This is because hip fracture patients made use of more health car

This is because hip fracture patients made use of more health care resources, whereas

the general population did not require health care services. Therefore, the general population mortality rate would not be impacted by the national insurance program as heavily as the peri-operative mortality and short-term postoperative mortality. The estimated 1-year, 2-year, 3-year, 5-year, and 10-year follow-up mortalities were 16.32, 25.84, 33.40, 44.12, and 53.50, respectively. Compared with the general population, the highest SMR occurred at the first year after hip fracture and then decreased gradually for follow-up from the second year up to the 10th year after fracture. Gennaro et al. also reported very similar findings [31]. Furthermore, we analyzed the causes of death stratified by year of death for up to ten years following the index day (Appendix ZD1839 research buy 1). We found that cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular

disease, renal disease and pneumonia were the major causes, each of which is highly related to the aging process. Though they fluctuated slightly from year to year, overall each one’s contribution to death remained stable. Furthermore, we calculated the average age of death for every year and the results showed an increased age of death selleck compound in hip fracture patients (Appendix 4). We calculated the surgery type distribution every year and found that it remained stable (Appendix 2). Finally, we calculated the prevalence RVX-208 of comorbidities and found that Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (18.2%), Cerebrovascular disease (20.4%), Diabetes mellitus (24.1%) and peptic ulcer disease (10.1%) were most prevalent in the hip fracture cohort (Appendix 3). Annual mortality decreased gradually from 18.10% to 13.98%, whereas annual SMR also decreased from 13.80 to 2.98 during the study period. This finding may be attributed to the improvement in medical care and technology. The 1-month, 3-month, 6-month, 1-year, 2-year,

5-year, and 10-year follow-up mortality rates were 2.49, 6.45, 10.40, 16.32, 25.84, 33.40, 44.12, and 53.50, respectively. The 1-month mortality was 2.49% in Taiwan, lower than that of England (9.6%), Scotland (7%), and the US (8.9%, 5.2% to 9.3%) [10], [32], [33] and [34]. The 3-month mortality was 6.45% in Taiwan, lower than that of Norway (10%), Sweden (10%–20%), and the US (17.5%) [26], [33], [35] and [36]. The 1-year mortality was 16.32% in Taiwan, lower than that of Korea (17.8), Japan (19%), the US (16.9%, 12% to 32%), England (33%), Canada (30.8%), Denmark (29.2%), Finland (27.3%), and Sweden (21% to 33%) [9], [14], [25], [32], [34], [37], [38] and [39]. Haleem et al. reviewed published articles from 1996 to 1998 and found that mortality at six months and one year were 11% to 23% and 22% to 29%, respectively [11]. Haentjens et al.

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