1A) were observed for up to 139 days post–hydrodynamic injection

1A) were observed for up to 139 days post–hydrodynamic injection (PHI; n = 16). The detection of luciferase Selleckchem ICG-001 activity at

48 days PHI indicated selective repopulation of the liver as a result of stable transgene integration into the mouse genome mediated by SB transposition (Supporting Information Fig. 1B, top). The majority of HBx animal livers displayed no evidence of hyperplasia (88%). However, two HBx animals sacrificed at 74 and 139 days PHI displayed livers with hyperplastic nodules (Supporting Information Fig. 1C). Hyperplastic nodules isolated at 139 days PHI were positive for HBx transcripts by RT-PCR (Fig. 1A). These hyperplastic nodules expressed high levels of alpha-fetoprotein (Afp), a known diagnostic marker for HCC, in comparison with the adjacent normal liver (Fig. 1A). According to semiquantitative RT-PCR analyses, the arbitrary expression levels of Afp with respect to β-actin (Actb) were 0.31 ± 0.13 and 0.96 ± 0.042 (means and standard deviations) in normal livers and hyperplastic nodules, respectively (P = 0.0076;

Fig. 1B). In order to visualize the selective hepatocyte repopulation process, control mice injected with Gfp alone (Supporting Information Fig. 1A) were observed for up to 113 days PHI (n = 4). The detection of luciferase activity at 48 days PHI also indicated selective repopulation of the liver (Supporting Information Fig. 1B, bottom). These Gfp mice were sacrificed at 82 and 113 days PHI (n = 4). Although no hyperplastic nodules were initially detected at

82 days PHI (n = 2), a single Gfp-negative nodule was detected at 113 days PHI (n = 2). Viewed with fluorescent imaging, the Gfp expression pattern Mitomycin C confirmed that the liver repopulation process occurred uniformly (Supporting Information Fig. GBA3 1D). Importantly, control mice coinjected with an empty vector and shp53 (empty/shp53; Supporting Information Fig. 1A) were negative for hyperplasia up to 139 days (n = 9). Interestingly, Ki67 staining did not show a significant increase in the mitotic index for Gfp animals (data not shown). However, there were higher levels of Ki67 staining in HBx animals (Fig. 2B). The liver weight percentage of HBx mice was significantly higher than that of Gfp mice (P < 0.01) and empty/shp53 controls (P < 0.001; Fig. 3B), and this indicates that HBx may have a proliferative effect on hepatocytes. Mice injected with HBx alone had high levels of Ctnnb1 expression by IHC, and this was mainly localized in the cellular membrane of repopulated hepatocytes (Fig. 4). Livers of HBx mice had hardly detectable levels of phosphorylated v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (pAkt; Fig. 5) and displayed more CD45 staining cells by IHC in comparison with control Gfp animals (Supporting Information Fig. 4). Interestingly, ALT levels among HBx, empty/shp53, and Gfp representative animals were not significantly different (Table 1). Mice injected with HBx and shp53 (HBx/shp53; Supporting Information Fig.

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