oligandrum and those that were not treated In another study, qPC

oligandrum and those that were not treated. In another study, qPCR proved to be more sensitive than dilutions on a selective media to detect and quantify a potential BCA (Plectosphaerella cucumerina) of potato cyst nematodes in soil (Atkins et al. 2003). In general, a better understanding of click here the behaviour and ecology of field-applied antagonists will lead to an optimization of formulations and time and mode of application, with beneficial effects

on the level of protection that can be achieved (Wilson et al. 1994). A large number of qPCR methods to specifically detect and quantify fungi and oomycetes have been reported in the last 15 years and many more can be expected in the short and middle term. In general, protocols have been progressively improved during this period and, although some aspects remain challenging (Schena et al. 2013), we are now at the beginning of a new phase characterized by the routine utilization of qPCR in plant pathology laboratories thanks to the capillary diffusion, at least in advanced countries, of required equipment and skills. This will greatly contribute

to the advancement of current knowledge in many plant pathology fields and will also have important practical implications (Fig. 1). In fact, the early and accurate detection and quantification of plant pathogens can be considered as a concrete support to improve quantity and quality of productions trough the optimizations of control strategies. Overall, a significant role of qPCR in improving the actual supply chain, with a general benefit for both environmental and human health, can be expected. many This study was funded by MIUR-PRIN 2008 ‘Molecular methods for evaluating the effect BGB324 cost of organic amendments on the populations of root pathogens and microbial antagonists in the citrus rhizosphere’, MIUR-PRIN 2008 ‘Emerging diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens: molecular monitoring of nurseries of ornamental plants and control strategies’ and by MIUR-FIRB 2010 ‘Metagenomic strategies to assess genetic diversity in soil-borne Phytophthora species’. The authors

wish to thank Mrs Ann Davies Muni for the English revision of the text. “
“In 1979, the anthelmintic activity of abamectin, a mixture of avermectins B1a and B1b, was first reported. Since then, multiple articles have investigated avermectins’ degradation and its efficacy against a wide variety of pests under different conditions and using different modes of application. However, there is a gap in the literature of analysing abamectin properties and its performance as a non-fumigant nematicide when applied liquid or granular vs. new avenues of application based on seed and seedling treatment. Therefore, this article reviewed literature to discuss the mode of action, environmental aspects, the nematicidal effectiveness of treatment forms and the range of activity to address these topics. “
“Eight isolates from different potato growing regions in Vietnam were characterized.

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