Finally, the ImpNon scale examines impulsive, antisocial and ecce

Finally, the ImpNon scale examines impulsive, antisocial and eccentric forms of behaviour (Cochrane et al., 2010 and Mason and Claridge, 2006). A 2 (Group) × 4 (Schizotypal Factor) mixed ANOVA was used to explore differences on each component of schizotypy between the groups.

A main effect of group was observed [F(1, 58) = 7.49, p = <.01], with synaesthetes scoring higher overall compared to controls. There was also a significant interaction [F(3, 174) = 3.37, p = <.05]. Bonferroni corrected post-hoc t-tests revealed that this was because synaesthetes showed significantly higher levels of positive (UnEx) [t(58) = 2.58, p = <.05, d = .68] and disorganised schizotypy (CogDis) [t(58) = 2.65, p = <.05, d = .70] relative to the matched control group ( Fig. 1A). No significant differences were found between the groups selleck products in their levels of negative schizotypy (IntAn) [t(58) = .289, p = n.s, d = .08] or their ImpNon ( Fig. 1A) [t(58) = 1.53, p = n.s, d = .40]. Synaesthetes and controls also showed

significant positive correlations between UnEx scores and CogDis scores (synaesthetes: r = .490, p = <.01; controls: r = .486, p = <.01). Synaesthetes, but not controls, showed a significant positive correlation between UnEx scores Venetoclax concentration and ImpNon scores (r = .367, p = <.05). These findings show that synaesthesia for colour is linked to

an increase in positive and disorganized schizotypy, implying that the presence of synaesthesia is associated with widespread differences in cognition that extend beyond the synaesthetic experience itself. There are at least two potential mechanisms that may contribute to this effect: (i) the effect is modulated by co morbidity between synaesthesia and ID-8 other cognitive traits that are related to schizotypy; (ii) there maybe similarities in the underlying mechanisms that give rise to the perceptual reports associated with schizotypy and synaesthesia. In relation to cognitive traits, previous findings have linked heightened positive schizotypy to creativity (Nelson and Rawlings, 2010) and mental imagery vividness (Oertel et al., 2009). Synaesthesia has also been linked to higher levels of these cognitive manifestations (e.g., Barnett and Newell, 2008 and Ward et al., 2008). Therefore, in conjunction with mental imagery and creativity, increased positive and disorganised schizotypy may reflect a constellation of trait markers that are linked to synaesthesia. In this context, it is interesting to note that one mechanism that has been suggested to explain the relationship between increased schizotypy and both creativity and mental imagery is a difference in levels of inhibition/excitation (e.g., Grossberg, 2000 and Nelson and Rawlings, 2010).

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