixed with 0.7% (v/v) top agar, then poured onto the MB plates. A total of 3.

This was calculated by determining how many days should ideally b

This was calculated by determining how many days should ideally be spent above 3,000 m to reach the highest camp, using the recommendation that no more than 500 m should be gained per day, and that a rest day should be taken every 4 days. The total altitude gained above 3,000

m to the highest camp was then divided by the number of days spent reaching there. Where there was more than one choice of high camp, an average of the altitudes of the various high camps was used. For example, when trekking to EBC, there are two possible high camps, Lobuche (4,930 m) or Gorakh Shep (5,160 m). Of the 12 expeditions identified in this study, 5 used Lobuche and 7 used Gorakh Shep. Thus, an average of these was calculated as 5,064 m. When taking the WMS recommendations

BYL719 purchase into account, 6 days should be spent to ascend the 2,064 m above 3,000 m. This produced Everolimus supplier a maximum ascent rate of 344 m/day. The maximum ascent rate was calculated as 429 m/day on Aconcagua and 346 m/day on Kilimanjaro. From our web-based search, 12 UK-based companies offered treks to EBC, 9 offered climbs of Aconcagua, and 27 companies offered 93 treks on seven different routes to the true summit of Kilimanjaro. The average ascent rate was 303 m/day to EBC and 265 m/day on Aconcagua. On Kilimanjaro, the ascent rate ranged from 267 m/day to 740 m/day, depending on the route that was offered. When compared with the WMS’s maximum ascent rate, compliance was 92% to EBC and 100% on Aconcagua. Of the 93 treks offered on Kilimanjaro, only 16 complied with the WMS guidelines (17%; Table 1). This study reveals that although the vast majority of expeditions offered by UK-based commercial companies to EBC (92%) and Aconcagua (100%) complied

with the WMS guidelines, on Kilimanjaro this number fell to just 17%. The high ascent rates seen on Kilimanjaro have the potential to increase the risk of AMS, leading to a fall in performance and an increase in the incidence of life-threatening conditions such as HAPE and HACE. This conclusion is supported by the Chorioepithelioma extraordinarily high incidence rate of AMS that has been reported on the mountain and the low proportion of trekkers who reach the summit of Kilimanjaro.6 The most popular routes offered on the mountain were the Marangu (24.7%), Machame (23.7%), and Rongai (20.4%). Unfortunately, these, along with the Umbwe route, had the highest average ascent rates determined by this study. In fact, the ascent rate along the Marangu route was 300 m/day greater than the maximum ascent rate recommended by the WMS guidelines! There are a number of factors that contribute to this situation. First, on most routes it is only possible to sleep at a small number of sites on the mountain. In some cases, these are almost 1,000 vertical meters apart. Second, Mount Kilimanjaro National Park charges a daily rate of $60 for each visitor. This encourages commercial operators to make a rapid ascent to minimize costs.

This was calculated by determining how many days should ideally b

This was calculated by determining how many days should ideally be spent above 3,000 m to reach the highest camp, using the recommendation that no more than 500 m should be gained per day, and that a rest day should be taken every 4 days. The total altitude gained above 3,000

m to the highest camp was then divided by the number of days spent reaching there. Where there was more than one choice of high camp, an average of the altitudes of the various high camps was used. For example, when trekking to EBC, there are two possible high camps, Lobuche (4,930 m) or Gorakh Shep (5,160 m). Of the 12 expeditions identified in this study, 5 used Lobuche and 7 used Gorakh Shep. Thus, an average of these was calculated as 5,064 m. When taking the WMS recommendations

selleck inhibitor into account, 6 days should be spent to ascend the 2,064 m above 3,000 m. This produced Gefitinib datasheet a maximum ascent rate of 344 m/day. The maximum ascent rate was calculated as 429 m/day on Aconcagua and 346 m/day on Kilimanjaro. From our web-based search, 12 UK-based companies offered treks to EBC, 9 offered climbs of Aconcagua, and 27 companies offered 93 treks on seven different routes to the true summit of Kilimanjaro. The average ascent rate was 303 m/day to EBC and 265 m/day on Aconcagua. On Kilimanjaro, the ascent rate ranged from 267 m/day to 740 m/day, depending on the route that was offered. When compared with the WMS’s maximum ascent rate, compliance was 92% to EBC and 100% on Aconcagua. Of the 93 treks offered on Kilimanjaro, only 16 complied with the WMS guidelines (17%; Table 1). This study reveals that although the vast majority of expeditions offered by UK-based commercial companies to EBC (92%) and Aconcagua (100%) complied

with the WMS guidelines, on Kilimanjaro this number fell to just 17%. The high ascent rates seen on Kilimanjaro have the potential to increase the risk of AMS, leading to a fall in performance and an increase in the incidence of life-threatening conditions such as HAPE and HACE. This conclusion is supported by the Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase extraordinarily high incidence rate of AMS that has been reported on the mountain and the low proportion of trekkers who reach the summit of Kilimanjaro.6 The most popular routes offered on the mountain were the Marangu (24.7%), Machame (23.7%), and Rongai (20.4%). Unfortunately, these, along with the Umbwe route, had the highest average ascent rates determined by this study. In fact, the ascent rate along the Marangu route was 300 m/day greater than the maximum ascent rate recommended by the WMS guidelines! There are a number of factors that contribute to this situation. First, on most routes it is only possible to sleep at a small number of sites on the mountain. In some cases, these are almost 1,000 vertical meters apart. Second, Mount Kilimanjaro National Park charges a daily rate of $60 for each visitor. This encourages commercial operators to make a rapid ascent to minimize costs.

843 Auditable

outcome Proportion of patients with a CD4

8.4.3 Auditable

outcome Proportion of patients with a CD4 count <500 cells/μL commencing ART 8.5 Choice of ART 8.5.1 Recommendations  78. We suggest that if abacavir is to be used with ribavirin, the ribavirin should be weight-based dose-adjusted (2C).  79. We recommend when DAAs are to be used there is careful consideration of possible DDIs (1C) and current or archived HIV resistance. All drug interactions should be checked with an expert source (e.g., www.hiv-druginteractions.org).  80. We recommend if boceprevir is to be used, raltegravir (RAL) with tenofovir (TDF) plus emtricitabine (FTC) should be the treatment of choice for those with wild-type HIV (1C): pharmacokinetic data would support etravirine, rilpivirine and maraviroc as alternatives. MAPK Inhibitor Library concentration  81. We recommend if telaprevir is to be used either RAL or standard-dose ritonavir-boosted atazanavir should be used (1C): pharmacokinetic data would support etravirine, rilpivirine and maraviroc as alternatives. Efavirenz may be used but the telaprevir dose needs to be increased to 1125 mg tds.  82. We recommend Cabozantinib price that didanosine (ddI), stavudine (d4T) and zidovudine (ZDV) are avoided (1B). 8.5.2 Good practice point  83. We recommend if patients are commencing ART and DAAs are not being considered, standard first-line ART should be commenced (see BHIVA adult treatment recommendations [54]). 8.5.3 Auditable outcomes Among patients receiving DAAs for HCV

genotype 1 with ART for wild type HIV, the percentage on a recommended regimen, i.e.: raltegravir (RAL) with tenofovir (TDF) plus emtricitabine (FTC) with boceprevir; or RAL or boosted atazanavir with standard dose telaprevir; or efavirenz with increased dose 1125 mg tds telaprevir Proportion of patients on anti-HCV and ART medication with a medication history at each clinic visit documented in the case notes Proportion of patients on DAAs with a record in the notes of a discussion of the

potential for pharmacokinetic interactions with antiretroviral medication and other medication 8.6 Assessment and investigation 8.6.1 Good practice points  84. We recommend all patients have a baseline fibrosis stage assessment.  85. We recommend all patients should be managed by a clinician GPX6 experienced in the management of both HIV and hepatitis C or should be jointly managed by clinicians from HIV and hepatitis backgrounds.  86. We recommend all patients with HCV/HIV infection should be assessed for suitability for treatment of hepatitis C.  87. We recommend consideration for referral to liaison psychiatry services for patients with pre-existing mental health problems prior to initiation of therapy and for patients with treatment-emergent psychiatric problems.  88. We recommend individuals with dependency on alcohol and/or injection drug use are referred to the respective community services before initiation of therapy to minimise non-adherence with treatment.  89.

, 1996; O’Hara

, 1996; O’Hara www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk1120212-jtp-74057.html et al., 2003), because the dichotomous method only identifies isolates with metabolic profiles strictly coherent with those reported by identification

keys. The majority of the molecular analyses confirmed that V. parahaemolyticus strains were not adherent with the phenotypic traits of the species that are considered diagnostic (Table 3– false negative); assimilation activity for capric acid and amygdaline showed a huge variability among the selected strains, as reported by Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology (Holt et al., 1994), and was not useful as a diagnostic trait. The sensitivity and specificity evaluated for this group of biochemical tests were low (Table 3), in particular for resistance to Vibriostatic O/129 (10 μg) and citrate utilization, confirming the heterogeneity of intraspecific profiles for the Vibrionaceae already referred (Austin & Lee, 1992; Austin et al., 1997; Thompson

et al., 2004 and references therein) and highlighted the poor accuracy of the biochemical methods. Furthermore, the urease production phenotype, considered Rapamycin research buy as a virulence marker because it is reported as typical for V. parahaemolyticus isolates from clinical samples (Okuda et al., 1997), was only detected for one strain (#PVP408), while PCR assays targeting virulence genes allowed the detection of three potential pathogenic strains and underlined the unusual occurrence of trh-positive V. parahaemolyticus strains (only 0.3–3% in the total V. parahaemolyticus environmental population) (Caburlotto et al., 2008 and the reference therein), in agreement with Ottaviani et al. (2005). Our results provided a

different occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus in the PFKL two investigated sites: only six strains were collected in the C1 station during September, while the D2 station showed the highest presence of the organism (15 strains including the trh-positive strains), with a seasonal pattern characterized by its presence in June and during the summer–fall season (September and October). The data on V. parahaemolyticus distribution presented are not in agreement with those of other Italian researchers (Croci et al., 2001; Ottaviani et al., 2005), who reported a high frequency of isolation during warmer months. In conclusion, the data presented in the present study highlight the spreading of pathogenic properties among the environmental V. parahaemolyticus and suggest the need for a specific monitoring plan in fisheries and bathing areas, along Northern Adriatic coasts, in order to better evaluate the real risk posed to public health. The authors acknowledge Dr Patrizia Serratore for her technical assistance, and Dr Annamaria Piano for providing ATCC 17802 type strain.

, 1996; O’Hara

, 1996; O’Hara Sirolimus et al., 2003), because the dichotomous method only identifies isolates with metabolic profiles strictly coherent with those reported by identification

keys. The majority of the molecular analyses confirmed that V. parahaemolyticus strains were not adherent with the phenotypic traits of the species that are considered diagnostic (Table 3– false negative); assimilation activity for capric acid and amygdaline showed a huge variability among the selected strains, as reported by Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology (Holt et al., 1994), and was not useful as a diagnostic trait. The sensitivity and specificity evaluated for this group of biochemical tests were low (Table 3), in particular for resistance to Vibriostatic O/129 (10 μg) and citrate utilization, confirming the heterogeneity of intraspecific profiles for the Vibrionaceae already referred (Austin & Lee, 1992; Austin et al., 1997; Thompson

et al., 2004 and references therein) and highlighted the poor accuracy of the biochemical methods. Furthermore, the urease production phenotype, considered www.selleckchem.com/p38-MAPK.html as a virulence marker because it is reported as typical for V. parahaemolyticus isolates from clinical samples (Okuda et al., 1997), was only detected for one strain (#PVP408), while PCR assays targeting virulence genes allowed the detection of three potential pathogenic strains and underlined the unusual occurrence of trh-positive V. parahaemolyticus strains (only 0.3–3% in the total V. parahaemolyticus environmental population) (Caburlotto et al., 2008 and the reference therein), in agreement with Ottaviani et al. (2005). Our results provided a

different occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus in the Galeterone two investigated sites: only six strains were collected in the C1 station during September, while the D2 station showed the highest presence of the organism (15 strains including the trh-positive strains), with a seasonal pattern characterized by its presence in June and during the summer–fall season (September and October). The data on V. parahaemolyticus distribution presented are not in agreement with those of other Italian researchers (Croci et al., 2001; Ottaviani et al., 2005), who reported a high frequency of isolation during warmer months. In conclusion, the data presented in the present study highlight the spreading of pathogenic properties among the environmental V. parahaemolyticus and suggest the need for a specific monitoring plan in fisheries and bathing areas, along Northern Adriatic coasts, in order to better evaluate the real risk posed to public health. The authors acknowledge Dr Patrizia Serratore for her technical assistance, and Dr Annamaria Piano for providing ATCC 17802 type strain.

Pretravel assessment of VFR travelers can be enhanced by addressi

Pretravel assessment of VFR travelers can be enhanced by addressing specific topics within the domains of the determinants of health listed in Table 2. Clinicians can use this approach to identify specific gradients of risk for VFR travelers in multiple areas in addition to infectious diseases. A more nuanced approach is also possible for travelers who may appear very different but in fact have quite similar risk profiles, or NVP-LDE225 cell line who appear similar but in fact may have quite different risks. Risk assessment within these additional domains also encourages increased attention

to factors and outcomes other than infectious diseases, such as road traffic accidents, air pollution, personal safety, psychological and psychosocial issues, and exposures to extremes of climate or severe weather events. This framework for risk assessment can also be applied to urban-rural migration within a country (such as buy EX 527 moving from an urban area of Brazil into a yellow fever endemic area, or moving, in many countries, from a relatively

safe rural area into a large urban area with risks of urban violence, poorer sanitation, and air pollution). As inter-regional travel increases and classic travel risks move away from infectious disease risks to a broader concept of travel-related health problems,21 it will be necessary to explore in more depth the risk gradient for VFR travelers in these different domains. Application of this framework for VFR travelers will be new to many clinicians, oxyclozanide though most travel medicine practitioners are already familiar with the process of risk assessment that is used in the routine practice of travel medicine. To facilitate use of the new definition specific to VFR travelers, case scenarios have been developed that illustrate application of the definition.22 These cases will assist clinicians in understanding the difficulties incurred when

using legal status or ethnicity to determine risk. Over time, this framework should facilitate design of studies involving VFR travelers. Global security and migration-related illness are topics of increasing international importance.23,24 Acknowledging the increased role of VFR travel and potential for transmission of infectious diseases has been seen with respect to influenza, HIV infection, tuberculosis, hepatitis A, dengue, chikungunya, malaria, and other infectious diseases.25,26 Noninfectious causes of morbidity may include exposure to counterfeit or adulterated medications,27,28 contaminated or poisonous foods (melamine-contaminated dairy products), accidents, physical or sexual violence, and exposure to air pollution or high altitude. Examples of public health initiatives to address potentially travel-related noninfectious disease issues include “Look Right” signs in the UK and education and efforts to improve air quality around the time of the Beijing 2008 Olympics.

qRT-PCR was preformed

qRT-PCR was preformed PFT�� mouse on the same samples used for microarray analysis using primer sets for eight genes (dnaK, espA, lpfD, macA, ompA, recA, stx1A, stx2A) to confirm significant transcriptional differences due to treatment. The Express One-Step SYBR GreenER kit (Invitrogen) was used for qRT-PCR with the Mx3005P QPCR System (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA) and mxpro 4.1 software. Reaction volume for each well totaled 15 μL and

contained 3.69 μL of water, 7.5 μL qRT-PCR mix, 1.2 μL of each primer (Table 1) at 2.5 μM, 0.03 μL ROX, 1 μL of sample RNA, and 0.375 μL (75 U) SuperScript III. Six biological replicates for each treatment were randomly chosen for qRT-PCR validation and were run in duplicate. Gene btuD was used as a reference gene because it demonstrated no detectable differential expression due this website to treatment and had a

small variance on the microarrays. The method described in Gallup & Ackermann (2006) was used for primer optimization, detection of inhibition, and troubleshooting of qRT-PCR. A four-point standard curve was constructed with duplicate samples of a collection of all RNAs (Stock 1) and used for the calculation of efficiencies for target genes and the reference gene (Gallup & Ackermann, 2006). The ISU equation was used to calculate fold change between treatment and control samples (Gallup & Ackermann, 2006), and the Student’s t-test was used to determine significance of differences. Confidence threshold values that were greater than 2 SD from the mean were considered outliers and were click here not used in data analysis. The microarray dataset can be accessed from the National Center for Biological Informatics Gene Expression Omnibus using Series accession number GSE16762 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/). Initially, we determined the survivability of E. coli O157:H7 in A. castellanii under the conditions of the microarray study (Fig. 1).

Initial CFUs of E. coli O157:H7 began at 109 and fell 5 logs during the first 2 h before leveling off to 103–104 for the next 14 h (Fig. 1). The addition of gentamicin to the culture media after a 30-min ingestion period did not affect the viability of A. castellanii or the bacteria within (data not shown). Microarrays were used to compare steady-state transcript levels of E. coli O157:H7 within A. castellanii to planktonic cultures to determine the effect of the intracellular environment. Based on the data from the internal survival curve, an incubation period of 4.5 h was chosen for the microarray study. This included an initial 30 min for A. castellanii engulfment of E. coli, 2 h for killing extracellular bacteria with gentamicin, and an additional 2 h for transcriptional activity to stabilize and allow dead bacteria to be degraded. All RNA preparations fulfilled our criteria for integrity and purity and lacked contamination with A.

In the present study, we use integrated approaches including phen

In the present study, we use integrated approaches including phenotype and molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA gene to identify the first isolation of Mucor circinelloides from diseased yellow catfish of China. The effect of the infectivity and different infection routes on the outcome of the fungal infection was tested and the corresponding histopathological changes were also analyzed.

In November 2007, a group of diseased yellow catfish (5–6-cm long) were captured from Niushan Lake Fishery (30°19′N; 114°31′E), Hubei province, China, and transported alive to our laboratory for diagnosis. The most conspicuous clinical symptoms were macroscopic daffodil yellow mold on the head and fins. The mycelium, necrotic tissue, Sorafenib gill, heart, liver, kidney,

and spleen and intestines were aseptically Ulixertinib checked by 20% KOH and Gram-stained. Mycelium or necrotic tissue material from the head of diseased fish were inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) supplemented with chloramphenicol (50 mg L−1) at 25 °C. After isolation and purification (Ke et al., 2009), one Mucor fungi strain FM07 was obtained. The pure strain was cultured on SDA at 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C, respectively. Its morphological characteristics were studied carefully by slide culture technique (Souheil et al., 1999) and scanning electron microscopy (Quanta 200 SEM, Holland). The ITS rRNA gene molecular methods described as Ke et al. (2009) were applied to supplement the morphological identification,

and the sequence of ITS region from FM07 has been deposited in the GenBank. The strain was identified as M. circinelloides. Approximately 200 yellow catfish (total length 3–4 cm) were obtained from a commercial fish farm. On arrival at the facilities of the Institute of Hydrobiology, all the fish were disinfected with potassium permanganate (20 mg L−1). These fish were divided into 12 groups (20 fish in each group) and kept in tanks under similar conditions (water volume 50 L; temperature 24–25 °C). Florfenicol They were fed twice a day with commercial feed and feces were removed daily. These fish had no history of disease or abnormality and were acclimatized for half a month before challenge. Inocula were prepared from cultures of the strains on potato dextrose agar slants for 7 days at 28 °C to obtain sufficient sporulation. Spores were harvested by washing the agar surface with sterile 0.68% NaCl containing 0.05% Tween 80. Suspensions of spores were filtered through a nylon filter (pore size, 11 μm), counted in a hemacytometer, and adjusted to the desired concentration. Viability determination was performed by plating 10-fold dilutions prepared in 0.68% NaCl with 0.05% Tween 80. Plates were incubated at 28 °C, and CFU were counted after 18 h.

5a) The lytic activity of the endolysin was not completely inact

5a). The lytic activity of the endolysin was not completely inactivated despite incubating at 100 °C for 30 min, with > 15% of

its activity remaining compared with the non-heat-treated control (Fig. 5b). In contrast, autoclaving for 15 min at 121 °C completely inactivated RG7420 datasheet LysBPS13. Taken together, these results indicate that LysBPS13 has exceptionally high thermostability. We found that the high thermostability of LysBPS13 was dependent on the presence of glycerol in the storage buffer. Without glycerol, LysBPS13 still had higher thermostability than similar endolysins, such as T7 lysozyme, which is inactivated after a 5-min incubation at 50 °C (Kleppe et al., 1977). However, addition of glycerol up to 30% (v/v) enhanced the thermostability of LysBPS13 dramatically (Fig. 5c). It has been reported that polyols, such as glycerol, preferentially hydrate protein molecules and, consequently,

stabilize the native structure against thermal denaturation (Paciaroni et al., 2002; Spinozzi et al., 2008; Esposito et al., 2009), but the effect of glycerol on thermostability is not universal to all enzymes. In the case of LysB4, another endolysin from a B. cereus bacteriophage, glycerol did not affect its thermostability at all (Son et al. 2012). Moreover, 30% glycerol did not influence PD-0332991 concentration the lytic activity of LysBPS13 (data not shown). Therefore, the ability of glycerol to support the high thermostability of LysBPS13 is an asset for its use in molecular biology second as well as in industry. In this study, a

putative endolysin gene was identified in the genome of the B. cereus bacteriophage BPS13. This enzyme consisted of a catalytic domain and a cell-binding domain and was determined to be an N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine amidase, active against Bacillus species and EDTA-treated Gram-negative bacteria. Biochemical characterization showed that LysBPS13 possesses several advantageous features for industrial applications. LysBPS13 retained lytic activity under various conditions, including a broad range of temperatures and ionic strengths. Addition of detergents, such as Tween20, Triton X-100, and CHAPS, did not reduce the lytic activity of the endolysin, which supports its potential to serve as a detergent additive or disinfectant. In addition, it showed activity against some Gram-negative pathogens, and EDTA did not affect its lytic activity, suggesting that it could be easily applied to target Gram-negative pathogens when using EDTA as the permeabilizing agent. Furthermore, LysBPS13 has high thermostability and lytic activity in the presence of glycerol. Because glycerol is widely used in food, pharmaceutical, and personal care applications, this feature is favorable for applications in these fields. In conclusion, LysBPS13 is a competitive candidate as a biocontrol agent. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MEST) (No. 20090078983).