Therefore, the processes used from human milk extraction until it

Therefore, the processes used from human milk extraction until its offer imply in important changes in its macronutrient contents,

which have been observed by several authors.4, 7, 16, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 and 24 Changes learn more found due to the milk infusion route were also observed in the studies by Vieira et al.7 and by Stoks et al.25 The milk infusion process by gavage did not result in significant fat loss, probably because there was less loss related to fat adhesion to plastic, as the probe is much smaller than the perfusor used for continuous infusion. The time spent during infusion for the two modalities may also have influenced fat loss.25 The limitations of this study include the fact that it analyzed only macronutrients and used only the fast thawing method in

the microwave. Excessive heating can destroy the immunological factors in human milk, but not necessarily the nutritional components that were evaluated in this study.26 The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária – ANVISA) and the Brazilian Human Milk Bank Network mention this practice in their instructional manuals.6 Another result found in this study was a smaller magnitude of the differences in the amounts of fat according to the infusion route when compared to the study by Vieira et al.,7 which would find more indicate larger sample sizes in future studies. Human milk remains the best food to be offered

to newborns, including preterm, but the nutritional fat losses related to continuous infusion should be considered when choosing the route of administration. FAPERJ (Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro). Maria Elisabeth L Moreira was a lecturer at Mead Johnson, Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase Nestlé, and ABBOTT in 2012. “
“Control of hospital‐acquired infections (HAIs) represents a challenge for health care workers and hospital administrators, as HAIs are severe infectious events, responsible for increased morbidity and mortality, costs, and social impact.1 and 2 For the effective control of these diseases, the Hospital Infection Control Commissions (HICCs) must structure and maintain a system of epidemiological surveillance of HAIs, especially in critical sectors such as adult, pediatric, and neonatal intensive care units.3, 4 and 5 The organization of epidemiological surveillance of HAIs was started in the United States in 1986, when the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS), the surveillance system of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), was organized and subdivided into components that include global monitoring, intensive care units (ICUs), a surgical component, and neonatal units.

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