Table 3 lists the number of exposed and nonexposed infants in each of the birth defect categories evaluated in this study. Along with exposures to butalbital, numbers of infants exposed to other ingredients AZD0530 ic50 in butalbital products and
to triptan medications are presented. The main analysis included 12 cardiac and 18 noncardiac birth defect categories with 250 or more case infants. None or only 1 of the cases was exposed for 12 of the 30 large case groups, representing fewer than expected exposed cases for many of those birth defects. ORs are presented in Table 4 for the 10 birth defects included in the main analysis for which there were 3 or more case infants with periconceptional butalbital exposure. The ORs for periconceptional butalbital exposure ranged from 1.61 to 5.73 and were statistically significant for 3 CHDs: tetralogy of Fallot (adjusted OR = 3.04; 95% CI = 1.07-8.62), pulmonary valve stenosis (adjusted OR = 5.73; 95% CI = 2.25-14.62), and secundum-type
ASD (adjusted OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.07-8.79). An exploratory analysis of smaller birth defect categories (100-249 cases) examined 6 noncardiac and 9 cardiac case groups (Table 3). There were no exposed cases for the majority of Lapatinib in vitro the smaller case groups; however, 3 exposed cases were observed for 1 CHD, single ventricle (OR = 14.05; exact 95% CI = 2.57-50.54). When separate analyses were conducted for infants with isolated defects, ORs for the birth defects included in Table 4 were similar to those for all case infants with a few exceptions. The largest shifts in the ORs were for the associations between periconceptional butalbital use and anorectal atresia and secundum ASD, both of which were closer to the null; the OR for secundum ASD was no longer statistically significant. The ORs for isolated Aspartate defects are provided in the supplementary material at: http://www.interscience.wiley.com/…/. Self-reported exposure to combination products
containing acetaminophen, aspirin, caffeine, and/or codeine that do not contain butalbital was more common than butalbital use, with 137 case infants and 44 control infants exposed during the periconceptional period. For birth defect categories with 250 or more case infants, only 2 statistically significant associations were observed: with CL/P and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The 3 CHDs significantly associated with butalbital exposure in the main analysis were not associated with exposure to other ingredients in butalbital products; fewer than expected exposed cases were observed for all 3. For comparison to butalbital, estimates are presented in Table 5 for case groups included in Table 4 for butalbital exposure. No infants with single ventricle were exposed to combination products not containing butalbital.