Furthermore, https://www.selleckchem.com/products/PLX-4032.html the capacity of newborns to generate thrombin, dependent upon plasma concentrations of procoagulants, is reduced [5,6]. These facts are balanced by the protective effects of physiological deficiencies of the inhibitors of coagulation, as well as by the decreased fibrinolytic capacity in infants [4,7]. Age appropriate reference ranges

should be used in the interpretation of haemostatic investigations. Failing to use age appropriate reference ranges can lead to erroneous diagnoses. In particular, as vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors in neonates are low compared with concentrations in adults, a normal neonatal factor level may be mistaken as a bleeding disorder. Diagnostic problems of special concern are the need to adapt all coagulation assays for small amounts of blood and the age-related interpretation required for test results as well as for the analytic instruments used [8]. The prolonged PT in neonates reflects decreased plasma concentrations of vitamin K-dependant factors, whereas the prolonged PTT stems from decreased plasma levels of contact factors as well [2–4]. The levels of FVIII, FV and FXIII correlate well with adult boundaries. Plasma concentrations of fibrinogen may be skewed upwards, despite that thrombin clotting time may be prolonged, as a result of a normally present ‘foetal’

fibrinogen [9]. Bleeding time, the test that measures primary haemostasis, e.g. platelets and vessel wall interaction, is shorter in healthy neonates when compared with adults, probably because of high haematocrit, the presence of large red cells, as well as increased concentrations and Selleck X-396 enhanced function of VWF and VWF large multimers [2–4,10]. Platelet numbers in neonates are within adult limits; however, the evaluation of platelet function is troublesome and deserves specific attention [11–13]. Neonatal platelets were found to be hyporeactive in some studies. Some of the reasons reported are decreased receptors, deficient thromboxane synthesis and impaired signal transduction [14,15]. In general, when initial laboratory

test results reveal abnormalities, when compared with age-related values, a stepwise diagnostic approach should follow to characterize specific defects [16]. Dehydratase In the bleeding neonate or infant that has no laboratory abnormality, FXIII and alpha-2-antiplasmin activity should be assessed. When primary haemostatic defects are suspected, platelet function should be evaluated. Haemophilia in the newborn period is challenging; the trauma of the birthing process coupled with iatrogenic insults such as circumcision, injections and heel sticks places an added stress on an age-dependent developmental haemostatic process. An awareness of the natural history of neonatal haemophilia is crucial for early diagnosis and optimal management. Newborns with haemophilia have distinctly different bleeding patterns than older children and adults. Haemarthroses are rare while iatrogenic and cranial bleeding is common.

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