The electrical properties were determined by four-point-probe bulk conductivity measurements. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym
“We studied the atomic arrangements and phase diagrams of two-dimensional (2D) Bi-Pb binary films on a Rh(111) surface with low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and Auger electron spectroscopy. The 2D binary films exhibited incommensurate (4 x 4) LEED patterns with any compositional ratio of Bi:Pb. Atomically resolved STM images revealed that the binary films formed hexagonal, close-packed structures in a 2D solid solution alloy. We found that the 2D binary films followed the Hume-Rothery rule. The interatomic distance decreased linearly from 0.359 nm to 0.342nm with CDK inhibitor review increasing proportions of Pb. This indicated that the lattice constant of the 2D binary films followed Vegard’s law. (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3650883]“
“Cultural niche construction is a uniquely potent source of selection on human populations, and a major cause of recent human evolution. Previous theoretical analyses have not, however, explored the local effects of cultural niche construction. Here, we use spatially explicit coevolutionary models to investigate how cultural processes could drive selection on human genes by modifying
local resources. We show that cultural ISRIB in vitro learning, expressed in local niche construction, can trigger a process with dynamics
that resemble runaway sexual selection. Under a broad range of conditions, cultural niche-constructing practices this website generate selection for gene-based traits and hitchhike to fixation through the build up of statistical associations between practice and trait. This process can occur even when the cultural practice is costly, or is subject to counteracting transmission biases, or the genetic trait is selected against. Under some conditions a secondary hitchhiking occurs, through which genetic variants that enhance the capability for cultural learning are also favoured by similar dynamics. We suggest that runaway cultural niche construction could have played an important role in human evolution, helping to explain why humans are simultaneously the species with the largest relative brain size, the most potent capacity for niche construction and the greatest reliance on culture.”
“Background: Pneumococcal disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between specific pneumococcal serotypes and mortality from invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD).
Methods and Findings: In a nationwide population-based cohort study of IPD in Denmark during 1977-2007, 30-d mortality associated with pneumococcal serotypes was examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis after controlling for potential confounders. A total of 18,858 IPD patients were included.