Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and antigen spec

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and antigen specific interferon-gamma secretion of isolated

T cells was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. T cells were functionally characterized and T-cell responses before and after regulatory T-cell depletion were compared. As test tumor antigens, a panel of 11 long synthetic peptides derived from a total of 8 tumor antigens was used, including prostate specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase.

Results: In patients with prostate cancer we noted a 74.5% effector T-cell response rate compared Epacadostat clinical trial with only 25% in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 31% in healthy donors. In most patients 2 or 3 tumor antigens were recognized. Comparing various disease stages there was a clear increase in the immune response against prostate specific antigens from intermediate to high risk tumors and castration resistant disease. Regulatory T-cell depletion led to a significant boost in effector T-cell responses against prostate specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase.

Conclusions: Tumor specific effector T cells were detected in most patients with prostate cancer, especially those with castration resistant prostate cancer. Since effector T-cell responses selleck against prostate specific antigens strongly increased

after regulatory T-cell depletion, our results indicate that immunotherapy efficacy could be enhanced by decreasing regulatory T cells.”
“Cerebral function impairment remains problematic in subjects with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Using cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-1 MRS), we aimed to determine if

abnormalities could be detected in neurologically asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects electively commencing cART.

Therapy-naive, HIV-infected individuals and HIV-uninfected controls underwent H-1 MRS in several anatomical voxels including the mid-frontal grey matter (FGM) and right basal ganglia (RBG). Differences in cerebral metabolite ratios between groups and correlations between immune and virological status were assessed.

Forty-six subjects were recruited (26 HIV-infected and 20 control subjects). In the HIV-infected group, mean CD4+ count (SD, cells per Alpelisib microlitre) and plasma HIV RNA (SD, log10 copies per millilitre) were 192 (86) and 4.71 (0.64), respectively. Choline (Cho)/Creatine (Cr) and myoinositol (MI)/Cr ratios were significantly lower in the FGM in HIV-infected subjects compared to controls (0.67 (0.14) versus 0.88 (0.49), p = 0.036, and 0.94 (0.28) and 1.17 (0.26), p = 0.008, for Cho/Cr and MI/Cr, respectively) and Cho/Cr ratio associated with CD4+ lymphocyte count (p = 0.041). N-Acetyl-aspartate (NAA)/Cho ratio was significantly lower in the RBG in HIV-infected subjects compared to controls (2.27 (0.54) versus 2.63 (0.68), p = 0.002), and this was associated with greater plasma HIV RNA load (p = 0.014).

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