We further combined our dataset with previously published data on

We further combined our dataset with previously published data on Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation to explore a general isolation with migration model and infer the demographic parameters underlying current genetic diversity in Bantu populations.\n\nResults: Correspondence analysis, lineage sharing patterns and admixture estimates indicate that the gene pool from southwestern Angola is predominantly derived from West-Central Africa. The pastoralist Herero-speaking Kuvale people were additionally characterized by relatively high frequencies

of Y-chromosome (12%) and mtDNA (22%) Khoe-San lineages, as well as by the presence of the -14010C lactase persistence mutation (6%), which likely originated in non-Bantu pastoralists from East Africa. Inferred demographic parameters show that both male and female populations underwent significant size MAPK inhibitor growth after the split between the western and eastern branches of Bantu expansions occurring 4000 years ago. However, males had lower population sizes and migration rates than females throughout the Bantu dispersals.\n\nConclusion: Genetic variation in southwestern Angola essentially results from the encounter of an offshoot of West-Central Africa with autochthonous Khoisan-speaking peoples from the south. Interactions between the Bantus and the Khoe-San likely involved cattle herders from the two

groups sharing common aspects of their social organization. The presence of the -14010C mutation in southwestern Angola provides a link between the East and Southwest African pastoral ZD1839 scenes that might have been established indirectly, through migrations of Khoe herders across southern Africa. Differences in patterns of mtDNA and Y-chromosome intrapopulation diversity and interpopulation differentiation may be explained by contrasting demographic histories underlying the current female and male genetic

“Objectives: If a mother has contracted chickenpox, the antibodies in her milk confer immunity against chickenpox to her breastfed babies. This passive immunization may avoid or spare the breastfed babies’ symptoms CBL0137 of chickenpox. It is hypothesized that frozen breast milk may shorten chickenpox duration because specific antibodies against varicella zoster have been detected in human milk and they are resistant to digestion and are stable in frozen milk.\n\nDesign: The clinical outcomes of chickenpox in a 9-year-old boy and his father on frozen breast milk are reported.\n\nSettings: The study comprised a varicella-vaccine-refusing family attending a private office of pediatrics.\n\nInterventions and results: The boy presented with a crusted varicella rash. The medical history revealed premature cessation of the typical varicella rash on day 3. It was coincidental with a supply of frozen human milk by his mother.

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