For example, MDR1 effluxes paclitaxel (PTX), whereas BCRP does no

For example, MDR1 effluxes paclitaxel (PTX), whereas BCRP does not. In contrast, BCRP is the preferential transporter for the drug SN38.43, 44 Because MDR1 mediates SP formation, we investigated the role that MDR1 might play in chemoresistance in our hepatic tumor model. The efficacy of Dox and PTX treatment against LT2-MYC tumor cells was increased when combined with verapamil (Fig. 6A). SN38 treatment also inhibited cell growth

(Fig. 6A), but the efficacy was not affected by verapamil. Unfractionated LT2-MYC tumor cells were analyzed for Hoechst 33342 efflux activity following treatment with Dox, PTX, and SN38. The percentage of tumor cells in the SP increased following treatment with Dox or PTX, providing evidence that SP cells are resistant to chemotherapeutics effluxed by MDR1 (Fig. 6B). Similar results were also seen in vivo. Treatment of LT2-MYC tumors with PTX elicited apoptosis (Fig. find more 6C, Supporting Fig. 5) and increased the SP fraction in the surviving cells when compared with the results of PBS treatment (Fig. 6D). Additionally, cells from PTX-treated LT2-MYC tumors had enhanced tumor-initiating potential compared to cells from PBS treated LT2-MYC tumors when seeded at 300 cells per injection into NSG mice (Fig. 6E). Thus, PTX treatment selected for tumor-initiating cells that were resistant to MDR1-effluxed drugs. We have

demonstrated that tumor initiation by MYC creates SAR245409 ic50 a chemoresistant CSC population not seen following tumor initiation by AKT/RAS. Furthermore, this population can be enriched by isolating SP cells that exclude Hoechst 33342 dye. Previous studies have identified

SP cells this website at very low percentages in developing and fully mature livers.18 In these studies, hepatic progenitors represented a portion of the SP cells present in developing livers and the majority of SP cells present in mature livers. A portion of cells in MYC-induced hepatic tumors possess similar Hoechst 33342 efflux activity. These SP cells in our LT2-MYC hepatic tumor model were enriched for tumor-initiating cells, in comparison with non-SP cells, similar to CSCs identified as SP cells in other tumor models. The SP cells in the MYC-driven tumors were also capable of differentiating into more mature, non-SP cancer cells. This differentiation can occur fairly rapidly in vitro as evidenced by the loss of chemoresistance, hepatic progenitor markers, and tumor-initiating capacity. Because MYC has been previously demonstrated to regulate global epigenetic states, the rapid differentiation could be a result of epigenetic reprogramming.45 In mammary epithelial cells, neoplastic nonstem cells can spontaneously give rise to stem-like CSCs, suggesting a bidirectional interconversion between stem and nonstem cell states.

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