4) The patient had an uneventful postoperative course apart from

4). The patient had an uneventful postoperative course apart from an atrial fibrillation which disappeared after the use of amiodarone. He was discharged 7 days after the operation. Fig. 3 Whitish, round, and soft mass (arrow) was found on the anterior mitral valve leaflet (A) and it was completely excised from the mitral valve (B). Fig. 4 Histologic examination showed spindle-shaped cells and stellate cells in a myxoid stroma (H&E stain, × 100). Discussion Cardiac myxoma is a rare disease, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with an incidence between 0.0017 and 0.03% in autopsy series.3),4) Myxoma can occur in nearly all age groups

but occurs frequently between the third and sixth decades of life.5),6) Sixty-five percent of cardiac myxoma occurs in women.7) About 75% of myxomas originate from the left atrium, 18% in the right atrium, and 4% in the ventricle.8) The exact incidence of myxomas originating from the mitral valve is not clear. In one study, it was reported as 1.5% (1 case

among 68 myxoma cases).9) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Myxoma originating from the heart valve Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was first reported by Jaleski10) in 1934, and the first premortem diagnosis of mitral valve myxoma was reported by Sandrasagra et al.11) in 1979. In Korea, only 2 cases were reported since 1994.12),13) Clinical manifestations of myxoma are determined by the location, size, mobility, and friability. Clinical manifestations can be divided into three general categories: systemic symptoms, embolism, and intracardiac obstruction. Systemic symptoms such as general weakness, fever, weight loss, arthralgia, and erythematous rash have been observed, and laboratory abnormalities such as anemia, elevations in CRP, ESR, and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical globulin levels have also been reported in patients with

myxoma.6),14),15) Myxoma can cause an embolism by way of the tumor emboli or thromboemboli that are released from or formed on the surface of the tumor. As most myxomas are located in the left atrium, systemic embolism frequently occurs. In most cases, the cerebral arteries are affected, and embolization into Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the renal, visceral, and coronary arteries has also been reported.8) Symptoms due to intracardiac obstruction depend on the size, mobility, Phosphoprotein phosphatase and location of the tumor. These symptoms include dyspnea, orthopnea, dizziness, syncope, and pulmonary edema. BEZ235 nmr Whether myxoma of the mitral valve causes an embolism more frequently than a myxoma originating from the left atrium is not known. Echocardiography is the most important and widely available method in the diagnosis of myxoma. Echocardiography can provide information on the location, size, shape, and mobility of a myxoma. When abnormal mass lesions are found on the heart valve, it is important to distinguish tumorous conditions from valvular vegetations. The characteristic narrow stalk is the most important feature of cardiac myxoma, and it is helpful when diagnostic confusion exists.

They concluded that the atypical antipsychotics’ apparent advanta

They concluded that the Dabrafenib research buy Atypical antipsychotics’ apparent advantage in terms of EPSs was not enough to improve their overall tolerability or to warrant recommending them as first-line treatments. To summarize the existing evidence, it is reasonably clear that, atypical antipsychotics are at least, as effective as the conventional antipsychotics in reducing positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Claims that they are superior in reducing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical positive symptoms have not yet been proven.21,22 Olanzapine and risperidone appear to be slightly more effective than conventional antipsychotics in reducing negative symptoms, but it is not

clear whether this is due to a direct therapeutic effect or to less frequent EPSs or other secondary causes of negative symptoms.21 Long-term trials of the effectiveness of atypical

antipsychotics in reducing negative symptoms are needed.7 Existing studies have found that atypical antipsychotics cause fewer EPSs than their Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical conventional counterparts, especially when the conventional comparator is haloperidol. In spite of marketing claims, studies of effects Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on cognitive function are wholly inconclusive, as are studies of the effects on mood symptoms. The effects of these drugs on long-term outcome, relapse prevention, social and vocational functioning, suicide prevention, quality of life, and family and caregiver

burden have just begun to be explored. Although first introduced only in the mid-1990s, risperidone, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical olanzapine, and quetiapine now account for more than half the new antipsychotic prescriptions in the USA and Canada. The rates of usage vary in Europe, Asia, and South America from as low as 5% to as much as 40%. Patients who had inadequate therapeutic responses to conventional antipsychotics or who suffered problematic side effects were the first to be switched to the atypical antipsychotics. Now, however, many newly diagnosed or first-episode Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical patients are initially prescribed these newer agents with the hope (not yet backed by evidence) of giving them every early advantage.27 Worldwide, many patients with schizophrenia, continue treatment ADP ribosylation factor with the conventional antipsychotics. Because there are no long-acting atypical preparations yet available, conventional antipsychotics in a long-acting injectable form retain an important role for patients who cannot, adhere to oral regimens. (At the beginning of 2001, a long-acting version of risperidone was in phase 2 trials.) Atypical antipsychotic medications are several times more expensive than conventional antipsychotics in the USA, averaging $5000 or more per patient per year. Thus, these medications have substantial potential for influencing the use of scarce resources.

4%) Similar rates of improvement can be seen with renal and thyr

4%). Similar rates of improvement can be seen with renal and thyroid function tests (Tables 2 and ​and33). Table 1. Norfolk database: lithium monitoring tests or measures conducted on all ROCK inhibitor people registered between June 2005 and June 2006 (n = 946) and between June 2011 and June 2012

(n = 1385). Table 2. Norfolk database: creatinine tests conducted on all people registered between June 2005 and June 2006 (n = 946) and between June 2011 and June 2012 (n = 1385). Table 3. Norfolk database: thyroid function tests conducted on Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical all people registered between June 2005 and June 2006 (n = 946) and between June 2011 and June 2012 (n = 1385). At the time of writing, the only national audit on lithium monitoring occurred in 2009 by the Prescribing Observatory for Mental Health on data Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical from 38 mental health trusts, excluding Norfolk, who submitted results for a total of 3373 individuals (2976 results for patients who were receiving maintenance treatment,

in that lithium was initiated at least 1 year ago) [Collins et al. 2010] (Table 4). Table 4. POMH-UK data: lithium monitoring Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical tests or measures conducted during maintenance treatment (n = 2976). One limitation for the generalizability of the data is the lack of variation in the population in Norfolk. Compared with 16.5% of the population in England who were aged 65 or over in 2010, in Norfolk this was 21.4% [ONS, 2011a]. Between 2001 and 2008 in Norfolk, 94.8% of the population were recorded as white British/Irish/Other white background, compared with 87.7% for England as a whole [ONS, 2011b]. Outcomes We believe that by aiding communication between primary and secondary care, the database and shared care policy have facilitated

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical good practice and helped to create an environment of partnership working. As well as impacting on rates of testing in the 5 years prior to the NPSA alert, there were no reported incidents relating to lithium therapy in Norfolk compared with the 560 patient safety incidents reported to the NPSA. A key theme in these incidents was a lack of patient monitoring. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical This suggests that the database has had a direct impact on improving patient safety [NPSA, 2009; Cree, 2011]. Opportunities for future research In August 2012 the database started to expand into Suffolk. Within this catchment area there are a group of people who had not been on an active management database but who had been subject to guidelines unless and the NPSA alert. This cohort can be analysed to see if there is any further impact of the database in addition to national guidelines on the rates of lithium testing and associated monitoring, as well as the impact the database and resources sent with the registration pack have on patients’ knowledge about and involvement with their lithium therapy. As the database has the potential to expand into other NHS Trusts with more variable patient populations, more specific effects of lithium on these patient groups could be studied.

More recently, van Winkel and colleagues looked at the effects of

More recently, van Winkel and colleagues looked at the effects of recent see more cannabis use whilst examining 152 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 42 candidate genes in 801 patients with psychosis and their 740 unaffected siblings [van Winkel et al. 2011]. The authors found that genetic variation in serine-threonine protein kinase (AKT1) may mediate both short- and long-term effects on psychosis expression associated with cannabis use. The authors suggest that the likely mechanism could be cannabinoid-regulated AKT1/glycogen Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical synthase kinase 3 signalling downstream of the dopamine D2 receptor. Indeed, CB1R agonists have been shown to

induce AKT1 phosphorylation, whilst the antagonists of this receptor have inhibited AKT1 signalling pathways [Molina-Holgado et al. 2002]. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Further support for the possible involvement of the AKT1 gene comes from our study with healthy volunteers. This study found that, during the encoding and recall conditions of the verbal memory task, the induction of psychotic symptoms by d-9-THC was correlated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with the attenuated striatal and midbrain activation only in those who were G homozygotes

of AKT1 and carriers of the 9-repeat allele dopamine transporter (DAT1) [Bhattacharyya et al. 2012] (Table 2). Table 2. Proposed factors determining sensitivity to psychosis in cannabis users.* Apart from schizotypal personality, the vulnerability factors to the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical psychotogenic effects of cannabis require replication. It is clear that further work needs to be carried out to explore the biological mechanisms which determine the vulnerability towards a psychotic outcome. Conclusion During the last decade, endocannabinoid research has been one of the fastest growing fields in psychopharmacology, opening ways to discover new medicines for a wide variety of health problems, ranging from metabolic

disorders, to glaucoma Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and schizophrenia. The distribution of the endocannabinoid system in the brain is interesting as the very same brain areas are also implicated in psychoses, particularly in schizophrenia. Furthermore, complex and intricate involvement of this new system with other neurotransmitters such as dopamine, GABA and glutamatergic systems may have implications for the development of a psychotic illness. Naturally, due to the recent and constant increase in the availability of higher THC content variants of cannabis around the world, there have been increasing concerns about the health risks, particularly for young people. However, cannabis affects people differently and therefore it is important to understand what makes someone more at risk and how they differ compared with those who do not develop psychotic illness.

57 Moreover, it decreases levels of homocysteine, which is incre

57 Moreover, it. decreases levels of homocysteine, which is increased in bipolar patients with 17-AAG datasheet cognitive deficits and in those not recovering between episodes, as well as those being treated with valproate. As a. major cardiovascular risk factor in an illness with a significantly increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke, perhaps homocysteine should be a routine target, of therapeutics with folate and other approaches. A mixed, but. generally positive, literature supports the effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment or prevention of depressive episodes.58 Even in a. negative

study of 6 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) per day in bipolar patients, younger patients did better on active treatment, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical while older persons

did better on placebo.59 Given the growing recognition of childhood onset bipolar illness in the US, further study of this safe and generally well-tolerated strategy would have considerable merit. Another extremely promising augmentation strategy for residual depression, fatigue, and poor concentration in bipolar illness is that of modafinil. F’rye et al60 found highly significant, improvement, with modafinil compared with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical placebo on these symptom measures, and this was achieved without, an increase rate of switch into mania. Given the increasing evidence of the inadequacy of traditional antidepressant augmentation30 and the risks of associated switching,61 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical modafinil augmentation looks very promising. Moreover, exploration of its nonstimulant mechanism of action may also provide a new target of therapeutics. Agents targeted to the multiple comorbidities of bipolar illness The typical patient, with bipolar illness will have other Axis I and III comorbidities. Therapeutic approaches to these symptoms have been largely ignored, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as many of the more common and complicated patients are excluded from the traditional randomized controlled trials. Nevertheless, therapies directed at these critical areas of symptomatology are necessary for

long-term remission and well-being. In contrast to lithium, the anticonvulsant mood stabilizers, valproate, lamotrigine, and carbamazepine, and the atypical antipsychotics are also effective in many of the anxiety disorder comorbidities and are useful “two-for-one” medication approaches to both biphasic mood and anxiety symptoms. On the other hand, some medications are not, effective antimanic treatments, but may be useful in treating comorbid disorders. This would include topiramate, DNA ligase which is likely effective in alcohol and cocaine abstinence, migraine prevention, post-traumatic stress disorder, bulimia, and weight, loss; and gabapentin, which is effective in social phobia and panic disorders, sleep disturbances, pain syndromes, and alcohol abstinence. Finding new approaches to the common comorbidities of bipolar illness, which would not, exacerbate primary mood symptoms, would thus be of considerable clinical interest, and benefit.

An individual can be assigned to multiple ADG’s depending on thei

An individual can be assigned to multiple ADG’s depending on their respective diagnoses. We collapsed the 32-category

variable into three categories, specifically: individuals falling into 0-5, 6-9 and greater than 9 ADG’s. This three level categorical variable was used as an indicator of comorbidity in all subsequent analyses. The Ambulatory Care Groups Case Mix Adjustment software also generates Resource Utilization Bands Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (RUB), which estimate expected resource utilization. Patient level RUB categorization is determined through consideration of age, sex, and disease diagnoses. Different categories of RUB are associated with different levels of expected resource use and overall cost to the health care system over Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a given period of time. RUB values vary from 0-5, with higher values associated with higher utilization levels. For this study, RUBs were categorized as ≥ 4 (very high), 3 (high), 2 (medium), and 0-1 (low). The ACG measures were determined using two years of diagnostic data (fiscal year 2003 and 2004) from physician and hospital-based claims. Predictors Individual-level Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical variables that were included in the regression models were gender (male, female), age (20-44, 45-64, 65-79), total household income (low

less than $20,000, medium $20,000-$59,999, high more than $60,000), education (low not completed high school, medium high school completion and some post-secondary education and high university degree), number of chronic medical conditions (0, 1, >1) from the following list (asthma, fibromyalgia, arthritis/rheumatism, back problems, high blood pressure, diabetes, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical epilepsy,

heart disease, and cancer), perceived health status (poor/fair, good, very-good/excellent), number of ADG’s (0-5, 6-9, >9), RUB status (0-1, 2, 3, 4-5), access to a primary care physician Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the community (no, yes), and location of primary residence (rural, urban). Analytic Methods Population studies which seek to estimate demand for emergency department services or hospitalization typically exhibit a large proportion of zeroes, representing the persons that do not use any of the services being investigated during the observational period of interest. Factors influencing 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase the demand for these services are Wnt inhibitor routinely modeled using Poisson or negative binomial regression. While the negative binomial regression model does not impose as stringent a set of restrictions on the conditional mean-variance relationship as the Poisson model, neither is ideal for handling data with a large proportion of zeroes. Failure to account for the mass of zeros that are occurring at a greater proportion than would be predicted by either the Poisson or negative binomial models may result in biased parameter estimates and misleading inferences.


methodologically inaccurate studies, even if t


methodologically inaccurate studies, even if their biased results are replicated in different settings and by different authors, should not be the driving force in conducting randomized trials. The scientific evidence on the potential beneficial effects in new indications of existing drugs will need to be more carefully assessed before embarking on long and expensive unsubstantiated trials. Abbreviations: CABG coronary artery bypass surgery CHD coronary heart disease COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease GRPD General Research Practice Database HRT hormone replacement therapy ICS inhaled corticosteroids LABA long-acting beta(2)-agonist PTCA percutaneous transluminal coronary #selleck inhibitor keyword# angioplasty RCT randomized controlled trial WHI Women’s Health Initiative Footnotes

Conflict of interest: No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.
Sudden cardiac death Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical caused by a ventricular arrhythmia is a disastrous event, especially when it occurs in young individuals. Among the five major arrhythmogenic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical disorders occurring in the absence of structural heart diseases is catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), which is a highly lethal form of inherited arrhythmogenic disease characterized by adrenergically mediated polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.1–4 In response to physical activity or emotional stress, this disease is characterized by episodes of syncope, seizures, or sudden death.1,2 CPVT was first described as a case report by Reid et Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical al.5 who reported on a bidirectional ventricular tachycardia triggered by physical effort

and emotional stress in a 6-year-old girl (who survived a cardiac arrest) with no evidence of any structural heart disease. Later on, in 1978 and 1995, Coumel et al.6 and Leenhardt et al.7 reported a series of cases in familial as well Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as in sporadic forms of the arrhythmia and introduced the term catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) to refer to a disease characterized by adrenergically mediated bidirectional and/or polymorphic 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase ventricular tachycardia in the absence of cardiac pathology. In 2001, Priori et al.8 and Lahat et al.9 identified mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and cardiac calsequestrin (CASQ2) genes, respectively, underlying autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive forms of the disease. RyR2 is a cardiac Ca2+ release channel located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane and has a key role in the process of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) during the excitation–contraction (E–C) coupling.10,11 CASQ2 is a high-capacity, low-affinity Ca2+-binding protein, operating as a major Ca2+-buffering factor, and together with RyR2 forms the SR Ca2+ release unit.

The clinical manifestations of crotaline envenomation vary consid

The clinical manifestations of crotaline envenomation vary considerably based on a complex interplay between the victim and the venom exposure. Some critical manifestations, such as airway involvement and anaphylaxis

to venom, are so uncommon that few clinicians gain experience managing these findings. To our knowledge, all extant treatment algorithms were created by a single author or by a small group of authors with similar experience [5-8]. Many algorithms are specific for the treatment of subpopulations of crotaline victims, such as children or those envenomated in regions where copperhead snakes predominate. Few authors describe their methods for algorithm development, and many Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical algorithms do not fully describe post-stabilization care. Significant variations in practice exist; two studies demonstrate that the proportion of snakebite victims who undergo fasciotomy is five times greater in an institution where snakebite victims are managed primarily by surgeons, compared to an institution where snakebite victims are admitted and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical managed primarily by medical toxicologists [9,10]. Antivenom Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is expensive (current wholesale cost greatly exceeds US$1,000/vial) and associated with immunologic risk, and it is imperative for the physician to use this resource wisely. The objective

of this project was to produce an evidence-informed unified treatment algorithm for pit viper snakebite management in the US, with the goal of reducing unnecessary variations in practice and improving outcomes for snake envenomation victims. Methods Because only one randomized clinical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical trial involving the treatment of crotaline snakebite with antivenom has ever been published, a formal meta-analysis could not be used for rule development [11]. A standardized evidence-based rule development process, such

as that proposed by the GRADE working group, cannot be used to develop Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical an algorithm because the clinical questions cannot be defined in advance. Therefore, using a trained external facilitator, we used structured methods to achieve an evidence-informed consensus among a diverse group of experts. Two authors (EJL, RCD) recruited MRIP panel members based on their published envenomations research and clinical experience. In order to ensure a diversity of experience, panel members were chosen from across the regions of the US where crotaline envenomations are common, with no more than one panel member chosen from the same geographic area. A group size of nine experts was chosen to permit the required diversity of experience while keeping the consensus-building process manageable. One of the original panel members (SCC) had to withdraw from the process; he was replaced on the panel by a colleague from the same institution, but remained involved in the project as a non-voting participant and this website contributor.

Regulation of CREB and decreased expression of BDNF in response t

Regulation of CREB and decreased expression of BDNF in response to DNA Synthesis inhibitor stress Stress results in a wide range of effects that influence many different neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems, signal transduction pathways, and altered gene expression. The hallmark of the stress response is activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrcnal

(HPA) axis, which includes increased circulating Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical levels of adrenal glucocorticoids. The hippocampus contains veryhigh levels of glucocorticoid receptors and is therefore significantly impacted by stress. As mentioned above, studies by McEwen and colleagues have demonstrated that glucocorticoids contribute to the atrophy and decreased neurogenesis of hippocampal neurons resulting Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical from exposure to stress.10 In addition, stress is reported to influence CREB and BDNF in the hippocampus and other brain regions. The transcriptional activity of CREB is regulated by phosphorylation and levels of phospho-CREB are used as an indirect measure of CREB activation and function (Figure 3.) The, regulation of phospho-CREB is complex and is dependent on the brain region and whether the stress is acute or chronic.23-26

Acute stress increases levels of phospho-CREB in many limbic regions associated with mood disorders and this may represent a normal or appropriate adaptive responsiveness.24 In contrast, chronic stress leads to decreased levels of phosphoCREB in many Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical limbic brain regions, which could lead to decreased plasticity and function.26 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Figure 3. Model demonstrating the upregulation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) cascade and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by antidepressant treatment. Chronic, but not acute, antidepressant … Stress has profound effects on the expression of BDNF in the hippocampus. Levels of BDNF expression in hippocampus are dramatically downregulated by both acute and chronic stress, and this effect could contribute to the atrophy and decreased neurogenesis caused by stress (Figure l).27-29 The Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical role of other factors that could underlie

the actions of stress on adult neurogenesis is a subject of interest and could lead to novel targets for drug development. Atrophy of limbic brain structures in depressed patients Evidence from basic research studies provide strong support for the hypothesis that stress-related illnesses such as depression could include alterations in brain structure and neural plasticity. Indeed, direct Unoprostone evidence to support this hypothesis has been provided by brain imaging and postmortem studies of depressed patients. Evidence from brain imaging studies Magnetic resonance imaging studies have demonstrated that the size of certain brain structures is decreased in mood disorder patients. In particular, these studies demonstrate that the volume of the hippocampus is decreased in patients with depression.30,31 Reduced hip pocampal volume is also observed in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

10,15,16 The spectrum of bacteria differs somewhat among pure met

10,15,16 The spectrum of bacteria differs somewhat among pure metabolic stones, pure infection stones, and mixed metabolic/infection stones (Table 3). Table 2 Upper Tract Surgical Stone Series and Stone Culture Results Since 1980 Table 3 Upper Tract Surgical Stone Series Reporting Results of Both Metabolic and Infection Stone Cultures Since 1980 Conclusions

Our case was certainly unique in that it represents the most bacterial species ever isolated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical from a surgically removed upper urinary tract stone. The role of stone culture is not clearly defined; however, it may be advisable during removal of large volume upper tract stones as it may permit more targeted antimicrobial therapy and perhaps avert some of the consequences of SIRS or sepsis. This will need to be verified with a randomized, controlled Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical study, which to date has not been done. In addition, certain patients undergoing surgical removal of smaller upper tract stones may benefit from such testing, and the profiles of such patients will need to be determined. Main Points Despite the use of culture-specific or broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy prior to surgical removal of upper tract nephrolithiasis, certain patients still develop postoperative sepsis.

Some have Selleck Bortezomib reported that preoperative Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical voided urine cultures from these patients may not be reflective of the bacterial environment within the stone that is to be treated. The development of a urinary tract infection is Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a common postoperative complication associated with removal of upper urinary tract stones; one-third of patients undergoing percutaneous nephrostolithotomy

experience this occurrence, which places patients at risk for developing sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome, which can be fatal. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Prescribing antimicrobial therapy that will eradicate the organism in the urine and provide broad-spectrum coverage for the potentially different bacteria harbored within the stone is desired. GBA3 In addition, performing a stone culture may help to identify organisms that are not covered by initial antibiotic therapy, providing an opportunity to institute earlier targeted therapy. Footnotes The authors report no real or apparent conflicts of interest.
Over 2300 posters, abstracts, and videos were presented at the annual meeting of the American Urological Association (AUA), held this year in Atlanta, Georgia, May 19–23, 2012. The editors of Reviews in Urology have culled an enormous volume of information from this premier source and present those findings that are the most relevant to the practicing urologist.