Consistent with these data is another study [35], which failed to

Consistent with these data is another study [35], which failed to show a correlation between histopathological findings and clinical status of patients with colon cancer treated pre-operatively with irradiation. The observations of this study indicate that acute radiation colitis may remain clinically silent and resolve spontaneously within a few weeks after irradiation. PXD101 supplier Given the increasing acceptance of short-term preoperative irradiation protocols for rectal cancer, pathologists should be aware of the rather characteristic histopathologic findings of acute radiation

colitis and avoid unnecessary concern of clinicians. Conclusions In conclusion, this is one of the first studies to assess the efficacy of prophylactic amifostine efficacy by using clinical, endoscopic and histologic assessment in patients receiving radical radiotherapy to pelvic tumors. Subcutaneous amifostine prophylactic was safe and seemed to provide protection to the development of severe and acute radiation colitis. Larger studies and longer follow up is needed to confirm and evaluate the long-term protective function of amifostine. The poor concordance of endoscopic and histologic findings undercores the need for a global assessment of radiation-induced bowel injury by clinical, endoscopic, and histological means. Acknowledgements We offer our thanks to Mrs Olga Siarabi, data manager in the Department of Oncology,

AZD9291 Medical School of Ioannina for the excellent data handling and secretarial support in this study. References 1. Andreyev HJ: Gastrointestinal problems after pelvic radiotherapy: the past, the present and the future. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2007, 19:790–799. 2. Zimmermann FB, Feldmann HJ: Radiation proctitis. Clinical and pathological manifestations, therapy and prophylaxis of acute and late injurious effects of radiation on

the rectal mucosa. Strahlenther Onkol 1998, 174:85–9.PubMed 3. Schumacher C, Paul K, Robbe Y, Sicart MT, Chanal JL, Delard R, Dubois JB: Mice’s rectum radioprotection: comparative efficacy of a series of aminothiols and aminothiol precursors. Farmaco 1997, 52:729–31.PubMed 4. Keshavarzian A, Haydek J, Zabihi R, Doria M, D’Astice M, Sorenson JR: Agents capable of eliminating reactive oxygen species. Catalase, WR-2721, or Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4 decrease experimental colitis. Dig Dis Sci 1992, 37:1866–73.PubMedCrossRef Ureohydrolase 5. Athanassiou H, Antonadou D, Coliarakis N, Kouveli A, Synodinou M, Paraskevaidis M, Sarris G, Georgakopoulos GR, Panousaki K, Karageorgis P, Throuvalas N, Oncology Hellenic Group: Protective effect of amifostine during fractionated radiotherapy in patients with pelvic carcinomas: results of a randomized trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003, 56:1154–60.PubMedCrossRef 6. DeCosse JJ, Rhodes RS, Wentz WB, Reagan JW, Dworken HJ, Holden WD: The natural history and management of radiation induced injury of the gastrointestinal tract. Ann Surg 1969, 170:369–384.

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