The significant contrast in color also reveals the anti-reflectio

The significant contrast in color also reveals the anti-reflection effect of the fs-PLD CIGS thin film, as shown in the inset of Figure  4a. It is a prominent property compared to the nanostructured CIGS film prepared by an extra etching process [16]. In addition, the ns- and fs-PLD CIGS thin films have a similar bandgap value of approximately 1.2 eV extracted from absorption

spectra, as shown in Figure  4b. The value is well consistent SRT1720 mouse with the bandgap of the target with elemental compositions of Cu/In/Ga/Se = 1:0.7:0.3:2, respectively, revealing that the variation in elementary compositions in the fs-PLD CIGS (Figure  3b,c) is localized, while the global composition of the film still remained unchanged with the same composition as that of the target. Furthermore, fs-PLD CIGS shows a longer absorption tail due to the more diverged sub-band gap energy levels of radiative defects, which is most likely resulted from the local inhomogeneous distributions of elements. Figure 4 Reflectance (a) and absorption (b) spectra of ns- and fs-PLD CIGS thin films. The inset in (a) shows the photo of the two CIGS thin films. Many studies have suggested that the defects of CIGS thin films are crucial to the performance of their device performances. PL is a powerful tool to shed light on defects arising from Ferroptosis targets the deviation of stoichiometry

[17]. Figure  5a shows the PL spectra

of fs- and ns-PLD CIGS thin films at 15 K and room temperature (see the inset) without normalization, in which PL peaks at 1.2 eV for ns-PLD CIGS agrees well with the bandgap value obtained from the absorption spectrum (Figure  4b). Hence, we assign this peak as band-to-band transition, and other PL emission peaks with energy lower than 1.2 eV are assigned to different radiative defect-related transitions. At 15 K, where transitions between the defect levels are the dominant processes for CIGS, the intensity of the two PL spectra is comparable, suggesting Oxalosuccinic acid that the defect type and concentration in the two samples are similar. By comparison, it can be seen that individual PL emission peaks can only be resolved from the PL spectrum of the ns-PLD CIGS, while no discrete PL emission peaks can be observed from that of the fs-PLD CIGS thin film. This could be due to the fluctuations of defect energy levels in the fs-PLD CIGS thin film, which broadens the FWHM of the PL emission peaks associated with all radiative defect-related transitions. The increased overlapping of the PL emission peaks, in turn, results in the unresolvable spectrum. Such fluctuations in radiative defect energy levels have also been observed in the absorption spectrum of the fs-PLD CIGS thin film shown in Figure  4b. The absorption spectrum of the fs-PLD CIGS shows a tail at energies below its bandgap energy of 1.

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