Siderophore production is observed as the orange halo surrounding

Siderophore production is observed as the orange halo surrounding the growing selleck colony. C) The growth of P. luminescens TT01 ΔexbD is sensitive to the levels of iron in the medium. TT01 (diamonds) and the ΔexbD mutant (circles) were grown in fresh LB (open symbols) or LB broth supplemented with 50 μM 2’2′-dipyridyl (filled symbols). Growth curves were done in triplicate and a representative curve

is shown. Bacteria can also utilize the small amounts of soluble ferrous (Fe2+) iron that are present in their environments, usually in a manner that is independent of the TonB complex. We identified genes encoding two potential TonB-independent Fe2+ uptake systems, the FeoABC system and the YfeABCD system in the Pl TT01 Birinapant datasheet genome (see Table 1 and Figure 2). The FeoABC system is encoded by the feoABC operon in which FeoB is predicted to be a GTPase directly involved in Fe2+ transport

[21]. On the other hand YfeABCD is an ABC transporter that mediates uptake of divalent cations, including Fe2+ [18, 22]. To test for the role of these genes in Pl TT01 we constructed ΔfeoABC and ΔyfeABCD TPX-0005 solubility dmso mutant strains (Δfeo and Δyfe respectively). We also combined mutations to produce the double mutants Δfeo Δyfe, ΔexbD Δyfe and ΔexbD Δfeo and an ΔexbD Δyfe Δfeo triple mutant. These iron transport mutants were then tested for their ability to grow on iron-restricted medium i.e. LB agar supplemented 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase with increasing levels of DIP. All strains could grow equally well in the absence of DIP and, as expected, all strains carrying the ΔexbD allele showed reduced growth, compared to the WT, on media containing 100 μM DIP (Figure 3). In addition, the yfeABCD locus may also play an important role in iron uptake as the Δyfe mutant did not grow as well as WT in the presence of 150 μM DIP. Moreover the affects of the Δyfe and ΔexbD mutations

appear to be additive confirming that the Yfe ABC transporter and the TonB complex function independently (Figure 3). On the other hand, the Δfeo mutant was unaffected at all concentrations of DIP suggesting that this system does not play a significant role in iron scavenging under these conditions. Interestingly the ΔexbD Δyfe Δfeo triple mutant was still able to grow on LB agar plates (even in the presence of 50 μM DIP) suggesting that Pl TT01 has additional mechanisms for scavenging iron. Table 1 Iron transport genes in P. luminescens TT01 analyzed in this study. gene Pl annotation score Best hit tonB plu2485 4e-27 PMI1355| tonB | P. mirabilis HI4320| TonB protein exbD plu3940 5e-68 YpsIP31758_0592| exbD | Y. pseudotuberculosis IP 31758 exbB plu3941 1e-79 ECA0358| exbB | E. carotovora SCRI1043| Biopolymer transport feoA plu0209 8e-27 b3408| feoA | E. coli K12| Ferrous iron transport protein A feoB plu0208 0.0 b3409| feoB | E. coli K12| Ferrous iron transport protein B feoC plu0207 2e-20 ef| ZP_04612647.

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