Targeted drug delivery to absorptive epithelia by receptor-mediat

Targeted drug delivery to absorptive epithelia by receptor-mediated endocytosis has emerged as a prominent means to

Fosbretabulin cost improve oral delivery of drugs [17]. Vitamins as ligands, which can specifically bind to enterocytic receptors, have been extensively studied for the oral delivery of poorly permeable molecules [18–22]. Biotin receptors that distribute in the small intestine and this website partially in the colon are responsible for the essential absorption of biotin by nonspecific receptor-mediated endocytosis [23]. Additionally, biotin plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of blood glucose [24]. Improved cellular permeability and higher hypoglycemic effect after oral administration of biotin-conjugated Pevonedistat concentration glucagon-like peptide-1 has been observed [25]. Biotin-modified vehicles have been investigated for nonparenteral delivery of active ingredients [26–29]. Our previous report has also proved that biotin-modified liposomes (BLPs) have ability to improve the oral delivery of insulin, and studied the uptake and transport mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract [30]. However, particular enhanced absorption mechanisms and cytotoxicity of BLPs are not clear enough. Herein, we performed several experiments to further probe the oral absorption mechanism of BLPs based on previous studies [30] as well

as the cytotoxicity thereof. We evaluated hypoglycemic effects of BLPs of various particles, or with different amounts of biotin-DSPE using normal rats.

Meanwhile, the influence of BLPs on tight junctions and internalization process was further investigated Y-27632 2HCl by Caco-2 cells. Methods Materials Porcine insulin (29 IU/mg) was provided by Jiangsu Wanbang Biochemical Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd (Xuzhou, China). Soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC, Lipoid S75), cholesterol (CH), and 1, 2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DSPE) were supplied by Lipoid (Ludwigshafen, Germany). Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and biotin were purchased from Sigma (Shanghai, China). Sephadex G-50 was obtained from Pharmacia (Shanghai, China). Deionized water was prepared by a Milli-Q purification system (Molsheim, France). HPLC-grade acetonitrile was provided by Merck (Darmstadt, Germany). All other chemicals were of analytical grade and used as received. Preparation of BLPs SPC, biotin-DSPE (synthesized according to previous report [30]), and cholesterol were dissolved in absolute ether to prepare the organic phase, into which the aqueous phase, insulin citric acid-Na2HPO4 buffer solution (pH 4.0, if not specified otherwise), was added dropwise following ultra-sonication to prepare the W/O emulsion. The organic solvent in the emulsion was then evaporated toward a rota-evaporator under 0.05- to 0.06-MPa pressure at a rotating speed of 50 rpm at 30°C until glutinous gel formed. Afterwards, citric acid-Na2HPO4 buffer with pH 3.8 was instilled to hydrate the lipidic gel until a homogeneous dispersion was formed.

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