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“Basolateral amygdala (BLA) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) interactions have been implicated in cue-elicited craving and drug seeking. However, the neurochemical mechanisms underlying drug/environment associations are ill-defined. We used in vivo microdialysis
and pharmacological inactivation techniques to identify alterations in mPFC glutamate (GLU) and gamma-aminobutyric this website acid (GABA) transmission in response to cues previously associated with experimenter-administered cocaine (COC) and the BLA contribution to these effects. Rats received alternate day injections of COC and saline (SAL) paired with a distinct environment for 6 days. Behavioral, neurochemical and immunohistochemical studies were conducted, in drug-free animals, 24 h after the last conditioning session. Animals exposed to a COC-paired environment demonstrated an augmented locomotor activity (LMA) relative to those exposed to the SAL-paired environment. mPFC GABA neurotransmission in the COC-paired environment
was significantly increased, whereas GLU overflow was unaltered. Dual labeling of cFos and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 immunoreactivity 8-Bromo-cAMP chemical structure in mPFC neurons revealed significantly greater colocalization of these proteins following exposure to the COC-associated environment (CAE) relative to pseudo-conditioned rats or rats exposed to the SAL-associated environment indicating that the conditioned neurochemical response to the COC-paired environment
is associated with activation of intrinsic mPFC GABA neurons. BLA inactivation prevented the increase in LMA and the augmentation of mPFC GABA transmission produced by cue exposure. Intra-mPFC application of the AMPA/KA receptor antagonist, NBQX, produced similar effects. These findings indicate that exposure to a CAE increases mPFC GABA transmission by enhancing excitatory drive from the BLA and activation of AMPA/KA receptors on mPFC GABA neurons. Neuropsychopharmacology (2011) 36, click here 2018-2029; doi: 10.1038/npp.2011.89; published online 1 June 2011″
“A method is described for using Nitropure nitrocellulose (NPN) membranes as an effective solid matrix for retrieval of template RNA of three potyviruses, Tobacco etch virus, Soybean mosaic virus and Turnip mosaic virus, and two cucumoviruses, Cucumber mosaic virus and Peanut stunt virus. These NPN membranes were also used for tissue blot immunosorbent assays (TBIAs) to identify and detect plant viruses. For RNA detection, discs from dried membranes blotted with infected tissue were minimally cleaned with Triton X-100 and placed directly into reverse transcription (RT) reactions to initiate cDNA synthesis. Aliquots of cDNA plus primers specific for coat protein produced PCR amplicons of expected sizes for each of the viruses.