Taken together, the availability of distinct GABAAR subtypes prov

Taken together, the availability of distinct GABAAR subtypes provides a molecular mechanism endowing spatiotemporal specificity to GABAergic control of neuronal maturation in adult brain. “
“Sexual behavior can be usefully parsed into an appetitive and a consummatory

component. Both appetitive and consummatory male-typical sexual behaviors (respectively, ASB and CSB) are activated in male Japanese quail by testosterone (T) acting in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), but never observed in females. This sex difference is based on a demasculinization (= organizational effect) by estradiol OSI-744 mouse during embryonic life for CSB, but a differential activation by T in adulthood for ASB. Males expressing rhythmic cloacal sphincter movements (RCSMs; a form of ASB) or allowed to copulate display increased Fos expression in POM. We investigated

Fos brain responses in females exposed to behavioral tests after various endocrine treatments. T-treated females displayed RCSM, but never copulated when exposed to another female. Accordingly they showed an increased Fos expression in POM after ASB but not CSB tests. Females treated with the aromatase inhibitor Vorozole in ovo Ixazomib and T in adulthood displayed both male-typical ASB and CSB, and Fos expression in POM was increased after both types of tests. Thus, the neural circuit mediating ASB is present or can develop in both sexes, but is inactive in females unless however they are exposed to exogenous T. In contrast, the neural mechanism mediating CSB is not normally present in females, but can be preserved by blocking the embryonic production of estrogens. Overall these data confirm the difference in endocrine controls and probably neural mechanisms supporting ASB and CSB in quail, and highlight the complexity of mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation

of behavior. “
“Changes in intracellular Ca2+ play a key role in regulating gene expression and developmental changes in oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPCs). However, the mechanisms by which Ca2+ influx in OPCs is controlled remains incompletely understood. Although there are several mechanisms that modulate Ca2+ influx, in many systems the large-conductance, voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BK channel) plays an important role in regulating both membrane excitability and intracellular Ca2+ levels. To date, the role of the BK channel in the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ in oligodendroglial lineage cells is unknown. Here we investigated whether cells of the oligodendroglial lineage express BK channels and what potential role they play in regulation of Ca2+ influx in these cells. In oligodendrocytes derived from differentiated adult neural precursor cells (NPCs, obtained from C57bl6 mice) we observed outward currents that were sensitive to the BK channel blocker iberiotoxin (IbTx).

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