In telomerase-immortalized human umbilical vein endothelial cells, LANA-1 was demonstrated to repress interleukin-8 expression, which was involved in neutrophil recruitment to the inflammatory site. Through an in vitro transmigration assay, we determined a suppressive
effect of LANA-1 on neutrophil chemotaxis. Our work suggests that KSHV LANA-1 is a negative modulator of acute inflammation and sheds light on a new mechanism by which KSHV during the latent life cycle evades the host innate immune response.”
“Rationale Hippocampal interneurons release gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) Epigenetics inhibitor and produce fast GABA(A)- and slow GABA(B)-inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs). The regulation of GABA(B) eIPSPs or the interneurons that produce them are not well understood.
In addition, while both mu-opioid receptors (mu ORs) and cannabinoid CB1R receptors (CB1Rs) are present on hippocampal interneurons, it is not clear how these two systems interact.
Objectives This study tests the TGF-beta inhibitor hypotheses that: (1) all interneurons can initiate both GABA(A) and GABA(B) inhibitory postsynaptic potentials; (2) GABA(B) responses are insensitive to mGluR-triggered, endocannabinoid (eCB)-mediated inhibitory long-term depression (iLTD); (3) GABA(B) responses are produced by interneurons that express mu OR; and (4) CB1R-dependent and mu OR-dependent response interact.
Materials and methods Pharmacological and electrophysiological approaches were used in acute
rat hippocampal slices. High resistance microelectrode recordings were made from pyramidal cells, while interneurons were stimulated extracellularly.
Results GABA(B) responses were found to be produced by interneurons that release GABA via either presynaptic N-type or P/Q-type calcium channels but that they AMN-107 supplier are insensitive to suppression by eCBs or eCB-mediated iLTD. GABA(B) IPSPs were sensitive to suppression by a mu OR agonist, suggesting a major source of GABA(B) responses is the mu OR-expressing interneuron population. A small eCB-iLTD (10% eIPSP reduction) persisted in conotoxin. eCB-iLTD was blocked by a mu OR agonist in 6/13 slices.
Conclusions GABA(B) responses cannot be produced by all interneurons. CB1R or mu OR agonists will differentially alter the balance of activity in hippocampal circuits. CB1R- and mu OR-mediated responses can interact.”
“According to a common conception in behavioral decision research, two cognitive processes-overestimation and overweighting-operate to increase the impact of rare events on people’s choices. Supportive findings stem primarily from investigations in which people learn about options via descriptions thereof. Recently, a number of researchers have begun to investigate risky choice in settings in which people learn about options by experiential sampling over time.