Expression of the ST6Gal I protein was determined by western blot

Expression of the ST6Gal I protein was selleck kinase inhibitor determined by western blotting. Respiratory epithelial cells (A549, HBE,

and HEp-2) were transfected with control or ST6GAL1 siRNAs (2.5–50 nmol). At 48 h post-transfection we used an RNeasy Mini kit (Qiagen) for RNA extraction according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The extracted total RNA (500 ng/sample) was then used for cDNA synthesis. The resulting cDNA was amplified LGX818 in a 20-μL reaction containing ST6GAL1-specific forward (0.25 μmol) and reverse (0.25 μmol) primers (Additional file 1: Table S2), and 1× Power SYBR Green PCR Master Mix (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). Reactions were subjected to thermal cycling with an IQ5 System (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA) involving an initial 10-min denaturation step at 95°C, followed by 40 cycles of 95°C for 15 s and 60°C for 60 s. Fluorescence signals from these reactions were captured at the end of the 60°C extension step for each cycle. To determine

the specificity of the assay, amplicons were subject to melting curve analysis after the 40th cycle (65–95°C, 0.1°C/s). Our data were analyzed using the 2-ΔΔCT method, according to the manufacturer’s instructions, with ST6GAL1 expression levels normalized to β-actin mRNA levels. After transfection for 48 h, A549 cells were lysed in 50 mM Tris–HCl buffer (pH 7.4) containing 1% Triton X-100, 0.5 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), 20 μg/mL Megestrol Acetate leupeptin, 4 mM sodium fluoride, and 200 μM sodium pervanadate. Protein concentrations in P-gp inhibitor the lysates were determined with a BCA assay kit (Pierce, Rockford, IL, USA). Proteins in lysates were resolved under reducing conditions for sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). We probed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes with 5 μg/mL of a rabbit antihuman ST6Gal Ι polyclonal antibody (Abcam, Cambridge, MA, USA) followed by a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)conjugated antirabbit IgG secondary antibody(Abcam). Specific signals were visualized using an ECL kit (Pierce). Protein concentrations between wells were normalized

using HRP-conjugated β-actin-specific monoclonal antibodies (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). Cell viability Cultured cells in the logarithmic growth phase were trypsinized, seeded into 96-well plates, and transfected with ST6GAL1 (2.5–50 nmol) or control (10 nmol) siRNAs. At 24, 48, and 72 h post-transfection, cell viability was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays (Sigma-Aldrich). The absorbance at 492 nm was measured in a spectrophotometer (Molecular Devices, Palo Alto, CA, USA). Background values were subtracted from the average absorbance value obtained for each siRNA treatment and then compared with the value obtained when siRNAs were absent (100% viability). Each assay was performed in duplicate in at least four wells.

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