The expression of IL-6, TSP-1 and transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) were determined through Western blot analysis in HK-2 cells. Results: In HK-2 cells, purified CRP significantly induced protein release and mRNA expression of IL-6 and TSP-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. TGF-beta(1) protein was overexpressed in HK-2 cells induced by CRP, which cannot be inhibited by IL-6 or TSP-1 antibodies. CRP triggered phosphorylation of p38MAPK
and activation of NF-kappa B-mediated signal transduction. SB203580 (5 mu m) and PDTC (50 mu m) efficiently suppressed those effects of CRP in HK-2 cells. Conclusions: CRP induces IL-6 and TSP-1 protein release and mRNA expression selleck compound from HK-2 cells via activation of the p38MAPK and NF-kappa B signaling pathways and TGE-beta(1) was highly expressed in GSK461364 datasheet HK-2 cells, suggesting that CRP plays an important role in the propagation and prolongation of inflammation in renal fibrosis. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Viruses infecting hyperthermophilic archaea have intriguing morphologies and genomic properties. The vast majority of their genes do not have homologs other than in other hyperthermophilic viruses, and the biology of these viruses is poorly understood. As part of a structural genomics project on the proteins of these
viruses, we present here the structure of a 102 amino acid protein from acidianus filamentous virus 1 (AFV1-102). The structure shows that it is made of two identical motifs that have poor sequence similarity. Although no function can be proposed from structural analysis, tight binding the of the gateway tag peptide in a groove between the two motifs suggests AFV1-102 is involved in protein protein interactions.”
“Photolysis is widely used in experimental neuroscience to isolate post-synaptic receptor activation from presynaptic processes, to determine receptor mechanisms in situ, for pharmacological dissection of signaling pathways, or for photostimulation/inhibition
in neural networks. We have evaluated new caged neuroactive amino acids that use 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl- (MNI) or 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethoxycarbonyl (NPEC) photoprotecting groups to make caged ligands specific for glutamate receptor subtypes. Each was tested for interference with synaptic transmission and excitability and for receptor-specific actions in slice preparations. No adverse effects were found at glutamate receptors. At high concentration, MNI-caged, but not NPEC-caged ligands, interfered with GABA-ergic transmission.
MNI-caged amino acids have sub-microsecond release times suitable for investigating mechanisms at fast synaptic receptors in situ. MNI-NMDA and MNI-kainate were synthesized and tested. MNI-NMDA showed stoichiometric release of chirally pure NMDA. Wide-field photolysis in cerebellar interneurons produced a fast-rising sustained activation of NMDA receptors, and localized laser photolysis gave a fast, transient response.