These values are appropriate, as the literature describes coeffic

These values are appropriate, as the literature describes coefficient values ranging from 0.8 to 2.2%.20 learn more Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Analysis System, release 9.1.3 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA), and analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measurements was performed in the PROC MIXED module of SAS (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). Tukey multiple comparisons were performed after the ANOVA, which allowed for detection of the differences. To assess the association of variables with the group, Fisher’s exact test was used. A significance level of 5% was adopted in all analyses. A total of 28 newborns were assessed:

14 PTNs and 14 FTNs. The gestational age of the PTNs ranged from 28.4 to 32.0 weeks (mean 31.1 weeks). Birth weight was 1,115-2,130 g (mean 1,540 g) and 2,900-3,700 g (mean 3,260 g) for PTNs and FTNs, respectively, and all of were adequate for gestational age. Fourteen infants (11 FTNs and three PTNs) were excluded, as they did not complete the assessment, and they showed similar

weight, gestational age, and gender to the infants included in the study (p > 0.05) (Table 1). Fig. 1 shows the z-score for weight (kg) and height (cm), and Fig. 2 shows BMC (g), BMD (g/cm2), and lean mass (g) of PTNs and FTNs throughout the follow-up period, at 40 weeks of post-conceptual age, and at 3 and 6 months of corrected gestational age. At all times, differences were observed between the PTNs and FTNs, in both Z-score measures of weight and height, as well as BMC, BMD, and lean mass. The comparison

GSK-3 inhibitor between the PTNs and FTNs showed that at the initial assessment (40 weeks of post-conceptual age), PTNs had lower values when compared to FTNs regarding weight, Z-scores for weight and height, BMC, BMD, and lean mass (p < 0.05) (Table 2). However, these differences disappeared at the 6-month evaluation of postnatal age, when all parameters showed similar means between the PTNs and FTNs (p > 0.05) (Table 2). Serum biochemical parameters did not differ between PTNs and FTNs, except alkaline phosphatase, which was statistically higher in PTNs in relation to the FTNs (Table 2). Only two patients, both preterm, had alkaline phosphatase levels > 1,200 IU/L, which is considered suggestive of metabolic bone disease. Among the PTNs, three (21.4%) had Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) results of urine tests suggestive of phosphorus deficiency syndrome (urinary calcium > 4 mg/kg per day, and urinary phosphorus < 1 mg/kg per day). For this reason, the use of the oral solution of calcium and phosphorus was indicated, which was maintained until the corrected age of 6 months. In addition to this solution with calcium and phosphorus oral supplementation, human milk additive was used in four PTNs, totaling 50% of preterm infants requiring human milk supplementation. In Brazil, this was the first study conducted on the evolution of body composition of PTNs and FTNs fed human milk, assessed by DXA after discharge.

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