Yam starch was extracted from the São Bento yam cultivar accordin

Yam starch was extracted from the São Bento yam cultivar according to Daiúto and Cereda (2003), modifying the concentrations of the reagents used (1 g 100 g−1 solution of ammonium oxalate and oxalic acid at a ratio of 1:1 (g:g)). Glycerol was obtained from Merck (São Paulo, Brazil). After preparation, the solutions were heated to 90 °C for 4.5 min for gelatinization, and, while still hot, the samples were transferred to 0.01 L acrylic plates with an internal diameter of 0.088 m for drying and transformation into film. The

values of the variables used in the test were determined from the rotational central composite design, totaling eleven treatments (Rodrigues & Iemma, 2009), with five levels for each independent variable – concentrations of yam starch and glycerol. Preliminary studies were performed to define the levels of yam starch and glycerol to be used in the filmogenic Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor solutions for the present study. The starch content in academic

studies typically extends up to 3 g 100 g−1, while various levels of glycerol are used. In an attempt to optimize the drying results, mechanical properties and water barrier properties, a range of 5–10 g 100 g−1 was established for yam starch, for the purpose of increasing the water vapor barrier properties, in other words, not allowing the water vapor to pass through the film which will coat the selleck screening library food product, and 10–50 g 100 g−1 for glycerol (based on the amount of yam starch used). Drying was performed in a forced air circulation

laboratory oven (Marconi MA 035) at temperatures of 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 °C, with a constant air velocity of 1 m s−1. This mild temperature range was chosen to avoid damage to the film. The design described in Table 1 was applied at each temperature indicated above in order to extract more information on the drying of filmogenic solutions in the present study. The loss of mass of filmogenic solutions was monitored at 10 min intervals, and this process was concluded when, in at least three consecutive measurements, the variation in mass was less than the tolerance of 10−6 kg. The plates were then stored in desiccators containing silica gel at a temperature of ±20 °C for 24 h. From this measurement and initial weight of the sample, the amount of moisture content present in the filmogenic solution Protein kinase N1 gel was calculated on a dry basis. Modeling of the drying of filmogenic solutions was conducted in two phases: a period with constant drying rate and a period with an exponential drying rate (Equation (1)), separated by critical time, as established in the study of drying of granulated anid. It is a disperse polymer material (Stupa et al., 2003). Non-linear regression analyses were performed via the Gauss Newton method for fitting the mathematical models, using the STATSOFT 8.0® software. equation(1) WI=W0+(nt)forttcrWhere WI is the moisture content in the constant drying rate period, g 100 g−1, d.b.

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