Prevention efforts in France should focus on reducing not only fo

Prevention efforts in France should focus on reducing not only food-borne but also person-to-person transmission.”

The survival of patients returning to hemodialysis (HD) following kidney transplant failure is unfavorable. However, the factors responsible

for this poor outcome are largely unknown; chronic inflammation due to failed allograft and malnutrition may GM6001 clinical trial contribute to morbidity and mortality. We aimed to compare the nutritional status and its relation with inflammation in patients on HD with and without previous kidney transplantation.


Forty-three patients with failed renal allografts (27 males; mean age 36 +/- 9 yr) and 40 never transplanted HD patients (24 males; mean age 39 +/- 9 yr) were included GW4869 in the study. Body weight, triceps (TSF), biceps (BSF), subscapular (SSSF), and suprailiac skinfold thicknesses (SISF); mid-arm, mid-arm muscle, hip and waist circumferences; as well as body mass indices (BMIs) were determined as anthropometric

parameters. Moreover, biochemical markers of nutritional status, including serum cholesterol and albumin as well as high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), as a marker of inflammation, were measured. Associations among these variables were analyzed.


There were no significant differences considering age, gender or duration of renal replacement therapy between the two groups. The TSF (p < 0.0001), BSF (p = 0.005), SSSF (p = 0.001), SISF (p < 0.0001) skinfold thicknesses; mid-arm (p = 0.003) and mid-arm muscle circumferences (p = 0.037) and BMIs (p = 0.001) of the patients with failed renal allografts were significantly lower than those CDK inhibitor of the never transplanted HD patients. Waist circumference was significantly lower as well (p = 0.028). Patients with failed transplants were characterized by lower serum albumin (p < 0.0001) and higher hs-CRP levels (p = 0.001) as compared with never transplanted HD patients.


This study confirms the concept that

retained failed allografts may induce chronic inflammation in chronic HD patients which may result in a worse nutritional status.”
“Pain intensity may be high in the postoperative period after spinal vertebral surgery. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness and cost of patient controlled analgesia (PCA) with tramadol versus low dose tramadol-paracetamol on postoperative pain. A total of 60 patients were randomly divided into two groups. One group received 1.5 mg/kg tramadol (Group T) while the other group received 0.75 mg/kg tramadol plus 1 g of paracetamol (Group P) intravenously via a PCA device immediately after surgery and the patients were transferred to a recovery room, Tramadol was continuously infused at a rate of 0.

6%) consists of stem cells, which are not originated from primord

6%) consists of stem cells, which are not originated from primordial germ cells. Absence of Oct-4

gene expression in more than half of the cases means probably the end of the productive journey of these cells, towards the oocyte.”
“Background: Bystander CPR rates are lowest at home, where 85% of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests occur. Z-VAD-FMK clinical trial We sought to identify barriers and facilitators to CPR training and performing CPR among older individuals most likely to witness cardiac arrest.

Methods: We selected independent-living Canadians aged >= 55 using random-digit-dial telephone calls. Respondents were randomly assigned to answer 1 of 2 surveys eliciting barriers and facilitators potentially influencing either CPR training or performance. We developed survey instruments using HSP990 the Theory of Planned Behavior, measuring salient attitudes, social influences, and control beliefs.

Results: Demographics for the 412 respondents (76.4% national response rate): Mean age 66, 58.7% female, 54.9% married, 58.0% CPR trained (half >10 years ago). Mean intentions to take CPR training in the next 6 months or to perform CPR on a victim were relatively high (3.6 and 4.1 out of 5). Attitudinal beliefs were most predictive of respondents’ intentions to receive training or perform CPR (Adjusted

OR; 95% CI were 1.81; 1.41-2.32 and 1.63; 1.26-2.04 respectively). Respondents who believed CPR could save a life, were employed, and had Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library seen CPR advertised had the highest intention to receive CPR training. Those who believed CPR should be initiated before EMS arrival, were proactive in a group, and felt confident in their CPR skills had the highest intention to perform CPR.

Interpretation: Attitudinal beliefs were most predictive of respondents’ intention to complete CPR training or perform CPR on a real victim. Behavioral change techniques targeting these specific beliefs are most likely to make an impact. (C)

2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Exposure to cadmium has been established to be carcinogenic for humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, but this is mainly based on studies with occupational exposures. The substantial 100 year long emission of cadmium by three zinc smelters in the Kempen area across the Dutch-Belgian border might have affected the incidence of cancer in this region. Following a study of increased risks of lung cancer due to cadmium emission (hazard ratio was 4.2 for high vs. low cadmium exposure areas in that study), we used data from the three regional population-based cancer registries, covering an area with 2.9 million inhabitants. Analyses of observed incidence were carried out for all cancers and cancer of the lung, kidney, bladder, prostate, testis, and breast separately.

Elongated heads, when detected as predominant abnormal form in sp

Elongated heads, when detected as predominant abnormal form in sperm samples, may affect fertilization in ICSI.”
“This study is AZD1208 price about evaluating safety and potential risk factors for complications following pelvic organ prolapse repair with the GYNECARE PROLIFT


This is a prospective observational study (Canadian Task Force II-1) performed in a tertiary referral center. A total of 114 women with pelvic organ prolapse, POP-Q stage a parts per thousand yen2, underwent a pelvic floor repair that included Prolift.

During a mean follow-up time of 7 months there were six procedure failures (5.3%) and 14 mesh exposures (12.3%), more commonly on the anterior vaginal wall. Age was inversely related to the risk of having late mesh exposure (p = 0.02) with an odds ratio of 1.99 (95% confidence interval 1.10-3.59) for each decrease of 10 years in age. Late mesh exposure was significantly more common in sexually active patients (p = 0.016).

Prolift repair has a high anatomical success rate. Young age and sexual activity are risk factors for mesh exposure.”
“Study Design. This study was a retrospective cohort study.

Objective. To examine the criteria recommended in the literature for the school-based scoliosis screening program in Hong Kong.

Summary of Background Data. School-based Akt inhibitor screening for scoliosis has been a controversy. Objectors to the policy were

concerned about the high over-referral and false-positive rates. Recommendations were then made for improvement, but the feasibility of these recommendations has not been studied.

Methods. The cohort consisted of students in

Grade 5 in 1995/1996 or 1996/1997 who underwent scoliosis screening in Hong Kong. Participants who had an angle of trunk rotation (ATR) >= 15 degrees, 2 or more moire lines, or presented significant clinical signs were referred for radiography. Screening histories and radiography records before the age of 19 years were extracted. The accuracy measures for different combinations of screening tests were examined.

Results. There were 115,178 students in the cohort, of which 3228 (2.8%) were referred for radiography. Among the 1406 students who displayed a curve >= 20 degrees during screening, 257 (18.3%) were boys and 336 (23.9%) were identified as 16 years or older, ruling out the suggestion of screening only 10-year-old girls. The sensitivity and positive predictive value for the current referral criteria were 88.1% and 43.6%, respectively. The sensitivity would drop substantially if the use of moire topography (39.8%) or clinical signs (55.5%) were discarded. With the inclusion of these 2 tests, the clinical effectiveness measures were robust to the cutoff for ATR, unless it was set below 10 degrees.

Conclusion. Selectively screening only premenarche girls was not feasible, as this screen would have missed a significant proportion of children with significant curvature.

Most of the normal human airway is lined by a pseudostratified ep

Most of the normal human airway is lined by a pseudostratified epithelium of ciliated cells, secretory cells and 6-30% basal cells, the proportion of which varies along

the proximal-distal axis. Epithelial abnormalities range from hypoplasia (failure to differentiate) to basal-and goblet-cell hyperplasia, squamous-and Fer-1 cell line goblet-cell metaplasia, dysplasia and malignant transformation. Mesenchymal alterations include thickening of the basal lamina, smooth muscle hyperplasia, fibrosis and inflammatory cell accumulation. Paradoxically, given the prevalence and importance of airway remodeling in lung disease, its etiology is poorly understood. This is due, in part, to a lack of basic knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate the differentiation, maintenance

and repair of the airway epithelium. Specifically, selleck inhibitor little is known about the proliferation and differentiation of basal cells, a multipotent stem cell population of the pseudostratified airway epithelium. This Perspective summarizes what we know, and what we need to know, about airway basal cells to evaluate their contributions to normal and abnormal airway remodeling. We contend that exploiting well-described model systems using both human airway epithelial cells and the pseudostratified epithelium of the genetically tractable mouse trachea will enable crucial discoveries regarding the pathogenesis of airway disease.”
“An environmental-friendly approach called high-shear mechanical milling was developed to de-crosslink ground tire rubber (GTR) and waste crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE). The realization of partial devulcanization of GTR and de-crosslinking of XLPE were confirmed by gel fraction measurements. Fourier transform ALK inhibitor cancer infrared spectral studies revealed that a new peak at 1723.3 cm(-1) corresponds to the carbonyl group (-C=O) absorption was appeared after milling. The rheological properties showed that the XLPE/GTR blends represent lower apparent viscosity after mechanical milling, which means that the milled blends

are easy to process. Thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) could be prepared with these partially de-crosslinked XLPE/GTR composite powders through dynamic vulcanization. The mechanical properties of the XLPE/GTR composites increased with increasing cycles of milling. The raw XLPE/GTR blends could not be processed to a continuous sheet. After 20 cycles of milling, the tensile strength and elongation at break of XLPE/GTR (50/50) composites increased to 6.0 MPa and 185.3%, respectively. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the composites have been further improved to 9.1 MPa and 201.2% after dynamic vulcanization, respectively. Re-processability study confirmed the good thermoplastic processability of the TPVs prepared. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

magna than rac-metalaxyl according to the individual 24-h-LC(50)

magna than rac-metalaxyl according to the individual 24-h-LC(50) values, and sixfold toxic than rac-metalaxyl based on 24-h-EC(50) values. In the light of 48-h-LC(50) and EC(50), this difference in toxicity was more significant. As for adult zebrafish, there was no pronounced difference in acute toxicity, in addition, at sublethal level a different pattern in inducing Na(+),K(+)-ATPase LY2606368 cost activity between them was found. In general, R-metalaxyl seemed more toxic to aquatic organisms than rac-metalaxyl. (C) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 24: 148-156, 2009.”
“A prospective, double-blind, randomized,

and placebo-controlled trial was conducted in patients with chronic temporomandibular disorder (TMD) to check the analgesic efficacy of infrared low-power GaAlAs diode laser applied to acupuncture points. Forty female subjects, ranging in age from 20 to 40 years, with diagnoses of chronic myofascial pain and arthralgia were randomly allocated to two groups: an experimental group (EG) who received the laser acupuncture as adjunct to reversible occlusal splint therapy and a control group (CG) who received a placebo laser associated with occlusal splint therapy. Both approaches were applied once a week for 3 months. Laser acupuncture was defined by the following parameters: 50-mW continuous radiation for 90 s to acupoints ST6, SI19, GB20, GB43, LI4, LR3, NT3, and EX-HN3; defining 4.5-J

energy; 1250-W/cm(2) density NU7026 nmr point; and 112.5-J/cm(2) total density. The outcome measurements included a symptom evolution assessment carried out by checking spontaneous and palpation pain intensity, which was indicated on a visual analog scale (VAS). All evaluations were made by an assessor who was blind to the treatment.

The symptom reduction was significant in both groups (EG: VAS = 0, n = 20; CG: VAS between 2 and 4, n = 18). The measurements showed significantly faster and lower pain intensity values in the EG (p a parts per thousand currency signaEuro parts per thousand 0.002), where there was a higher proportion of patients with remission of symptoms related to the action of laser acupuncture. For patients in whom conservative treatment was adopted, the laser acupuncture is a secure, click here noninvasive, and effective treatment modality because it improves the chronic pain associated with TMD and has no side effects.”
“This report describes the diagnosis and surgical management of a pulmonary valve cystic mass in a symptomatic 7-year-old boy. Cardiac valve cysts are extremely rare beyond the age of 6 months and typically not associated with symptoms. These lesions may grow, leading to progressive stenosis, regurgitation, or ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Therefore, these lesions should be monitored for change in size and/or, hemodynamic changes. Surgical intervention may be required for symptomatic patients.

Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd “
“Purpose: Financial capa

Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“Purpose: Financial capacity (FC) is an instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) critical to independent functioning and sensitive to cognitive impairment in dementia. Little is known about FC in cognitively impaired patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The present study investigated FC in PD patients with prodromal and clinical dementia.

Methods: Participants were 20 older controls and 35 PD patients who met consensus criteria for either mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI, n = 18) or PD dementia (PDD, n = 17). FC was assessed using a standardized performance

based measure consisting Alvespimycin datasheet of 9 domain and two global scores (Financial Capacity Instrument; FCI) (1). FCI domain and global performance scores were compared across groups. Capacity impairment ratings (no impairment, mild/moderate impairment, severe impairment) were calculated for each PD patient’s domain and global scores.

Results: Relative to controls, PD-MCI patients were impaired on both FCI global scores and domains of basic monetary skills, financial concepts, and investment decision-making. Relative to both controls and PD-MCI patients, PDD patients were impaired on virtually all FCI variables. With respect to impairment ratings, greater than

50% of PD-MCI patients and greater than 90% of PDD patients were classified as either mild/moderate or severely impaired on the two FCI global scores.


Buparlisib Impairment of financial capacity dbcAMP is already present in PD-MCI and is advanced in PDD. Complex cognitively-mediated IADLs such as financial capacity appear to be impaired early in the course of PD dementia. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Early detection followed by treatment with antibiotics in conjunction with direct or endovascular surgery is integral in the management of patients with intracranial infectious aneurysms. These aneurysms often manifest as massive intracranial hemorrhages, which severely deteriorate the outcome. It is very important to detect infectious aneurysms before they rupture. Although usually associated with infective endocarditis, these aneurysms can occur in a variety of clinical settings. We present a case of alpha-Streptococcus-provoked infectious aneurysm in a patient without infective endocarditis, initially presenting as atherothrombotic- like brain infarction, before massive intracranial hemorrhage. The present case alerts clinicians to keep in mind possible development of infectious aneurysms, even in patients who appear to be suffering from atherothrombotic stoke, especially in patients presenting with signs of infection.

125 mu g/kg/h) VNS was performed bilaterally through vagosympath

125 mu g/kg/h). VNS was performed bilaterally through vagosympathetic trunks to achieve second-degree AV block or sinus rate slowing of >30 beats per minute. Atrial effective Selleck DMXAA refractory periods (AERPs) were determined in the coronary sinus and right atrial appendage every hour at drive cycle lengths (DCLs) 350 ms, 300 ms, and 250 ms.

Results: During 5 hours RAP with or without VNS, AERP shortened progressively from baseline at both pacing sites and at all DCLs (P < 0.01). Furthermore, RAP-induced AERP shortening was more pronounced with VNS (P < 0.01). With atropine,

the AERP shortening during VNS was blunted (P < 0.01), but was still significantly more pronounced than that in group I (P < 0.05). However, VNS effect on AERP shortening was eliminated completely with the combination of atropine and VIP antagonist (P = 0.15 vs group I).

Conclusion: Increased vagal activity promotes RAP-induced AER, which could not be totally accounted for by cholinergic effect but could be blocked by the combination of atropine and VIP antagonist. Vagally released VIP may have important role in the vagal promotion of AER. (PACE 2011; 34:1092-1099)”
“Conjugative plasmids are involved in the dissemination of important traits such as antibiotic resistance, virulence

determinants and metabolic pathways involved in adapting to environmental niches, a process termed horizontal or lateral gene transfer. Conjugation is the process of transferring DNA from a donor to a recipient cell with the establishment Mocetinostat cost of the incoming DNA and its cargo of genetic traits within the transconjugant. Conjugation is mediated by self-transmissible plasmids as well as phage-like sequences that have been integrated into the bacterial chromosome, such as integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) that now include conjugative transposons. Both conjugative plasmids and ICEs can mediate the transfer of mobilizable elements by sharing Acadesine their conjugative machinery. Conjugation can either be induced, usually by small molecules

or peptides or by excision of the ICE from the host chromosome, or it can be tightly regulated by plasmid- and host-encoded factors. The transfer potential of these transfer regions depends on the integration of many signals in response to environmental and physiological cues. This review will focus on the mechanisms that influence transfer potential in these systems, particularly those of the IncF incompatibility group.”
“In this paper we present a model for calculating the propagation of magnetic flux in thin ferromagnetic samples, which is based on variational methods applied to magnetostatics. Starting from basic magnetostatic equations this model yields an exponential decay of the flux along the sample, with a decay length depending only on the sample geometry and relative permeability.

The effect size between groups was calculated using Cohen’s D coe

The effect size between groups was calculated using Cohen’s D coefficient.

Those who had a higher annual family income or were treated by more advanced RT techniques had better QoL outcomes. Compared with 2DRT, the impact of 3DCRT was small (Cohen’s D: 0.02-0.40) on all QoL scales. For IMRT, the impact was small on most scales and moderate (Cohen’s D: 0.55-0.60) on opening mouth, dry

mouth, and sticky saliva. Compared with 3DCRT, the impact of IMRT was small (Cohen’s D: 0.03-0.29) on all scales.

Advances in RT provided selleckchem a positive effect on QoL outcome, especially on swallowing-related QoL scales, for patients with HNSCC treated by combined modality therapy.”
“Although it is well known that the pyridine nucleotides NAD and NADP function inside the cell to regulate intracellular signaling processes, recent evidence from animal studies

suggests that NAD(P) also functions in the extracellular compartment (ECC). Extracellular NAD(P) [eNAD(P)] can either directly bind to plasma membrane receptors or be metabolized by ecto-enzymes to produce cyclic ADP-ribose and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate, and/or may ADP-ribosylate cell-surface receptors, resulting in activation of transmembrane signaling. In this study, we report that, in plants, exogenous NAD(P) induces the expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and resistance to the bacterial VX-765 in vitro pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326. Chelation of Ca(2+) by EGTA significantly inhibits the induction of PR genes by exogenous

NAD(P), suggesting that exogenous NAD(P) CX-4945 may induce PR genes through a pathway that involves Ca(2+) signaling. We show that exogenous application of NAD(P) causes accumulation of the defense signal molecule salicylic acid (SA), and induces both SA/NPR1-dependent and -independent PR gene expression and disease resistance. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NAD(P) leaks into the plant ECC after mechanical wounding and pathogen infection, and that the amount of NAD(P) leaking into the ECC after P. syringae pv. tobacco DC3000/avrRpt2 infection is sufficient for induction of both PR gene expression and disease resistance. We propose that NAD(P) leakage from cells losing membrane integrity upon environmental stress may function as an elicitor to activate plant defense responses. Our data provide evidence that eNAD(P) functions in plant signaling, and illustrate the potential importance of eNAD(P) in plant innate immunity.”
“To investigate whether the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) can serve as a generic instrument for measuring disability across different rheumatic diseases and to propose a scoring method based on item response theory (IRT) modeling to support this goal.

At the last assessment, patients in both groups had decreased sco

At the last assessment, patients in both groups had decreased scores with a significant drop with respect to the baseline (-3.9 in EVAR, -6.3 in surveillance). There were no significant differences between the EVAR and surveillance arms: Total score: p = 0.25; Physical: p = 0.47; and Mental: p = 0.38.

Conclusions: Patients with small AAA under surveillance compared with early EVAR had significant impaired functional health at 6 months after assignment.

After a mean of 31.8 months, SF-36 health-related quality of life in patients allocated to early EVAR and surveillance was similar. (C) 2010 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Evofosfamide cost Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The objectives of this work were to evaluate whether the sperm penetration speed is correlated to the in vitro fertility and whether adapting the gamete co-incubation length to the kinetics of the bull improves in vitro fertility and affects the sex ratio. In vitro matured oocytes were co-incubated with spermatozoa from four different bulls (A-D). At various post-insemination (p.i.) times (4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 h), samples of oocytes were fixed and stained with DAPI for nuclei examination, while the remaining ones were transferred into

culture to evaluate embryo Selonsertib nmr development. The blastocysts produced were sexed by PCR. Two bulls (A and B) had faster kinetics than the others (C and D), as shown by the higher penetration rates recorded at 4 h p.i. (43%, 30%, 11% and 6%,

respectively for bulls A, B, C and D; p < 0.01). The differences in the kinetics among bulls did not reflect their in vitro fertility. The incidence of polyspermy was higher for faster penetrating bulls (36%, 24%, 16% and 4%, respectively for bulls A, B, C and D; p < 0.01) and at longer co-incubation times (0%, 16%, 19%, 30% and 34%, respectively at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 h p.i.; p < 0.01). The fertilizing ability of individual bulls may be improved by adapting the co-incubation length to their penetration speed. Asperm-oocyte co-incubation length of 8 h ensured the greatest blastocyst yields for the two faster penetrating AP24534 research buy bulls. On the contrary, 16 h co-incubation was required to increase (p < 0.01) cleavage rate of the two slower bulls. Bulls with a faster kinetics did not alter the embryo sex ratio towards males. The female/male (F/M) ratios recorded were 2.1, 1.4, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6, respectively at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 h p.i.”
“The goal of this study was to show the modifications in the ultrastructure of the dentin surface morphology following different surface treatments. The stability of the adhesive compound with dentin after laser preparation compared with conventional preparation using different bonding agents was evaluated. An Er,Cr:YSGG laser and 36% phosphoric acid in combination with various bonding systems were used. A total of 100 caries-free human third molars were used in this study.

However these relaxation phenomena should be advantageously used

However these relaxation phenomena should be advantageously used with new integration schemes. (C) 2009 American Institute of SYN-117 order Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3137200]“
“SETTING: Chest clinic of a national referral hospital in a resource-limited country.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the level of asthma control, factors influencing asthma control and the accuracy of the Asthma Control

Test (ACT).

DESIGN: We collected demographic and clinical data and administered the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria test and the ACT. The proportions of patients in each of the GINA and ACT control categories (uncontrolled, partly controlled and well controlled) were calculated. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors associated with asthma control. Diagnostic test parameters for the ACT using GINA criteria as gold standard were calculated.

RESULTS: Of 88 asthma patients

enrolled, 67% were Selleck Small molecule library female. The median age was 34 years (range 12-85). Using GINA criteria, respectively 59 (67%), 17 (19%) and 12 (14%) patients had uncontrolled, partly controlled and well controlled asthma; per ACT, the corresponding figures were respectively 40% (35/88), 43% (38/88) and 17% (15/88). ACT sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive value were respectively 95%, 92%, 99% and 73%. Nasal congestion was associated with uncontrolled asthma (P = 0.031).

CONCLUSION: The majority of the patients at the Mulago Hospital have inadequately controlled asthma, and this is associated with nasal congestion. A simple symptom KPT-8602 order questionnaire, the ACT, can correctly classify asthma control.”
“Epoxy and epoxy acrylates with phthalimide groups on the main chain or pendent side chain

were synthesized and used as binders for solvent-free UV-curable inks. Effects of chemical Structures on the solubilities of binders in monomers, together with the influences of shear force and ink compositions on the morphology and nanoindentation properties of the microstripes Were Studied. PIK1 inks containing BAPSBD epoxy with phthalimide groups On the main chain showed shear-thinning behaviors and pigment aggregation problems. Variations of the shear stress at different positions of the dispenser led to PIK1 microstripes with rough central regions and smoother edges. AMPDP acrylate with pendent phthalimide side chain afforded not only good Solubility in monomers but also good thermal and mechanical properties after Curing. Stripes prepared by the PIK2 ink containing AMPDP exhibited straight edge and smooth surface. Considering the solubility and compatibility in inks, together with properties Of Cured stripe, binders with pendent phthalimide groups are better candidate as UV-curable ink compositions than those with main chain phthalimide groups. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.