The cholinesterase inhibitors physostigmine, tacrine, rivastigmine, and metrifonate have variously been reported in controlled trials to decrease psychoses (hallucinations and delusions), agitation, apathy, anxiety, disinhibition, pacing and aberrant motor behavior, and lack of cooperation in AD.141,168 Figure 3. 3. Schematic diagram of a neuron representing (A) alterations in neurotransmission in Alzheimer’s Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical disease and (B) the hypothetical
mode of action of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. ACh, acetylcholine; AChE, acetylcholinesterase; Glu, glutamate; mAChR, … Future directions: merqinq technologies Investigational ncuropharmacologic techniques comprise a powerful and complementary collection of research tools for studying the effects of aging and disease on regional and specific measures of brain function. These have allowed us to characterize both the normal neurochemical changes that accompany successful aging and the accelerated or aberrant, alterations seen in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical neuropsychiatrie and behavioral dysfunction. Future work will carry the findings of the past decade
into the realm of intervention. Advancements Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in structural and functional imaging naturally complement those in molecular neurobiology and genetics, but, we are just beginning to realize their potential combined power. For example, the recent, availability of animal PET scanners presents the opportunity for the in vivo study of genetic models of disease, such as AD. Further, neuropharmacologic approaches to cognitive enhancement and slowing of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical dementia progression may be evaluated and monitored by imaging strategies. Indeed, the challenges posed by an increasingly
aged population in industrialized nations are formidable, but, may best, be met, by the combined application of developing technologies. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Selected abbreviations and acronyms AChE-I acetylcholinesterase inhibitor AD Alzheimer’s disease APP amyloid precursor protein CBF cerebral blood flow CBV cerebral blood volume ChAT choline acetyltransferase CMRglc cerebral metabolic rate of glucose utilization CMRO2 cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen CSF cerebrospinal enough fluid GABA γ-aminobutyric acid HRT hormone replacement therapy 5-HT 5-hydroxytryptamine MRI magnetic resonance imaging NMDA N-methyl-D-aspartate PET positron emission tomography SPECT single-photon emission computed tomography
One of the most critical issues in geriatric medicine is how to separate the cognitive and radiological changes associated with the aging process from changes that, pertain to highly prevalent diseases of the aged, such as dementia. To answer this important question, this review will focus on age-related changes in cognitive functions, brain Akt inhibitor structure, and brain metabolism, and will discuss methodological aspects relevant to the study of the aging process.