Sequences of 16S rRNA genes were amplified using universal primers, fD1 and rP2 , in a mixture that contained 0.6 μM of each of the primers, 100 μM of each of the dNTPs, 2.5 mM MgCl2 in 1× buffer and 0.025 U/ml Taq polymerase (Bioline Emricasan Ltd, London, UK). Amplification was carried out using a BioRad Icycler and the following programme: 94°C for 10 min; 35 cycles of 94°C for 1 min, 60°C for 1 min, 72°C for 2 min; then 72°C for 10 min, then 4°C. Amplification was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR products were cleaned up using WizardR SV Gel & PCR Clean-up system (Promega). Sequencing was carried out with fD1 and rP2 primers as before, with 2 further forward (926f, 519f) and 2 reverse
primers (926r, 519r) based on Lane et al. . Sequences were assembled with the Lasergene programme  and bacteria identified with NCBI Blastn. Where samples did not produce long enough sequences, amplified DNA was cloned into the PCR®2.1-TOPO vector (Invitrogen BV, Leek, the Netherlands). Plasmids were isolated from recombinant colonies using Wizard®Plus SV Miniprep DNA Purification System (Promega). Plasmids were checked for
inserts by amplification with M13F and M13R primers followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Plasmids which contained inserts Selleckchem LY2090314 were sequenced using M13F and M13R primers initially then all 6 primers as used before. Sequences were assembled and identified as before. Full length or near full length 16S rRNA genes sequences have been Selleck Androgen Receptor Antagonist deposited in the GenBank database, with accession numbers GU968162-GU968185. Data analysis Ammonia production rates were analysed by hierarchical Analysis of Variance, with a between and within subject stratum, with factors for diet (omnivore vs vegetarian), medium (Trypticase vs amino acids) and monensin and their interactions. Production was linear during the incubations and rates of NH3 production were determined by linear regression and compared Bupivacaine by ANOVA in Microsoft Excel. Acknowledgements The Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health
is funded by the Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division (RESAS) of the Scottish Government. We thank Mrs V. Buchan for amino acid analysis, Ms F. McIntosh and P. Young for help with DNA sequencing, and G. Horgan for statistical analysis. We thank the volunteers for their contribution, without which the project would not have been possible! References 1. Smith EA, Macfarlane GT: Enumeration of amino acid fermenting bacteria in the human large intestine: effects of pH and starch on peptide metabolism and dissimilation of amino acids. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 1998, 25:355–368.CrossRef 2. Hughes R, Magee EA, Bingham S: Protein degradation in the large intestine: relevance to colorectal cancer. Curr Issues Intest Microbiol 2000, 1:51–58.PubMed 3. Gill CIR, Rowland IR: Diet and cancer: assessing the risk. Br J Nutr 2002, 88:S73-S87.PubMedCrossRef 4.