Results There was a significant increase in Fos-immunoreactive ce

Results There was a significant increase in Fos-immunoreactive cells in the mPFC, nucleus accumbens (NAc), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and lateral hypothalamus (LH) of rats treated repeatedly with AMPH when compared to vehicle-treated controls. The mPFC pyramidal neurons that project to the LH but not the NAc or

BLA show a significant induction of Fos after repeated AMPH treatment. Selleckchem E7080 In addition, we found a dramatic increase in Fos-activated orexin neurons.

Conclusions The LH, a region implicated in natural and drug reward processes, may play a role in the development and persistence of sensitization to repeated AMPH through its connections with the mPFC and Selleckchem NVP-BSK805 possibly through its orexin neurons.”
“Studies of learning, and in particular perceptual learning, have focused on learning of stimuli consisting of a single sensory modality. However, our experience in the world involves constant multisensory stimulation. For instance, visual and auditory information are integrated in performing many tasks that involve localizing and tracking moving objects. Therefore, it is likely that the human brain has evolved to

develop, learn and operate optimally in multisensory environments. We suggest that training protocols that employ unisensory stimulus regimes do not engage multisensory learning mechanisms and, therefore, might not be optimal for learning. However, multisensory-training protocols can better approximate natural settings and are more effective for learning.”

Among the key targets of inquiry in cognitive aging are (1) the description of cognitive changes with advancing age and (2) the association of such cognitive changes with modulating factors in the changing epidemiological context.

Methods. In the current study, we assemble multi-occasion (up to 12 years) cognitive (speed, episodic memory, and semantic memory) and self-reported health data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (n = 988; ages 55-95 years).

Results. The results from piecewise random effects models using age as a basis indicated that only selected measures of episodic memory and semantic memory showed evidence of significant declines prior to age 75. After age 75, all CH5183284 cognitive abilities showed evidence for statistically significant declines, although the magnitude of these changes varied considerably. Performance at age 75 was correlated with self-reported health for measures of processing speed and episodic memory. Changes in health status were related to changes in some aspects of processing speed.

Discussions. The results indicated that (1) for many cognitive abilities declines in performance did not manifest until after age 75 and (2) self-reported health was related to level of performance more than changes over age.

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