In this study, a novel deposition of In2O3 NPs using a modified plasma-assisted hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (PA-HWCVD) system is reported. The deposition was done by evaporating the bulk indium wire in a nitrous oxide plasma environment. The vaporized indium atoms were oxidized by the oxidizing agents, then forming In2O3 NPs on the substrates. We selleck products demonstrate an effective way to improve the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the In2O3 NPs by introducing an in situ thermal radiation treatment under an oxidizing agent
plasma condition. Compared to the previously reported treatment methods [13–16], the proposed method offers a cost-effective, single-step deposition process to perform treatment on the as-deposited samples. In addition to surface treatment, this method can also be used to control the microstructure morphology and crystallinity of the In2O3 nanostructures to
suit desired applications. Methods In2O3 NPs were deposited on a quartz substrate using a home-built PA-HWCVD system (Additional file 1: Figure SN-38 S1). Indium wire (purity 99.999%) with a diameter of 0.5 mm and a length of approximately 2 mm was used as indium source. Tantalum filament coils were used for indium evaporation. The filament coils were preheated in H2 ambient at approximately 1,500°C for 10 min to remove the contamination before being used for deposition. The distance of the electrode and Avelestat (AZD9668) the filament with the substrate is fixed at 5 and 3 cm, respectively. The quartz substrate was heated to 300°C in vacuum (10−3 mbar) before starting deposition. buy SC79 evaporation process was then carried out at a filament temperature of approximately 1,200°C in a N2O plasma environment. The rf power density for the N2O plasma generation is fixed at 1.273 W cm−2. The deposition pressure and N2O gas flow rate were controlled at 1
mbar and 60 sccm, respectively. For thermal radiation treatment, the temperature of the filament increased rapidly to about 1,800°C for 7 to 10 min after complete evaporation of the indium wire by the hot filament. The N2O plasma generation was terminated at 5 min after the evaporation process or the thermal treatment process. A Hitachi SU 8000 field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM; Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan) attached with an EDAX Apollo XL SDD detector energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscope (EDAX Inc., Mahwah, NJ, USA) was utilized to perform surface morphology study and chemical composition analysis of the samples. Structural properties of the samples were studied using a Siemens D5000 X-ray diffractometer (Siemens Corporation, New York, NY, USA) and a Renishaw InVia photoluminescence/Raman spectrometer (Renishaw, Wotton-under-Edge, UK). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were obtained using Cu Kα radiation at a glazing angle of 5°, and Raman spectra were recorded under an excitation of argon laser source with a wavelength of 514 nm.