The experimental protocol was approved by the Office for the Protection of Research
Subjects at the University of Illinois, Chicago. All volunteers gave informed consent to participate in the trial. Experimental design and randomization A 12-week, randomized, controlled, parallel-arm feeding trial was implemented to test the effects of ADF, exercise, and ADF combined with exercise (combination group) on eating behaviors and weight loss. Eligible subjects were stratified on the basis of BMI, age, and sex, and then randomized into 1 of 4 groups: 1) combination group; 2) ADF group; 3) exercise group; 4) control AMG510 manufacturer group. Diet protocol As previously described , only the combination and ADF groups participated in the dietary intervention, which consisted of two periods: 1) a 4-week controlled feeding period, and 2) an 8-week self-selected feeding period. During the controlled feeding period (week 1–4) participants consumed 25% of their baseline energy needs on the fast day (24 h) and consumed food ad libitum on each feed day (24 h). Baseline energy requirements were assessed by the Mifflin equation . The diet consisted of a 3-day rotating menu plan, and all fast day meals were prepared in the metabolic kitchen of the Human Nutrition Research Unit (HNRU). Fast day meals were consumed between 12.00 pm and 2.00 pm to ensure that each subject
was undergoing the same duration of fasting. Meals were formulated on the basis of the American Heart Association guidelines (30% kcal from fat, 15% kcal Anlotinib clinical trial from protein, and 55% kcal from carbohydrate). All meals were consumed outside of the research center. Participants were requested to eat only the foods provided on the fast days and to bring back any leftover foods to be weighed and recorded. Calorie-free foods, such as black coffee, tea, and diet sodas were permitted as desired. Subjects were also encouraged to drink plenty of water. During the self-selected feeding period (week 8–12) subjects continued with the ADF regimen but no fast day food was
provided to them. Instead, each subject met with a dietician at the beginning of each week to learn how to maintain Interleukin-2 receptor the ADF regimen at home. Subjects were also taught how to monitor energy intake by reading food labels, reducing portion sizes, and choosing low fat meat and dairy options. Control and exercise group subjects were asked to maintain their regular food habits, and were not provided with any food or dietary counseling. Exercise protocol Only the combination and exercise groups participated the exercise intervention. These subjects participated in a moderate IWR 1 intensity exercise program 3 times per week under supervised conditions, for 12 weeks. Exercise was performed using stationary bikes and elliptical machines at the HNRU.