Also, the TGF-β1-induced CD133+ Huh7 cells were reported to be tumorigenic.33 In accord with these findings, we observed that TGF-β-signaling molecules as well as EMT-related genes were significantly up-regulated in S-HCCs. Topographically, S-HCC showed colocalized expression of Snail and K19/EpCAM molecules, particularly in the small and oval-like tumor cells, which may support the idea that TGF-β signaling and EMT play a critical role in the acquisition of stem-cell-like traits. Similarly, it has been reported that S-HCCs express
TGF-β1 at the periphery of tumor nests, next to the fibrous stroma as well as myofibroblasts, and also coexpress CD56 and K7.8 Taken together, we suggest that the EMT might be involved in the acquisition of stem-like and CC-like genomic features in S-HCC through the up-regulation of TGF-β Volasertib supplier signaling, which may contribute Selleckchem JNK inhibitor to the presence of an invasive pathological property (illustrated in Fig. 6A). S-HCC is different from CHC, although small and oval-like tumor cells and abundant fibrous stroma are found in both tumors.4 Unlike CHC, the classical type, S-HCC, does not show
mucin or CC components. In addition, S-HCC is composed mainly of hepatocyte-like tumor cells, whereas CHC with stem-cell features has a main component of small oval-like tumor cells that have stem-cell-like features.4, 34-37 More important, similar fibrotic stroma can occur after chemotherapy, radiation, or transarterial chemoembolization. Such cases should not be confused with S-HCCs. Therefore, in this study, we included all the cases that had no preoperative treatment. In summary, the overall features of our findings can be viewed from the perspective of a spectrum of primary liver cancer composed of HCC, CC, and CHC in the middle (Fig. 6B). Variant HCCs, including S-HCC, are positioned next to CHC because they harbor more HCC-like features than CHC. The molecular characteristics MCE of S-HCC are highlighted by TGF-β signaling and EMT. Our results may provide new pathobiological insights regarding the scirrhous phenotype of HCC and its contribution to the primary liver cancer spectrum.
Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article. “
“Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases in affluent countries. Accurate noninvasive tests for liver injury are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of transient elastography for the diagnosis of fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with NAFLD and to study factors associated with discordance between transient elastography and histology. Two hundred forty-six consecutive patients from two ethnic groups had successful liver stiffness measurement and satisfactory liver biopsy specimens. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUROC) of transient elastography for F3 or higher and F4 disease was 0.93 and 0.