We collected representative river sediment samples at exposed subaerial sites free of vegetation on channel bars between 17 and 23 November 2011 (69 sampling sites), between 3 and 8 April 2012 (40 sampling sites) and between 8 and 12 November 2012 (53 sampling sites) along the main rivers draining the area and some of their major tributaries. At each sampling site, five to ten subsamples
of fine sediment that is likely to be deposited after the last major flood were collected at several locations selected randomly down to the underlying coarser cobble or gravel layer across a 10-m2 surface by the means of a plastic trowel. They were subsequently FG4592 used to prepare a composite sample representative of the fine sediment deposited on the channel bars. Bulk samples were dried, weighed, ground to a fine powder, packed into 15 ml
pre-tared polyethylene specimen cups and sealed airtight. During the November 2012 fieldwork campaign, we also had the opportunity to collect samples of the different layers representative of the 1.6-m deep sediment sequence that accumulated behind Yokokawa dam on Ota River. Radionuclide activities (134Cs, 137Cs, 110mAg) in all samples were PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway determined by gamma spectrometry using very low-background coaxial N- and P-types HPGe detectors with a relative efficiency of ca. 50% at 1332 keV. Counting time of soil and sediment samples varied between 8 × 104 and 200 × 104 s to allow the detection of 110mAg, which was present in much lower activities in the samples (2–2390 Bq kg−1) than 134Cs and 137Cs (500–1,245,000 Bq kg−1). The 137Cs activities were measured at the 661 keV emission peak. The 134Cs activities were calculated as the mean of activities derived from measurements conducted at 604 keV and 795 keV (228Ac activities being negligible compared to 134Cs activities) as both peaks are associated with the largest gamma emission intensities of this radionuclide. The presence of 110mAg was
confirmed by tetracosactide the detection of emission peaks at 885, 937 and 1384 keV, but activities were calculated from results obtained at 885 keV only. Minimum detectable activities in 110mAg for 24 h count times reached 2 Bq kg−1. Errors reached ca. 5% on 134Cs and 137Cs activities, and 10% on 110mAg activities at the 95% confidence level. All measured counts were corrected for background levels measured at least every 2 months as well as for detector and geometry efficiencies. Results were systematically expressed in Bq kg−1 of dry weight. Counting efficiencies and quality assurance were conducted using internal and certified International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reference materials prepared in the same specimen cups as the samples. All radionuclide activities were decay corrected to the date of 14 June 2011 corresponding to the reference date of the MEXT soil sampling campaign (used to compute the background contamination maps; see Section 2.