The LPS from M huakuii (lines 1 and 2) migrated as three cluster

The LPS from M. huakuii (lines 1 and 2) migrated as three clusters of bands: a very intensively stained R-form LPS, an S-form, and an SR-form. A. lipoferum LPS (lines 3 and 4) was separated into two main fractions: the first one representing an R-form and

the second one, high molecular weight material. Those complete LPS molecules contained approximately 20 repeating units in the Cobimetinib mw O-chain, as calculated by comparison with the standard Salmonella LPS (line 7 and 14) (see also: 36). B. japonicum and B. yuanmingense LPSs (lines 5, 6 and 8, 9, respectively) were represented by complete molecules (S-form), mainly with short O-chains. The R fraction (containing only lipid A and core) was scarcely visible on the gel. In contrast, B. elkanii LPS (lines 12 and 13) occurred mainly as an R or SR form accompanied by a small amount of a

ladder-like S-form containing up to 20 repeating units. LPS from B. liaoningense (lines 10 and 11) was represented mainly by an SR-form, though a small amount of the R- and the S-forms was also present. The endotoxic properties of rhizobial LPSs were measured as their ability to gelate Limulus amebocyte lysate. For the LPSs from B. japonicum and B. yuanmingense, gelation was observed at a concentration of 0.1 μg/mL, whereas for the LPSs of B. elkanii, B. sp. (Lupinus), and B. liaoningense, the minimum LPS dose required for a positive reaction was ten times smaller (0.01 μg/mL). The LPSs from M. huakuii and A. lipoferum exhibited significantly greater endotoxic activity and gelated the amebocyte lysate at a concentration of 0.1 ng/mL. For the Florfenicol standard LPS preparations (Salmonella and E. coli), a positive reaction was observed at a concentration of 0.01 ng/mL. Production of NO was determined in cultures of THP-1 cells which were stimulated with 1 μg/mL LPS preparations for 24 hr (Fig. 3). A significant

amount of NO release was observed only for the standard LPS of Salmonella enterica bv Typhimurium (more than 300% of negative control). The amount of NO production by cells incubated with the B. sp. (Lupinus), B. elkanii, B. japonicum, M. huakuii, and A. lipoferum LPSs was just over half as much as that for Salmonella endotoxin, and exceeded by 50 to 100% the amount of spontaneous NO production by cells in the control sample. A statistically significant difference in NO production in comparison with the negative control (Student’s t-test, P value <0.05) was noted for B. sp. (Lupinus), B. japonicum, and M. huakuii. Production of the cytokines TNF, IL-1β, and IL-6 was determined in cultures of THP-1 cells stimulated with two LPS concentrations, 0.01 and 1 μg/mL (Fig. 4). At an LPS dose of 0.01 μg/mL, the Bradyrhizobium and the Azospirillum strains induced production of very small amounts of the cytokines. In the case of the two interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6), the measured amounts were within the same range as for the control sample (spontaneous activity of THP-1 cells) and the differences were not statistically significant.

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